Vincent's Word Studies
Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus.
In view of what has been said in the previous chapter.
Be strong (ἐνδυναμοῦ)
In the grace (ἐν τῇ χάριτι)
Grace is the inward source of strength. Comp. the association of grace and strength in 2 Corinthians 12:9.
And the things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also.
Among many witnesses (διὰ πολλῶν μαρτύρων)
Διὰ through the medium of, and therefore in the presence of.
In Pastorals only here. Very common in Luke and Acts: a few times in Paul. See on many, Romans 15:23.
Thou therefore endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ.
Endure hardness (συνκακοπάθησον)
Comp. 2 Timothy 1:8. A.V. verse fails to give the force of συν with. Rend. suffer hardship with me.
Only here in Pastorals. oP. Frequent in Acts.
No man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this life; that he may please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier.
That warreth (στρατευόμενος)
Entangleth himself (ἐμπλέκεται)
Only here and 2 Peter 2:20 (see note). This has been made an argument for clerical celibacy.
In the affairs of this life (ταῖς τοῦ βίου πραγματίαις)
Better, affairs of life. Not as A.V. verse implies, in contrast with the affairs of the next life, but simply the ordinary occupations of life. In N.T., βίος means either means of subsistence, as Mark 12:44; Luke 8:43; 1 John 3:17; or course of life, as Luke 8:14. Βίος Po.
Him who hath chosen him to be a soldier (τῷ στρατολογήσαντι)
N.T.o. olxx. Better, enrolled him as a soldier.
And if a man also strive for masteries, yet is he not crowned, except he strive lawfully.
Strive for masteries (ἀθλῇ)
N.T.o. olxx. Paul uses ἀγωνίζεσθαι (see 1 Corinthians 9:25), which appears also in 1 Timothy 4:10; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 4:7. For masteries is superfluous. Rev. contend in the games; but the meaning of the verb is not limited to that. It may mean to contend in battle; and the preceding reference to the soldier would seem to suggest that meaning here. The allusion to crowning is not decisive in favor of the Rev. rendering. Among the Romans crowns were the highest distinction for service in war. The corona triumphalis of laurel was presented to a triumphant general; and the corona obsidionalis was awarded to a general by the army which he had saved from a siege or from a shameful capitulation. It was woven of grass which grew on the spot, and was also called corona graminea. The corona myrtea or ovatio, the crown of bay, was worn by the general who celebrated the lesser triumph or ovatio. The golden corona muralis, with embattled ornaments, was given for the storming of a wall; and the corona castrensis or vallaris, also of gold, and ornamented in imitation of palisades, was awarded to the soldier who first climbed the rampart of the enemy's camp.
Is he not crowned (οὐ στεφανοῦται)
Pasto. See 1 Timothy 1:8. According to the law of military service which requires him to abandon all other pursuits. So the law of the ministerial office requires that the minister shall not entangle himself with secular pursuits. If he fulfills this requirement, he is not to trouble himself about his worldly maintenance, for it is right that he should draw his support from his ministerial labor: nay, he has the first right to its material fruits.
The husbandman that laboureth must be first partaker of the fruits.
The husbandman that laboreth (τὸν κοπιῶντα γεωργὸν)
Must be first partaker (δεῖ πρῶτον - μεταλαμβάνειν)
Better, Must be the first to partake. His is the first right to the fruits of his labor in the gospel. The writer seems to have in his eye 1 Corinthians 9:7, where there is a similar association of military service and farming to illustrate the principle that they who proclaim the gospel should live of the gospel. Μεταλαμβάνειν to partake, oP, and only here in Pastorals. Paul uses μετέχειν. See 1 Corinthians 9:10, 1 Corinthians 9:12; 1 Corinthians 10:17, 1 Corinthians 10:21, 1 Corinthians 10:30.
Consider what I say; and the Lord give thee understanding in all things.
And the Lord give thee understanding (δώσει γάρ ὁ κύριος σύνεσιν)
Remember that Jesus Christ of the seed of David was raised from the dead according to my gospel:
Remember that Jesus Christ - was raised, etc.
Incorrect. Rend. remember Jesus Christ raised from the dead. Μνημόνευε remember, only here in Pastorals: often in Paul. Ἑγείρειν to raise, very often in N.T., but only here in Pastorals. The perfect passive participle (ἐγηγερμένον) only here. The perfect marks the permanent condition - raised and still living.
Of the seed of David
Not referring to Christ's human descent as a humiliation in contrast with his victory over death (ἐγηγερμένον), but only marking his human, visible nature along with his glorified nature, and indicating that in both aspects he is exalted and glorified. See the parallel in Romans 1:3, Romans 1:4, which the writer probably had in mind, and was perhaps trying to imitate. It is supposed by some that the words Jesus Christ - seed of David were a part of a confessional formula.
According to my gospel
Wherein I suffer trouble, as an evil doer, even unto bonds; but the word of God is not bound.
Wherein I suffer trouble (ἐν ᾧ κακοπαθῶ)
As an evildoer (ὡς κακοῦργος)
Unto bonds (μέχρι δεσμῶν)
But the word of God is not bound (ἀλλὰ ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ οὐ δέδεται)
Nevertheless, although I am in bonds, the gospel which I preach will prevail in spite of all human efforts to hinder it. Word of God often in Paul. In Pastorals, 1 Timothy 4:5; Titus 2:5. Bound, in Paul metaphorically, as here, Romans 7:2; 1 Corinthians 7:27, 1 Corinthians 7:39.
Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sakes, that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory.
Therefore (διὰ τοῦτο)
Because I know that God is carrying on his work.
That they may also (ἵνα καὶ αὐτοὶ)
More correctly, they also may, etc. Also, as well as myself.
Obtain the salvation (σωτηρίας τύχωσιν)
The phrase N.T.o. Paul has περιποίησις σωτηρίας obtaining of salvation, 1 Thessalonians 5:9.
Which is in Christ Jesus
The phrase salvation which is in Christ Jesus, N.T.o. For other collocations with in Christ Jesus in Pastorals, see 1 Timothy 1:14; 1 Timothy 3:13; 2 Timothy 1:1, 2 Timothy 1:9, 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:3, 2 Timothy 2:15.
With eternal glory (μετὰ δόξης αἰωνίου)
It is a faithful saying: For if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him:
It is a faithful saying
Better, faithful is the saying. See on 1 Timothy 1:15. It refers to what precedes - the eternal glory of those who are raised with Christ (2 Timothy 2:8) which stimulates to endurance of sufferings for the gospel.
Faithful is the saying that the elect shall obtain salvation with eternal glory, for if we be dead, etc. The following words to the end of 2 Timothy 2:12 may be a fragment of a hymn or confession, founded on Romans 6:8; Romans 8:17.
If we be dead with him (εἰ συναπεθάνομεν)
If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he also will deny us:
If we suffer we shall also reign with him (εἰ ὑπομένομεν, καὶ συνβασιλεύσομεν)
For suffer, rend. endure. Συνβασιλεύειν to reign with, only here and 1 Corinthians 4:8. Comp. Luke 19:17, Luke 19:19; Luke 22:29, Luke 22:30; Romans 5:17; Revelation 4:4; Revelation 5:10; Revelation 22:5.
If we deny him he also will deny us (εἰ ἀρνησόμεθα. κἀκεῖνος ἀρνήσεται ἡμᾶς)
If we believe not, yet he abideth faithful: he cannot deny himself.
If we believe not (εἰ ἀπιστοῦμεν)
Better, are faithless or untrue to him. Comp. Romans 3:3. In Pastorals only here.
True to his own nature, righteous character, and requirements, according to which he cannot accept as faithful one who has proved untrue to him. To do this would be to deny himself.
Of these things put them in remembrance, charging them before the Lord that they strive not about words to no profit, but to the subverting of the hearers.
Put them in remembrance (ὑπομίμνησκε)
oP. See on ὑπόμνησιν reminding, 2 Timothy 1:5.
In Paul only 1 Thessalonians 4:6. Very frequent in Acts. See on Acts 2:40; see on Acts 20:23. The sense is rather conjuring them by their loyalty to God. Paul uses the simple μαρτύρεσθαι in a similar sense. See Galatians 5:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:12 (note); Ephesians 4:17.
Before God (ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ)
See on 1 Timothy 5:4.
Strive about words (λογομαχεῖν)
To no profit (ἐπ' οὐδὲν χρήσιμον)
To the subverting (ἐπὶ καταστροφῇ)
Ἑπὶ does not mean here to or for (purpose or object). but indicates the ground on which the unprofitableness of the wordy strife rests. Unprofitable because it works subversion of the hearers. Καταστροφή subversion, transliterated into catastrophe, only here and 2 Peter 2:6. In lxx of the destruction or overthrow of men or cities. Καταστρέφειν to overturn, Matthew 21:12; Mark 11:15; Acts 15:16, cit. Paul uses καθαίρεσις pulling down, 2 Corinthians 10:4, 2 Corinthians 10:8; 2 Corinthians 13:10
Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.
To shew thyself approved (σεαυτὸν δόκιμον παραστῆσαι)
Παραστῆσαι, better, present. In Pastorals only here and 2 Timothy 4:17. Often in Acts and Paul. See on Acts 1:3; see on Romans 16:2; see on Ephesians 5:27. Δόκιμον approved, only here in Pastorals, five times by Paul. See on James 1:12. See on δοκιμή approvedness, Romans 5:4; and see on δοκιμάζειν to approve on test, 1 Peter 1:7.
A workman (ἐργάτης)
That needeth not to be ashamed (ἀνεπαίσχυντον)
N.T.o. olxx, oClass. Lit. not made ashamed, as Philippians 1:20. A workman whose work does not disgrace him.
Rightly dividing (ὀρθοτομοῦντα)
N.T.o. oClass. In lxx, Proverbs 3:6; Proverbs 11:5; both times in the sense of directing the way. From ὀρθός straight and τέμνειν to cut. Hence, to cut straight, as paths; to hold a straight course; generally, to make straight; to handle rightly. Vulg. recte tractare. The thought is that the minister of the gospel is to present the truth rightly, not abridging it, not handling it as a charlatan (see on 2 Corinthians 2:17), not making it a matter of wordy strife (2 Timothy 2:14), but treating it honestly and fully, in a straightforward manner. Various homiletic fancies have been founded on the word, as, to divide the word of truth, giving to each hearer what he needs: or, to separate it into its proper parts: or, to separate it from error: or, to cut straight through it, so that its inmost contents may be laid bare. Others, again, have found in it the figure of dividing the bread, which is the office of the household steward; or of dividing the sacrificial victims; or of cutting a straight furrow with the plough.
But shun profane and vain babblings: for they will increase unto more ungodliness.
Po. In Pastorals, here and Titus 3:9. Originally, to place round; to stand round. In the middle voice, to turn one's self about, as for the purpose of avoiding something: hence, avoid, shun. Often in Class., but in this sense only in later Greek.
Profane and vain babblings (βεβήλους κενοφωνίας)
For profane, see on 1 Timothy 1:9. Vain is superfluous, being implied in babblings. For babblings, see on 1 Timothy 6:20. Babble is a word of early origin, an imitative word, formed on the efforts of a young child to speak, and having its counterparts in many languages. It appears very early in English, as in Piers Plowman:
"And so I bablede on my bedes."
"Who will open himselfe to a blab or a babler?"
"Leave thy vain bibble babble."
Twelfth N. iv. 2.
They will increase (προκόψουσιν)
And their word will eat as doth a canker: of whom is Hymenaeus and Philetus;
Will eat (νομὴν ἕξει)
Lit. will have pasturage, and so grow. Νομὴ πυρός a spreading of fire: a sore is said νομὴν ποιεῖσθαι to spread. Comp. Acts 4:17, διανεμηθῇ spread, of the influence of the miracle of Peter, from the same root, νέμειν to distribute or divide; often of herdsmen, to pasture. Νομὴ only here and John 10:9
Transliterated into gangrene. An eating sore; a cancer. N.T.o. olxx. Comp. Ovid:
"Solet immedicabile cancer
Serpere, et illaesas vitiatis addere partes."
Metam. ii. 826
Who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the resurrection is past already; and overthrow the faith of some.
Have erred (ἠστόχησαν)
See on 1 Timothy 1:6.
The resurrection (ἀνάστασιν)
Only here in Pastorals.
Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.
Mostly in John. oP. Only here in Pastorals.
The foundation of God standeth sure (ὁ στερεὸς θεμέλιος τοῦ θεοῦ ἕστηκεν)
Wrong. Στερεὸς sure is attributive, not predicative. Rend. the firm foundation of God standeth. The phrase foundation of God, N.T.o. Θεμέλιος foundation is an adjective, and λίθος stone is to be supplied. It is not to be taken by metonymy for οἰκία house (2 Timothy 2:20), but must be interpreted consistently with it, and, in a loose way, represents or foreshadows it. So we speak of an endowed institution as a foundation. By "the sure foundation of God" is meant the church, which is "the pillar and stay of the truth" (1 Timothy 3:15), by means of which the truth of God is to withstand the assaults of error. The church has its being in the contents of "the sound teaching" (1 Timothy 1:10), which is "according to godliness" (1 Timothy 6:3), and which is deposited in it. "The mystery of godliness " is intrusted to it (1 Timothy 3:16). Its servants possess "the mystery of the faith" (1 Timothy 3:9). In 1 Corinthians 3:11, Christ is represented as " the chief corner-stone." In Ephesians 2:20, the church is built "upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets," with Christ as the corner-stone, and grows into a "holy temple (ναὸν) in the Lord." Here, the church itself is the foundation, and the building is conceived as a great dwelling-house. While the conception of the church here does not contradict that of Paul, the difference is apparent between it and the conception in Ephesians, where the church is the seat of the indwelling and energy of the Holy Spirit. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:16,1 Corinthians 3:17. Στερεός firm only here, Hebrews 5:12, Hebrews 5:14, and 1 Peter 5:9 (note). Ἕστηκεν standeth, in contrast with overthrow (2 Timothy 2:18).
Mostly in Revelation. Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Romans 4:11; 1 Corinthians 9:2. Used here rather in the sense of inscription or motto. Comp. Deuteronomy 6:9; Deuteronomy 11:20; Revelation 21:14. There are two inscriptions on the foundation stone, the one guaranteeing the security, the other the purity, of the church. The two go together. The purity of the church is indispensable to its security.
The Lord knoweth them that are his (ἔγνω κύριος τοὺς ὄντας αὐτοῦ)
The first inscription: God knows his own. Comp. Numbers 16:5; 1 Corinthians 13:12. For ἔγνω knoweth, see on Galatians 4:9. Them that are his, his ἐκλεκτοὶ chosen; see 2 Timothy 2:10; Titus 1:1; Romans 8:33; Colossians 3:12; 1 Peter 2:9 : Revelation 17:14. Not, however, in any hard, predestinarian sense. Comp. John 10:14; Matthew 7:23; Luke 13:25, Luke 13:27.
Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity
The second inscription, concerning the purity of the church. For of Christ rend. of the Lord (κυρίου). Ὁνομάζων nameth, only here in Pastorals. It means to give a name to, to style, as Mark 3:14; Luke 6:14; 1 Corinthians 5:11 : to pronounce a name as having a special virtue, as in incantation, as Acts 19:13 : to utter a name as acknowledging and appropriating what the name involves, as a confession of faith and allegiance. So here. Comp. Romans 15:20; 1 Corinthians 5:11; Isaiah 26:13. For ὄνομα name, see on 2 Thessalonians 1:12. Ἁποστήτω ἀπὸ ἀδικίας depart from iniquity. For the verb, see on 1 Timothy 4:1. Mostly in Luke and Acts. Comp. Numbers 16:26; Isaiah 52:11. Whatever may be implied in God's election, it does not relieve Christians of the duty of strict attention to their moral character and conduct. Comp. Philippians 2:12. The gift of grace (Ephesians 2:8) is exhibited in making one a coworker with God (1 Corinthians 3:9). The salvation bestowed by grace is to be "carried out" (Philippians 2:12) by man with the aid of grace (Romans 6:8-19; 2 Corinthians 6:1). What this includes and requires appears in Philippians 3:10; Philippians 4:1-7; Ephesians 4:13-16, Ephesians 4:22 ff.; Colossians 2:6, Colossians 2:7.
But in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth; and some to honour, and some to dishonour.
But the church embraces a variety of characters. Unrighteous men steal into it. So, in a great household establishment there are vessels fit only for base uses.
As θεμέλιος foundation indicates the inward, essential character of the church, οἰκία exhibits its visible, outward aspect. The mixed character of the church points to its greatness (μεγάλῃ).
Of wood and of earth (ξύλινα καὶ ὀστράκινα)
Some to honor and some to dishonor
After Romans 9:21.
If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the master's use, and prepared unto every good work.
Only here and 1 Corinthians 5:7. The meaning is, separate himself from communion with.
From these (ἀπὸ τούτων)
Unto honor (εἰς τιμήν)
Const. with vessel, not with sanctified.
From εὐ well and χρᾶσθαι to use. Hence, easy to make use of, useful. The A.V. meet, is fit, suitable. Rend. serviceable. In contrast with to no profit, 2 Timothy 2:14. See Plm 1:11, where the contrast with ἄχρηστος useless is brought out. Only here, 2 Timothy 4:11, Plm 1:11.
For the master's use (τῷ δεσπότῃ)
Use is superfluous. Rend. for the master. The master of the household. See on 1 Timothy 6:1.
Every good work
Flee also youthful lusts: but follow righteousness, faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart.
Youthful lusts (νεωτερικὰς ἐπιθυμίας)
Not a distinct virtue in the list, but a consequence of the pursuit of the virtues enumerated. Const. with with them that call, etc. For peace with διώκειν pursue, see Romans 14:19; Hebrews 12:14, and Psalm 34:14, cit. 1 Peter 3:11.
Call on the Lord (ἐπικαλουμένων τὸν κύριον)
Out of a pure heart (ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας)
But foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing that they do gender strifes.
In Pastorals only here and Titus 3:9. Μωρός means dull, sluggish, stupid: applied to the taste, flat, insipid: comp. μωρανθῇ have lost his savor, Matthew 5:13. In Pastorals never substantively, a fool, but so in 1 Corinthians 3:18; 1 Corinthians 4:10. Comp. ἄφρων, 1 Corinthians 15:36.
Rev. ignorant is better; but the meaning at bottom is undisciplined: questions of an untrained mind, carried away with novelties: questions which do not proceed from any trained habit of thinking.
Better, questionings. See on 1 Timothy 6:4.
See on 1 Timothy 4:7. Better, refuse or decline.
And the servant of the Lord must not strive; but be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, patient,
The servant of the Lord (δοῦλον κυρίου)
The teacher or other special worker in the church. Comp. Titus 1:1; Romans 1:1; Galatians 1:10; Philippians 1:1, Colossians 4:12. Of any Christian, 1 Corinthians 7:22; Ephesians 6:6. The phrase is often applied to the Old Testament prophets as a body: see Amos 3:7; Jeremiah 7:25; Ezra 9:11; Daniel 9:6. To Joshua, Judges 2:8; to David, Psalm 78:70.
Must not (οὐ δεῖ)
Only here and 1 Thessalonians 2:7 (note).
Apt to teach, patient (διδακτικόν, ἀνεξίκακον)
Διδακτικός apt to teach, only here and 1 Timothy 3:2 (note). Ἁνεξικακία forbearing, N.T.o. Ανεξικακία forbearance Wisd. 2:19. Rend. Forbearing.
In meekness instructing those that oppose themselves; if God peradventure will give them repentance to the acknowledging of the truth;
In meekness (ἐν πραὺτητι)
A Pauline word, only here in Pastorals, but comp. πραυπαθία, 1 Timothy 6:11 (note). Const. with instructing.
See on 1 Timothy 1:20. Better, correcting.
Those that oppose themselves (τοὺς ἀντιδιατιθέμενους)
N.T. olxx. Class. only late Greek. Themselves is wrong. The meaning is, those who oppose the servant of the Lord; Who carry on the ἀντιθέσεις oppositions (1 Timothy 6:20); equals gainsayers (ἀντιλέγοντες Titus 1:9). Paul's word is ἀντίκεισθαι to oppose: see 1 Corinthians 16:9; Galatians 5:17; Philippians 1:28; 2 Thessalonians 2:4.
Only here in Pastorals. See on repent Matthew 3:2.
To the acknowledging of the truth (εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας)
More correctly, the knowledge. The formula Pasto. See 1 Timothy 2:4 (note); 2 Timothy 3:7. For εἰς unto after μετάνοια repentance, see Mark 1:4; Luke 3:3; Luke 24:47; Acts 11:18; Acts 20:21; 2 Corinthians 7:10.
And that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will.
May recover themselves (ἀνανήψωσιν)
Lit. may return to soberness. N.T.o. See on be sober, 1 Thessalonians 5:6. A similar connection of thought between coming to the knowledge of God and awaking out of a drunken stupor, occurs 1 Corinthians 15:34.
Out of the snare of the devil (ἐκ τῆς τοῦ διαβόλου παγίδος)
Who are taken captive (ἐζωγρημένοι)
Or, having been held captive. Only here and Luke 5:10 (note on thou shalt catch).
By him (ὑπ' αὐτοῦ)
At his will (εἰς τὸἐκείνου θέλημα)
Better, unto his will: that is, to do his (God's) will.
The whole will then read: "And that they may return to soberness out of the snare of the devil (having been held captive by him) to do God's will."