Vincent's Word Studies
This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come.
Comp. the beginning of 1 Timothy 4.
This know (τοῦτο γίνωσκε)
In the last days (ἐπ' ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις)
The phrase only here in Pastorals, Acts 2:17, James 5:3. Similar expressions are ἐν καιρῷ ἐσχάτῳ in the last season, 1 Peter 1:5 : ἐπ' ἐσχάτου τῶν χρόνων at the last of the times, 1 Peter 1:20 : ἐπ' ἐσχάτου χρόνου at the last time, Jde 1:18 : ἐπ' ἐσχάτων τῶν ἡμερῶν at the last of the days, 2 Peter 3:3 : ἐν ὑστέροις καιροῖς in the latter seasons, 1 Timothy 4:1. The times immediately preceding Christ's second appearing are meant. Comp. Hebrews 1:2; James 5:3.
Perilous times (καιροὶ χαλεποί)
Shall come (ἐνστήσονται)
Or will set in. Mostly in Paul. Only here in Pastorals. See on Galatians 1:4.
For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy,
Lovers of their own selves (φίλαυτοι)
Better, lovers of self. N.T.o. lxx. Aristotle, De Repub. ii. 5, says: "It is not loving one's self, but loving it unduly, just as the love of possessions."
Better, lovers of money. Only here and Luke 16:14. For the noun φιλαργυρία love of money, see on 1 Timothy 6:10. Love of money and covetousness are not synonymous. Covetous is πλεονέκτης; see 1 Corinthians 5:10, 1 Corinthians 5:11; Ephesians 5:6. See on Romans 1:29.
Or haughty. See on ὑπερηφανία pride, Mark 7:22.
Only here and Luke 6:35.
Only here and 1 Timothy 1:9 (note).
Without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good,
Without natural affection (ἄστοργοι)
N.T.o. olxx. Rend. implacable. From ἀ not, and σπονδαί a treaty or truce. The meaning is, refusing to enter into treaty, irreconcilable.
Or savage. N.T.o. olxx. Comp. ἀνελεήμονες merciless, Romans 1:31.
Despisers of those that are good (ἀφιλάγαθοι)
Better, haters of good. N.T.o. olxx, oClass. Comp. the opposite, φιλάγαθον lover of good, Titus 1:8.
Traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God;
Precipitate, reckless, headstrong in the pursuit of a bad end under the influence of passion. Only here and Acts 19:36. In lxx, slack, loose, hence foolish, Proverbs 10:14, and dividing or parting asunder, as the lips; of one who opens his lips and speaks hastily or thoughtlessly, Proverbs 13:3. Comp. Sir. 9:18.
Lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God (φιλήδονοι μᾶλλον ἢφιλόθεοι)
Pleasure-lovers rather than God-lovers. Both words N.T.o. olxx.
Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away.
A form (μόρφωσιν)
Only here and Romans 2:20. Μορφὴ Form (for the want of any other rendering) is the expression or embodiment of the essential and permanent being of that which is expressed Μόρφωσις, lit. forming or shaping. Yet the meaning differs in different passages. In Romans 2:20, μόρφωσις is the truthful embodiment of knowledge and truth as contained in the law of God. Here, the mere outward semblance, as distinguished from the essential reality.
The power (τὴν δύναμιν)
Turn away (ἀποτρέπου)
For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with divers lusts,
Of this sort (ἐκ τούτων)
Lit. of these. The formula often in Paul.
Which creep (οἱ ἐνδύνοντες)
N.T.o. Thrust themselves into. Comp. Jde 1:4, παρεισεδύησαν crept in privily (see note); 2 Peter 2:1 (note), παρεισάξουσιν shall privily bring in; and Galatians 2:4, παρεισάκτους brought in by stealth.
Lead captive (αἰχμαλωτίζοντες)
Silly women (γυναικάρια)
N.T.o. olxx. Silly is expressed by the contemptuous diminutive. Comp. Vulg. mulierculas.
Only here and Romans 12:20, citation. In lxx, see Judith 15:11, of loading a wagon with the property of Holofernes. It implies heaped up; heavily laden.
Led away (ἀγόμενα)
Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.
From any one who will teach them. See on 1 Timothy 5:13. It is a graphic picture of a large class, by no means extinct, who are caught and led by the instructions of itinerant religious quacks.
Never able (μηδέποτε δυνάμενα)
Because they have not the right motive, and because they apply to false teachers. Ellicott thinks that there is in δυνάμενα a hint of an unsuccessful endeavor, in better moments, to attain to the truth.
Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also resist the truth: men of corrupt minds, reprobate concerning the faith.
As (ὃν τρόπον)
The formula occurs in the Synoptic Gospels (see Matthew 23:37; Luke 13:34), and in Acts (Acts 1:11; Acts 7:28), but not in Paul. Jannes and Jambres. According to tradition, the names of the chiefs of the magicians who opposed Moses. Exodus 7:11, Exodus 7:22.
Of corrupt minds (κατεφθαρμένοι τὸν νοῦν)
Better, corrupted in mind. The verb, N.T.o. Comp. διεφθαρμένων τὸν νοῦν corrupted in mind, 1 Timothy 6:5.
But they shall proceed no further: for their folly shall be manifest unto all men, as theirs also was.
Shall proceed (προκόψουσιν)
See on 2 Timothy 2:16.
Only here and Luke 6:11 (note). The senselessness of their teaching, with an implication of its immoral character.
N.T.o. lxx, 3 Macc. 3:19; 6:5.
But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience,
Hast fully known (παρηκολούθησας)
Better, thou didst follow. See on 1 Timothy 4:6. oP.
Manner of life (ἀγωγῇ)
Or conduct. N.T.o. lxx, mostly 2nd and 3rd Macc. Often in Class., but mostly in a transitive sense, leading, conducting.
Long-suffering, charity, patience
Persecutions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra; what persecutions I endured: but out of them all the Lord delivered me.
Persecutions, afflictions (διωγμοῖς, παθήμασιν)
Διωγμός persecution, only here in Pastorals. Occasionally in Paul. Πάθημα, only here in Pastorals. Often in Paul, usually in the sense of sufferings, but twice of sinful passions, Romans 7:5; Galatians 5:24.
Antioch, Iconium, Lystra
See Acts 13:50; Acts 14:2 ff.; Acts 14:19. These cities may have been selected as illustrations because Timothy was at home in that region. See Acts 16:1, Acts 16:2. Antioch is mentioned by Paul, Galatians 2:11. Iconium and Lystra nowhere in his letters.
Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.
Who will live (οἱ θέλοντες ζῇν)
Whose will is to live, or who are bent on living.
Only here and Titus 2:12. Comp. κατ' εὐσέβειαν according to godliness, 1 Timothy 6:3; Titus 1:1; and ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ in all godliness, 1 Timothy 2:2. See also 1 Timothy 4:7; 1 Timothy 6:11, and on godliness, 1 Timothy 2:2.
Shall suffer persecution (διωχθήσονται)
In this sense only here in Pastorals.
But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived.
N.T.o. Better, impostors or deceivers. From γοᾶν to howl. Originally, one who chants spells; a wizard, sorcerer. Hence, a cheat.
Shall wax worse and worse (προκόψουσιν ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον)
Properly, leading astray. See on πλάνοις seducing, 1 Timothy 4:1.
But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them;
Hast been assured of (ἐπιστώθης)
And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.
From a child (ἀπὸ βρέφους)
The holy Scriptures (ἱερὰ γράμματα)
Note particularly the absence of the article. Γράμματα is used in N.T. in several senses. Of characters of the alphabet (2 Corinthians 3:7; Galatians 6:11): of a document (Luke 16:6, take thy bill): of epistles (Acts 28:21): of the writings of an author collectively (John 5:47): of learning (Acts 26:24, πολλά γράμματρα much learning). In lxx, ἐπιστάμενος γράμματα knowing how to read (Isaiah 29:11, Isaiah 29:12). The Holy Scriptures are nowhere called ἱερὰ γράμματα in N.T. In lxx, γράμματα is never used of sacred writings of any kind. Both Josephus and Philo use τὰ ἱερὰ γράμματα for the O.T. Scriptures. The words here should be rendered sacred learning. The books in the writer's mind were no doubt the Old Testament. Scriptures, in which Timothy, like every Jewish boy, had been instructed; but he does not mean to designate those books as ἱερὰ γράμματα. He means the learning acquired from Scripture by the rabbinic methods, according to which the Old Testament books were carefully searched for meanings hidden in each word and letter, and especially for messianic intimations. Specimens of such learning may be seen here and there in the writings of Paul as 1 Corinthians 9:9 f.; 1 Corinthians 10:1 f.; Galatians 3:16.; Galatians 4:21 f. In Acts 4:13, the council, having heard Peter's speech, in which he interpreted Psalm 118:22 and Isaiah 28:16 of Christ, at once perceived that Peter and John were ἀγράμματοι, not versed in the methods of the schools. Before Agrippa, Paul drew the doctrine of the Resurrection from the Old Testament, whereupon Festus exclaimed, "much learning (πολλὰ γράμματα, thy acquaintance with the exegesis of the schools) hath made thee mad" (Acts 26:24). To Agrippa, who was "expert in all customs and questions which are among the Jews" (Acts 26:3), the address of Paul, a pupil of Hillel, was not surprising, although he declared that Paul's reasoning did not appeal to him. In John 7:15, when Jesus taught in the temple, the Jews wondered and said: "How knoweth this man letters?" That a Jew should know the Scriptures was not strange. The wonder lay in the exegetical skill of one who had not been trained by the literary methods of the time.
To make thee wise (σε σοφίσαι)
Only hero and 2 Peter 1:16. See note there on cunningly devised. To give thee understanding of that which lies behind the letter; to enable thee to detect in the Old Testaments. books various hidden allusions to Christ; to draw from the Old Testaments the mystery of messianic salvation, and to interpret the Old Testaments with Christ as the key. This gives significance to the following words through faith which is in Christ Jesus. Jesus Christ was the key of Scripture, and through faith in him Scripture became a power unto salvation. The false teachers also had their learning but used it in expounding Jewish fables, genealogies, etc. Hence, their expositions, instead of making wise unto salvation, were vain babblings; profane and old wives' fables (1 Timothy 4:7; 2 Timothy 2:16). Const. through faith, etc., with make wise, not with salvation.
All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:
All Scripture (πᾶσα γραφὴ)
Better, every Scripture, that is, every passage of Scripture. Scripture as a whole is as αἱ γραφαί or αἱ γραφαί ἅγιαι. Ἱερά is never used with γραφὴ. Γραφὴ is the single passage, usually defined by this, or that, or the, or which saith.
Is given by inspiration of God (θεόπνευστος)
N.T.o. olxx. From θεὸς God and πνεῖν to breathe. God-breathed. The word tells us nothing of the peculiar character or limits of inspiration beyond the fact that it proceeds from God. In construction omit is, and rend. as attributive of γραφὴ every divinely-inspired Scripture.
And is profitable (καὶ ὠφέλιμος)
According to A.V., καὶ and is merely the copula between two predicates of γραφὴ. It is divinely inspired and is profitable. According to the interpretation given above, καὶ has the force of also. Every divinely-inspired Scripture is, besides being so inspired and for that reason, also profitable, etc. Ὡφέλιμος profitable, Pasto. See on 1 Timothy 4:8.
For doctrine (πρὸς διδασκαλίαν)
Better, teaching. Comp. to make thee wise, 2 Timothy 3:15.
Better, conviction. N.T.o. oClass. Comparatively frequent in lxx, mostly in the sense of rebuke: sometimes curse, punishment. See Ps. of Solomon 10:1, but the reading is disputed with ἐλέγχῳ. See on the verb ἐλέγχειν, John 3:20.
N.T.o. Twice in lxx. Restoring to an upright state (ὀρθός erect); setting right.
Better, chastisement or discipline. See on Ephesians 6:4. In lxx mostly correction or discipline, sometimes admonition. Specially of God's chastisement by means of sorrow and evil.
That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.
N.T.o. lxx. Rev. complete; but the idea is rather that of mutual, symmetrical adjustment of all that goes to make the man: harmonious combination of different qualities and powers. Comp. κατάρτισις perfecting, 2 Corinthians 13:9 : καταρτισμός perfecting (as accomplished), Ephesians 4:12 : καταρτίσαι make perfect or bring into complete adjustment, Hebrews 13:21.
Thoroughly furnished (ἐξηρτισμένος)
The same root as ἄρτιος. It fills out the idea ἄρτιος; fitted out. Only here and Acts 11:5 (note). oClass.
Unto all good works (πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν)
More correctly, every good work. Any writing which can produce such profitable results vindicates itself as inspired of God. It is to be noted that the test of the divine inspiration of Scripture is here placed in its practical usefulness.