2 Timothy 4:1
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I give you this charge:

New Living Translation
I solemnly urge you in the presence of God and Christ Jesus, who will someday judge the living and the dead when he appears to set up his Kingdom:

English Standard Version
I charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and by his appearing and his kingdom:

Berean Study Bible
I charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and in view of His appearing and His kingdom:

Berean Literal Bible
I earnestly declare before God and Christ Jesus, the One being about to judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom:

New American Standard Bible
I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom:

King James Bible
I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom;

Holman Christian Standard Bible
I solemnly charge you before God and Christ Jesus, who is going to judge the living and the dead, and because of His appearing and His kingdom:

International Standard Version
In the presence of God and the Messiah Jesus, who is going to judge those who are living and those who are dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I solemnly appeal to you

NET Bible
I solemnly charge you before God and Christ Jesus, who is going to judge the living and the dead, and by his appearing and his kingdom:

New Heart English Bible
I command you therefore before God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and by his appearing and his Kingdom:

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
I charge you before God and our Lord Yeshua The Messiah, he who is going to judge the living and the dead at the revelation of his Kingdom:

GOD'S WORD® Translation
I solemnly call on you in the presence of God and Christ Jesus, who is going to judge those who are living and those who are dead. I do this because Christ Jesus will come to rule [the world].

New American Standard 1977
Isolemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom:

Jubilee Bible 2000
I charge thee, therefore, before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the living and the dead in his appearing and in his kingdom:

King James 2000 Bible
I charge you therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the living and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom;

American King James Version
I charge you therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom;

American Standard Version
I charge thee in the sight of God, and of Christ Jesus, who shall judge the living and the dead, and by his appearing and his kingdom:

Douay-Rheims Bible
I charge thee, before God and Jesus Christ, who shall judge the living and the dead, by his coming, and his kingdom:

Darby Bible Translation
I testify before God and Christ Jesus, who is about to judge living and dead, and by his appearing and his kingdom,

English Revised Version
I charge thee in the sight of God, and of Christ Jesus, who shall judge the quick and the dead, and by his appearing and his kingdom;

Webster's Bible Translation
I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge the living and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom;

Weymouth New Testament
I solemnly implore you, in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus who is about to judge the living and the dead, and by His Appearing and His Kingship:

World English Bible
I command you therefore before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge the living and the dead at his appearing and his Kingdom:

Young's Literal Translation
I do fully testify, then, before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who is about to judge living and dead at his manifestation and his reign --
Study Bible
Preach the Word
1I charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and in view of His appearing and His kingdom: 2Preach the word; be prepared in season and out of season; reprove, rebuke, and encourage with every form of patient instruction.…
Cross References
Acts 10:42
And He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that He is the One appointed by God to judge the living and the dead.

2 Thessalonians 2:8
And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will slay with the breath of His mouth and abolish by the majesty of His arrival.

1 Timothy 5:21
I solemnly charge you before God and Christ Jesus and the elect angels to maintain these principles without bias, and to do nothing out of partiality.

2 Timothy 1:10
And now He has revealed this grace through the appearing of our Savior, Christ Jesus, who has abolished death and illuminated the way to life and immortality through the gospel,

2 Timothy 2:14
Remind the believers of these things, charging them before God to avoid quarreling over words; this is in no way profitable, and leads its listeners to ruin.

2 Timothy 4:8
From now on the crown of righteousness is laid up for me, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will award to me on that day--and not only to me, but to all who crave His appearing.

2 Timothy 4:18
And the Lord will rescue me from every evil action and bring me safely into His heavenly kingdom. To Him be the glory forever and ever. Amen.

1 Peter 4:5
But they will have to give an account to Him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.
Treasury of Scripture

I charge you therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom;

charge.

2 Timothy 2:14 Of these things put them in remembrance, charging them before the …

See on

1 Timothy 5:21 I charge you before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels…

1 Timothy 6:13 I give you charge in the sight of God, who vivifies all things, and …

who.

Psalm 50:6 And the heavens shall declare his righteousness: for God is judge …

Psalm 96:13 Before the LORD: for he comes, for he comes to judge the earth: he …

Psalm 98:9 Before the LORD; for he comes to judge the earth: with righteousness …

Matthew 16:27 For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his …

Matthew 25:31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels …

John 5:22-27 For the Father judges no man, but has committed all judgment to the Son…

Acts 10:42 And he commanded us to preach to the people, and to testify that …

Acts 17:31 Because he has appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world …

Romans 2:16 In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ …

Romans 14:9-11 For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he …

1 Corinthians 4:4,5 For I know nothing by myself; yet am I not hereby justified: but …

2 Corinthians 5:9,10 Why we labor, that, whether present or absent, we may be accepted of him…

2 Thessalonians 1:7-10 And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall …

1 Peter 4:5 Who shall give account to him that is ready to judge the quick and the dead.

Revelation 20:11-15 And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose …

at.

2 Timothy 4:8 From now on there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which …

Colossians 3:4 When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, then shall you also …

1 Thessalonians 4:15,16 For this we say to you by the word of the Lord…

1 Timothy 6:14 That you keep this commandment without spot, unrebukable, until the …

Titus 2:13 Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the …

Hebrews 9:27,28 And as it is appointed to men once to die, but after this the judgment…

1 Peter 1:7 That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold …

1 Peter 5:4 And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, you shall receive a crown …

1 John 2:28 And now, little children, abide in him; that, when he shall appear, …

Revelation 1:7 Behold, he comes with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they …

his kingdom.

Luke 19:12,15 He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a far country to …

Luke 23:42 And he said to Jesus, Lord, remember me when you come into your kingdom.

2 Peter 1:11,17 For so an entrance shall be ministered to you abundantly into the …

IV.

(1) I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ.--The parchment, or papyrus, in the prison room of St. Paul on which, probably, Luke (2Timothy 4:11), the faithful friend, was writing to the Apostle's dictation, was nearly filled up. What has still to be said to the chief presbyter of the Church of Ephesus must be brief. But St. Paul would have the last words introduced by a most impressive preface. So before he sums up his directions and exhortations, he appeals to him in these stately and solemn words. The Greek word rendered "I charge (thee)," is more accurately translated by, I solemnly charge (thee), before those divine witnesses, the Eternal Father and the Blessed Son, present with me in this prison of mine in Rome, present equally with you in study-chamber or church in Asia.

Who shall judge the quick and the dead.--These words must have sounded with strange power in the ears of men like Timothy, and must have impressed them with an intense feeling of responsibility. The Apostle in his divine wisdom was charging these teachers of the Church to be faithful and zealous in their work, by the thought, which must be ever present, that they--either alive on the day of the Coming of the Lord, or, if they had tasted death already, raised from the dead incorruptible (comp. 1Thessalonians 4:17)--must stand before the Judge and give an account of their stewardship; on that awful morning must every man and woman render up, before the Judge who knows all and sees all, a strict account of the deeds done in the body. The looking forward to the judgment morning must surely be a spur to any faint-hearted, dispirited servant of the Lord disposed to temporise, or reluctant to face the dangers which threaten a faithful discharge of duties.

At his appearing and his kingdom.--The older authorities here--instead of the preposition "at"--read "and." The rendering then would be: "I charge thee in the sight of God and Jesus Christ, who will judge quick and dead (I charge thee) by His appearing (epiphany) and by His kingdom," the construction in Greek being the usual accusative of adjuration, as in Mark 5:7; Acts 19:13. So, too, Deuteronomy 4:26 (LXX.): "I solemnly charge you to-day by heaven and earth." The passage, by this restoration of the ancient, and, at first sight, more difficult reading, gains, as we shall see, immeasurably in strength and power. "By his appearing," or by His manifestation or epiphany, refers, of course, to the Lord's coming a second time to judge the earth in the glory of the Father with His angels. (Matthew 16:27; 1Thessalonians 4:16-17.) "And by His kingdom:" His kingdom, that kingdom is here meant which, in the words of the Nicene Creed, "shall have no end." This glorious sovereignty of Christ is to succeed what Pearson (Creed, Article VI., p. 529, Chevallier's edit.) calls "the modificated eternity of His mediatorship," which will end when all His enemies shall have been subdued, and He shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father. The "kingdom" here spoken of is to commence at Christ's glorious epiphany or manifestation, when "the kingdoms of the world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of His Christ; and He shall reign for ever and ever" (Revelation 11:15). Timothy was conjured by the "appearing" of Christ when he would have to stand before Him and be judged; he was conjured, too, by "His kingdom," in which glorious state Timothy hoped to share, for was it not promised that His own should reign with Him? (2Timothy 2:12.) There seems in this solemn ringing adjuration something which reminds us of "a faithful saying." The germs at least of one of the ancient creeds are apparent here, where allusion is made to God (the Father) and to Jesus Christ, the judge of quick and dead, to His coming again with glory and then to His kingdom.

Verse 1. - In the sight of God, and of Christ Jesus for therefore before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, A.V. and T.R.; and by for at, A.V. and T.R. I charge thee (διαμαρτύρομαι); as 2 Timothy 2:14 and 1 Timothy 5:21 (where see note). The words οϋν ἐγώ, wanting in some of the best manuscripts, are "rejected by Griesbach, Tischendorf, Lachmann," and by Huther, Alford, Ellicott, and others. The chapter opens rather abruptly without the connecting "therefore." And by his appearing and his kingdom. The reading of the T.R., κατὰ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν κ.τ.λ.., "at his appearing and kingdom," makes such excellent sense, and is in such perfect accordance with the usual grammar, and with the usual connection of events, that it is difficult not to believe that it is the right reading (see Matthew 27:15, κατὰ ἑορτήν, "at the feast;" κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον, "on every sabbath;" Acts 13:27, κατὰ τὴν ἡμέραν, "in the day;" Hebrews 3:8 for the grammar; and the universal language of Scripture and the Creeds connecting the judgment with the Lord's appearing and kingdom). On the other hand, the reading καὶ is almost impossible to construe. No two commentators scarcely are agreed how to do so. Some take τὴν ἐπιφανείαν καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν as the object governed by διαμαρτύρομαι as in the LXX. of Deuteronomy 4:26, "I call to witness... Christ's epiphany and kingdom," taking διαμαρτύρομαι in two senses or two constructions. Others take them as the accusatives of the things sworn by, "I charge thee before God and Jesus Christ, and by his epiphany and kingdom," as Mark 5:7, τὸν Θεόν, "by God;" Acts 19:13, τὸν Ἰησοῦν, "by Jesus;" 1 Thessalonians 5:27, τὸν Κύριον, "by the Lord." But how awkward such a separation of the thing sworn by from the verb is, and how unnatural it is to couple with καὶ the two ideas, "before God" and "by Christ's epiphany," and how absolutely without example such a swearing by Christ's epiphany and kingdom is, nobody needs to be told. Others, as Huther, try to get over part at least of this awkwardness by taking the two καιs as "both:" "by both his epiphany and his kingdom." Ellicott explains it by saying that as you could not put "the epiphany and the kingdom" in dependence upon ἐνώπιον (as if they were persons like God and Christ), they "naturally pass into the accusative." But surely this is all thoroughly unsatisfactory. The T.R. is perfectly easy and simple. Appearing (ἐπιφανεία); ver. 8; 2 Timothy 1:10; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Timothy 6:14; Titus 2:13. His kingdom. So in the Nicene Creed: "He shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead: whose kingdom shall have no end" (comp. Matthew 25:31, followed by the judgment). I charge thee therefore before God,.... Whose word the Scriptures are, and by whom they are inspired; who had made Timothy an able minister of the New Testament, and to whom he was accountable for his ministry:

and the Lord Jesus Christ; who is equal with God, and bestows ministerial gifts on men, and from whom Timothy had his; whose Gospel he preached; in whose cause he was embarked; and before whom he must appear, to give an account of his ministry, talents, and souls under his care:

who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom; it is certain there will be a general judgment; the day is appointed, and Christ is ordained the Judge of all men; all judgment is committed to him, and he is ready to exercise it; for which he is abundantly qualified, being God omniscient and omnipotent; and which he will execute in the most righteous and impartial manner. The persons that will be judged by him are, "the quick and the dead"; by which are meant, not the different parts of men, their souls which are living and immortal, and their bodies which die and will be raised from the dead, though they will be judged in their whole persons; nor the different sorts of men, as good men, who are made alive by the Spirit and grace of God, and evil men, who are dead in trespasses and sins, and die in their sins; though this is a truth that God will judge both the righteous and the wicked: but rather by the "quick", are meant, such as will be found alive at Christ's coming; and by the "dead", such as having been dead, will be raised by him; and in short, the characters include all mentioned; who must all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. The time when this will be, is,

at his appearing, and his kingdom; which may be considered as an hendyadis, expressive of one and the same thing; and so the Syriac version renders it, "at the revelation of his kingdom"; or as two things, the one as antecedent and preparatory to the other; the former refers to the appearance of Christ at the last day. He appeared frequently to the Old Testament saints in an human form; and he really appeared in human nature in the fulness of time; and after his resurrection to his apostles and others, and even after his ascension to some; and he appears in a spiritual manner to believers in all ages; but to them that look for him, he will appear a second time in person, in a most glorious manner: for the present he is received up into heaven, where he is as it were hid, and is unseen to corporeal eyes; but in his due time he will be manifested in his own and his Father's glory, and in the glory of his angels; and this appearance will be greatly to the advantage of the saints, who will then appear in glory, and be like him, and see him as he is, and hence they look for it, and love it; and at this time will be the judgment, and then will the kingdom of Christ take place. Christ has a kingdom now, and ever had, which is not of this world, but is of a spiritual nature; and which will be more manifest in that latter day, by the spread of the Gospel, the numerous instances of conversion, and the revival of powerful religion and godliness, which we commonly call the spiritual reign of Christ; but the kingdom here designed, is the personal reign of Christ, for a thousand years: at the beginning of which will be the judgment of the saints, who having the crown of righteousness given them by the Judge, will reign with him as kings and priests; and at the end of this period will be the judgment of the wicked. The charge made before these two divine Persons, God and his Son Jesus Christ, follows. CHAPTER 4

2Ti 4:1-22. Solemn Charge to Timothy to Do His Duty Zealously, for Times of Apostasy Are at Hand, and the Apostle Is near His Triumphant End: Requests Him to Come and Bring Mark with Him to Rome, as Luke Alone Is with Him, the Others Having Gone: Also His Cloak and Parchments: Warns Him against Alexander: Tells What Befell Him at His First Defense: Greetings: Benediction.

1. charge—Greek, "adjure."

therefore—omitted in the oldest manuscripts.

the Lord Jesus Christ—The oldest manuscripts read simply, "Christ Jesus."

shall judge—His commission from God is mentioned, Ac 10:42; his resolution to do so, 1Pe 4:5; the execution of his commission, here.

at his appearing—The oldest manuscripts read, "and" for "at"; then translate, "(I charge thee before God … ) and by His appearing."

and his kingdom—to be set at His appearing, when we hope to reign with Him. His kingdom is real now, but not visible. It shall then be both real and visible (Lu 22:18, 30; Re 1:7; 11:15; 19:6). Now he reigns in the midst of His enemies expecting till they shall be overthrown (Ps 110:2; Heb 10:13). Then He shall reign with His adversaries prostrate.4:1-5 People will turn away from the truth, they will grow weary of the plain gospel of Christ, they will be greedy of fables, and take pleasure in them. People do so when they will not endure that preaching which is searching, plain, and to the purpose. Those who love souls must be ever watchful, must venture and bear all the painful effects of their faithfulness, and take all opportunities of making known the pure gospel.
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