Romans 5:2
By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(2) By whom.—More accurately translated, through whom also we have had our access (Ellicott). “Have had” when we first became Christians, and now while we are such.

Into this grace.—This state of acceptance and favour with God, the fruit of justification.

Rejoice.—The word used elsewhere for “boasting.” The Christian has his boasting, but it is not based upon his own merits. It is a joyful and triumphant confidence in the future, not only felt, but expressed.

The glory of God.—That glory which the “children of the kingdom” shall share with the Messiah Himself when His eternal reign begins.

Romans

THE SOURCES OF HOPE

ACCESS INTO GRACE

Romans 5:2
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I may be allowed to begin with a word or two of explanation of the terms of this passage. Note then, especially, that also which sends us back to the previous clause, and tells us that our text adds something to what was spoken of there. What was spoken of there? ‘The peace of God’ which comes to a man by Jesus Christ through faith, the removal of enmity, and the declaration of righteousness. But that peace with God, which is the beginning of everything in the Christian view, is only the beginning, and there is much to follow. While, then, there is a progress clearly marked in the words of our text, and ‘access into this grace wherein we stand’ is something more than, and after, the ‘peace with God,’ mark next the similarity of the text and the preceding verse. The two great truths in the latter, Christ’s mediation or intervention, and our faith as the condition by which we receive the blessings which are brought to us in and through Him, are both repeated, with no unmeaning tautology, but with profound significance in our text-’By whom also we have access’-as well as-’the peace of God’-’access by faith into this grace.’ So then, for the initial blessing, and for all the subsequent blessings of the Christian life, the way is the same. The medium and channel is one, and the act by which we avail ourselves of the blessings coming through that one medium is the same. Now the language of my text, with its talking about access, faith, and grace, sounds to a great many of us, I am afraid, very hard and remote and technical. And there are not wanting people who tell us that all that terminology in the New Testament is like a dying brand in the fire, where the little kernel of glowing heat is getting covered thicker and thicker with grey ashes. Yes; but if you blow the ashes off, the fire is there all the same. Let us try if we can blow the ashes off.

This text seems to me in its archaic phraseology, only to need to be pondered in order to flash up into wonderful beauty. It carries in it a magnificent ideal of the Christian life, in three things: the Christian place, ‘access into grace’; the Christian attitude, ‘wherein we stand’; and the Christian means of realising that ideal, ‘through Christ’ and ‘by faith.’ Now let us look at these three points.

I. The Christian Place.

There is clearly a metaphor here, both in the word ‘access’ and in that other one ‘stand.’ ‘The grace’ is supposed as some ample space into which a man is led, and where he can continue, stand, and expatiate. Or, we may say, it is regarded as a palace or treasure-house into which we can enter. Now, if we take that great New Testament word ‘grace,’ and ponder its meanings, we find that they run something in this fashion. The central thought, grand and marvellous, which is enshrined in it, and which often is buried for careless ears, is that of the active love of God poured out upon inferiors who deserve something very different. Then there follows a second meaning, which covers a great part of the ground of the use of the phrase in the New Testament, and that is the communication of that love to men, the specific and individualised gifts which come out of that great reservoir of patient, pardoning, condescending, and bestowing love. Then there may be taken into view a meaning which is less prominent in Scripture but not absent, namely, the resulting beauty of character. A gracious soul ought to be, and is, a graceful soul; a supreme loveliness is imparted to human nature by the communication to it of the gifts which are the results of the undeserved, free, and infinite love of God.

Now if we take all these three thoughts as blended together in the grand metaphor of the Apostle, of the ample space into which the Christian man passes, we get such lessons as this. A Christian life may, and therefore should, be suffused with a continual consciousness of the love of God. That would change everything in it. Here is some great sweep of rolling country, perhaps a Highland moor: the little tarns on it are grey and cold, the vegetation is gloomy and dark, dreariness is over all the scene, because there is a great pall of cloud drawn beneath the blue. But the sun pierces with his lances through the grey, and crumples up the mists, and sends them flying beneath the horizon. Then what a change in the landscape! All the tarns that looked black and wicked are now infantile in their innocent blue and sunny gladness, and every dimple in the heights shows, and all the heather burns with the sunshine that falls upon it. So my lonely doleful life, if that light from God, the beam of His love, shines down upon it, rises into nobility, and flashes into beauty, and is calm and fair and great, as nothing else can make it. You may dwell in love by dwelling in God, and then your lives will be fair. You have access into the grace; see that you go there. They tell us that nightingales sing by the wayside by preference, and we may have in our lives, singing a quiet tune, the continual thought of the love of God, even whilst life’s highway is dusty and rough, and our feet are often weary in treading it. A Christian life may be, and therefore should be, suffused with the sense of the abiding love of God.

Take the other meaning of the word, the secondary and derived meaning, the communication of that love to us, and that leads us to say that a Christian life may, and therefore should, be enriched with continual gifts from God’s fullness. I said that the Apostle was using a metaphor here, regarding the grace as being an ample space into which a man was admitted, or we may say that he is thinking of it as a great treasure-house. We have the right of entrance there, where on every side, as it were, lie ingots of uncoined gold, and masses of treasure, and we may have just as much or as little as we choose. It is entirely in our own determination how much of the wealth of God we shall possess. We have access to the treasure-house; and this permit is put into our hands: ‘Be it unto thee even as thou wilt.’ The size of the sack that the man brings, in the old story, determined the amount of wealth that he carried away. Some of you bring very tiny baskets and expect little and desire little; you get no more than you desired and expected.

That wealth, the fullness of God, takes the shape of, as well as is determined in its measure by the magnitude of, the vessel into which it is put. It is multiform, and we get whatever we desire, and whatever either our characters or our circumstances require. The one gift assumes all forms, just as water poured into a vase takes the shape of the vase into which it is poured. The same gift unfolds itself in an infinite variety of manners, according to the needs of the man to whom it is given; just as the writer’s pen, the carpenter’s hammer, the farmer’s ploughshare, are all made out of the same metal. So God’s grace comes to you in a different shape from that in which it comes to me, according to our different callings and needs, as fixed by our circumstances, our duties, our sorrows, our temptations.

So, brethren, how shameful it is that, having the possibility of so much, we should have the actuality of so little. There is an old story about one of our generals in India long ago, who, when he came home, was accused of rapacity because he had brought away so much treasure from the Rajahs whom he had conquered, and his answer to the charge was, ‘I was surprised at my own moderation.’ Ah! there are a great many Christian people who ought to be ashamed of their moderation. They have gone into the treasure-house; stacks of jewels, jars of gold on all sides of them-and they have been content to come away with some one poor little coin, when they might have been ‘rich beyond the dreams of avarice.’ Brethren, you have ‘access’ to the fullness of God. Whose fault is it if you are empty?

Then, further, I said there was another meaning in these great words. The love which may suffuse our lives, the gifts, the consequence of that love, which may enrich our lives, should, and in the measure in which they are received will, adorn and make beautiful our lives. For ‘grace’ means loveliness as well as goodness, and the God who is the fountain of it all is the fountain of ‘whatsoever things are fair,’ as well as of whatsoever things are good. That suggests two considerations on which I have no time to dwell. One is that the highest beauty is goodness, and unless the art of a nation learns that, its art will become filthy and a minister of sin. They talk about ‘Art for Art’s sake.’ Would that all these poets and painters who are trying to find beauty in corruption-and there is a phosphorescent glimmer in rotting wood, and a prismatic colouring on the scum of a stagnant pond-would that all those men who are seeking to find beauty apart from goodness, and so are turning a divine instinct into a servant of evil, would learn that the true gracefulness comes from the grace which is the fullness of God given unto men.

But there is another lesson, and that is that Christian people who say that they have their lives irradiated by the love of God, and who profess to be receiving gifts from His full hand, are bound to take care that their goodness is not ‘harsh and crabbed,’ as not only ‘dull fools suppose’ it to be, but as it sometimes is, but is musical and fair. You are bound to make your goodness attractive, and to show that the things that are ‘of good report’ are likewise the ‘things that are lovely.’

II. And so, now, turn to the second point here, viz. the Christian attitude.

‘The grace wherein ye stand’; that word is very emphatic here, and does not merely mean ‘continue,’ but it suggests what I have put into that phrase, the Christian attitude.

Two things are implied. One is that a life thus suffused by the love, and enriched by the gifts, and adorned by the loveliness that come from God, will be stable and steadfast. Resistance and stability are implied in the words. One very important item in determining a man’s power of resistance, and of standing firm against whatever assaults may be hurled against him, is the sort of footing that he has. If you stand on slippery mud, or on the ice of a glacier, you will find it hard to stand firm; but if you plant your foot on the grace of God, then you will be able to ‘withstand in the evil day, and having done all to stand.’ And how does a man plant his foot on the grace of God? simply by trusting in God, and not in himself. So that the secret of all steadfastness of life, and of all successful resistance to the whirling onrush of temptations and of difficulties, is to set your foot upon that rock, and then your ‘goings’ will be established.

Jesus Christ brings to us, in the gift of life in Him, stability which will check the vacillations of our own hearts. We go up and down, we yield when pressure is brought to bear against us, we are carried off our feet often by the sudden swirl of the stream, and the fitful blast of the wind. But His grace comes in, and will make us able to stand against all assaults. Our poor natures, necessarily changeable, and sinfully vacillating and weak, will be uniform, in the measure in which the grace of God comes into our hearts. Just as in these so-called petrifying wells, they take a bit of cloth, a bird’s nest, a billet of wood, and plunge it into the water, and the mineral held in solution there infiltrates into the substance of the thing plunged in, and makes it firm and inflexible: so let us plunge our poor, changeful, vacillating resolutions, our wayward, wandering hearts, our passions, so easily excited by temptation, into that great fountain, and there will filter into our flexibility what will make it firm, and into our changefulness what will give in us some faint copy of the divine immutability, and we shall stand fast in the Lord and in the power of His might.

Further, in regard to this attitude, which is the result of the possession of grace, we may say that it indicates not only stability and steadfastness, but erectness, as in opposition to crouching or bowing. A man’s independence is guaranteed by his dependence upon, and his possession of, that communicated grace of God. And so you have the fact that the phase of the Christian teaching which has laid most stress on the decrees and sovereign will of God, on divine grace in fact, and too little upon the human side-the phase which is roughly described as Calvinism-has underlain the liberties of Europe, and has stiffened men into the rejection of all priestly and civic domination. ‘Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty,’ and if a man has in his heart the grace of God, then he stands erect as a man. ‘Ye are bought with a price; be ye not the servants of men.’ The Christian democracy, the Christian rejection of all sacerdotal and other domination, flows from the access of each individual Christian to the fountain of all wisdom, the only source of law and command, the inspirer of all strength, the giver of all grace. By faith ye stand. ‘Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ has made you free.’

III. Lastly, and only a word; we have here the Christian way of entrance into grace.

I have already remarked on the emphasis with which, both in my text and in the preceding clause, there are laid down the two conditions of possessing this grace, or the peace which precedes it: ‘By Christ-through faith.’ Notice, too, that Jesus Christ gives us ‘access.’ Now that expression is but an imperfect rendering of the original. If it were not for its trivial associations, one might read instead of ‘access,’ introduction, ‘by whom we have introduction into this grace wherein we stand.’ The thought is that Jesus Christ secures us entry into this ample space, this treasure-house, as some court officer might take by the hand a poor rustic, standing on the threshold of the palace, and lead him through all the glittering series of unfamiliar splendour, and present him at last in the central ring around the king. The reality that underlies the metaphor is plain. We sinners can never pass into that central glory, nor ever possess those gifts of grace, unless the barrier that stands between us and God, between us and His highest gifts of love, is swept away.

I recall an old legend where two knights are represented as seeking to enter a palace, where there is a mysterious fire burning in the middle of the portal. One of them tries to pass through, and recoils scorched; but when the other essays an entrance the fierce fire sinks, and the path is cleared. Jesus Christ has died, and I say it with all reverence, as His blood touches the fire it flickers down and the way is opened ‘into the holiest of all, whither the Forerunner is for us entered.’ He both brings the grace and makes it possible that we should go in where the grace is.

But Jesus Christ’s work is nothing to you unless your personal faith comes in, and so that is pointed to in the second of the clauses here: ‘By faith we have access.’ That is no arbitrary appointment. It lies in the very nature of the gift and of the recipient. How can God give access into that grace to a man who shrinks from being near Him; who does not want ‘access,’ and who could not use the grace if he had it? How can God bestow inward and spiritual gifts upon any man who closes his heart against them, and will not have them? My faith is the condition; Christ is the Giver. If I ally myself to Him by my faith, He gives to me. If I do not, with all the will to do it, He cannot bestow His best gifts any more than a man who stretches out his hand to another sinking in the flood can lift him out, and set him on the safe shore, if the drowning man’s hand is not stretched out to grasp the rescuer’s outstretched hand.

Brethren, God is infinitely willing to give the choicest gifts of His love to us all, to gladden, to enrich, to adorn, to make stable and erect. But He cannot give them unless you will trust Him. ‘It pleased the Father that in Him should all fullness dwell.’ That alabaster box is brought to earth. It was broken on the Cross that ‘the house’ might be ‘filled with the odour of the ointment.’ Our faith is the only condition; it is only the condition, but it is the indispensable condition, of our being anointed with that fragrant anointing. He, and He only, can give us the fullness of God.Romans 5:2. By whom also we have access — Greek, την προσαγωγην, admittance, entrance, or introduction. The word, as Raphelius has shown from the heathen historian, Herodotus, is often used as a sacerdotal phrase, and signifies, “being with great solemnity introduced as into the more immediate presence of a deity in his temple, so as (by a supposed interpreter, from thence called προσαγωγευς, the introducer) to have a kind of conference with such a deity.” By faith into this grace — Into this state of favour, and a state in which we receive, or may receive, grace to help in every time of need. The word also shows that the blessing here spoken of is different from and superior to the peace with God, mentioned in the preceding verse. Wherein we stand — Remain, abide; or rather, stand firm, as the word εστηκαμεν signifies. “As the apostle often compares the conflicts which the first Christians maintained, against persecutors and false teachers, to the Grecian combats, perhaps, by standing firm, he meant that, as stout wrestlers, they successfully maintained their faith in the gospel, in opposition both to the Jews and heathen, notwithstanding the sufferings which the profession of their faith had brought on them.” And rejoice in hope of the glory of God — Here two other blessings are mentioned, rising in degree above both the preceding; a hope of the glory of God, and joy arising therefrom. By the glory of God is meant the vision and enjoyment of the God of glory in a future state, particularly after the resurrection and the general judgment; including a full conformity to Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory, in soul and body; (to whom we shall be made like, because we shall see him as he is, 1 John 3:2;) also the glorious society of saints and angels, and a glorious world, the place of our eternal abode. Of this, those that are justified by faith have a lively and well-grounded hope, being heirs of it in consequence of their justification, Titus 3:7; and of their adoption, Romans 8:14-17; Galatians 4:6-7; and through this hope, to which they are begotten again by faith in the resurrection of Christ, who rose the first-fruits of them that sleep, and by pardoning and renewing grace, communicated in and through him, they rejoice frequently with joy unspeakable and full of glory, 1 Peter 1:3-8; being sealed to the day of redemption and having an earnest of their future inheritance by God’s Spirit in their hearts.5:1-5 A blessed change takes place in the sinner's state, when he becomes a true believer, whatever he has been. Being justified by faith he has peace with God. The holy, righteous God, cannot be at peace with a sinner, while under the guilt of sin. Justification takes away the guilt, and so makes way for peace. This is through our Lord Jesus Christ; through him as the great Peace-maker, the Mediator between God and man. The saints' happy state is a state of grace. Into this grace we are brought, which teaches that we were not born in this state. We could not have got into it of ourselves, but we are led into it, as pardoned offenders. Therein we stand, a posture that denotes perseverance; we stand firm and safe, upheld by the power of the enemy. And those who have hope for the glory of God hereafter, have enough to rejoice in now. Tribulation worketh patience, not in and of itself, but the powerful grace of God working in and with the tribulation. Patient sufferers have most of the Divine consolations, which abound as afflictions abound. It works needful experience of ourselves. This hope will not disappoint, because it is sealed with the Holy Spirit as a Spirit of love. It is the gracious work of the blessed Spirit to shed abroad the love of God in the hearts of all the saints. A right sense of God's love to us, will make us not ashamed, either of our hope, or of our sufferings for him.We have access - See the note at John 14:6, "I am the way," etc. Doddridge renders it, "by whom we have been introduced," etc. It means, "by whom we have the privilege of obtaining the favor of God which we enjoy when we are justified." The word rendered "access" occurs but in two other places in the New Testament, Ephesians 2:18; Ephesians 3:12. By Jesus Christ the way is opened for us to obtain the favor of God.

By faith - By means of faith, Romans 1:17.

Into this grace - Into this favor of reconciliation with God.

Wherein we stand - In which we now are in consequence of being justified.

And rejoice - Religion is often represented as producing joy, Isaiah 12:3; Isaiah 35:10; Isaiah 52:9; Isaiah 61:3, Isaiah 61:7; Isaiah 65:14, Isaiah 65:18; John 16:22, John 16:24; Acts 13:52; Romans 14:17; Galatians 5:22; 1 Peter 1:8. The sources or steps of this joy are these:

(1) We are justified, or regarded by God as righteous.

(2) we are admitted into his favor, and abide there.

(3) we have the prospect of still higher and richer blessings in the fulness of his glory when we are admitted to heaven.

In hope - In the earnest desire and expectation of obtaining that glory. Hope is a complex emotion made up of a desire for an object; and an expectation of obtaining it. Where either of these is lacking, there is not hope. Where they are mingled in improper proportions, there is not peace. But where the desire of obtaining an object is attended with an expectation of obtaining it, in proportion to that desire, there exists that peaceful, happy state of mind which we denominate hope And the apostle here implies that the Christian has an earnest desire for that glory; and that he has a confident expectation of obtaining it. The result of that he immediately states to be, that we are by it sustained in our afflictions.

The glory of God - The glory that God will bestow on us. The word "glory" usually means splendor, magnificence, honor; and the apostle here refers to that honor and dignity which will be conferred on the redeemed when they are raised up to the full honors of redemption; when they shall triumph in the completion of the work: and be freed from sin, and pain, and tears, and permitted to participate in the full splendors that shall encompass the throne of God in the heavens; see the note at Luke 2:9; compare Revelation 21:22-24; Revelation 22:5; Isaiah 60:19-20.

2. By whom also we have—"have had"

access by faith into this grace—favor with God.

wherein we stand—that is "To that same faith which first gave us 'peace with God' we owe our introduction into that permanent standing in the favor of God which the justified enjoy." As it is difficult to distinguish this from the peace first mentioned, we regard it as merely an additional phase of the same [Meyer, Philippi, Mehring], rather than something new [Beza, Tholuck, Hodge].

and rejoice—"glory," "boast," "triumph"—"rejoice" is not strong enough.

in hope of the glory of God—On "hope," see on [2197]Ro 5:4.

We have not only reconciliation with God by Jesus Christ, but also by faith in him we are admitted to his presence, his grace and favour. One may be reconciled to his prince, and yet not to be brought into his presence: witness Absalom, &c. See Ephesians 2:18 3:12 1 Peter 3:18.

This grace is either that whereof he spake, Romans 3:24; or else rather it may be understood of that excellent state of reconciliation, friendship, and favour with God, which God hath graciously bestowed upon us.

Wherein we stand; or, in which we stand or abide, not stirring a foot for any temptation or persecution: a metaphor from soldiers keeping their station in fight. A man may obtain his prince’s favour, and lose it again; but, &c.

And rejoice in hope of the glory of God; in the glory hoped for, a Hebraism; see Luke 10:20 1 Peter 1:8,9; even in that glory which God hath promised, and which consists in the enjoyment of him. By whom also we have access by faith,.... The access here spoken of is not to the blessing of justification; for though that is a grace which we have access to by Christ, and come at the knowledge of by faith, and enjoy the comfort of through it; and is a grace in which persons stand, and from which they shall never fall, and lays a solid foundation for rejoicing in hope of eternal glory; yet this sense would make the apostle guilty of a great tautology; and besides, he is not speaking of that blessing itself, but of its effects; and here of one distinct from "peace with God", before mentioned, as the word also manifestly shows: nor does it design any other blessing of grace, as pardon, adoption, sanctification, &c. and an access thereunto; not unto the free grace, favour, and good will of God, the source of all blessings; but to the throne of grace, which may be called

that grace, because of its name, for God, as the God of all grace, sits upon it; it is an high favour to be admitted to it; it is grace persons come thither for, and which they may expect to find there: and

in, or "at"

which we stand; which denotes boldness, courage, and intrepidity, and a freedom from a servile fear and bashful spirit, and a continued constant attendance at it; all which is consistent with reverence, humility, and submission to the will of God. Now access to the throne of grace, and standing at that, are "by" Christ. There is no access to God in our own name and righteousness, and upon the foot of our own works. Christ is the only way of access to God, and acceptance with him; he is the Mediator between God and us; he introduces into his Father's presence, gives audience at his throne, and renders both persons and services acceptable unto him: and this access is also "by faith"; and that both in God the Father, as our covenant God and Father; in faith of interest in his love and favour; believing his power and faithfulness, his fulness and sufficiency, and that he is a God hearing and answering prayer: and also in the Lord Jesus Christ; in his person for acceptance; in his righteousness for justification; in his blood for pardon; and in his fulness for every supply: and such as have access to the throne of grace by faith in Christ, being comfortably persuaded of their justification before God, through his righteousness imputed to them, can and do

rejoice in hope of the glory of God; which is another effect of justification by faith: by the "glory of God"; which is another effect of justification by faith: by the "glory of God", is not meant the essential glory of God; nor that which we ought to seek in all that we are concerned, and which we are to ascribe unto him on the account of his perfections and works; but that everlasting glory and happiness which he has prepared for his people, has promised to them, and has called them to by Christ, and will bestow upon them; of which he has given them a good hope through grace; and in the hope and believing views of which they can, and do rejoice, even amidst a variety of afflictions and tribulations in this world. The Vulgate Latin version reads, "in hope of the glory of the children of God"; eternal glory being proper to them.

{2} By whom also we {a} have access by faith into this grace {b} wherein we {c} stand, {3} and {d} rejoice in hope of the glory of God.

(2) Whereas quietness of conscience is attributed to faith, it is to be referred to Christ, who is the giver of faith itself, and in whom faith itself is effectual.

(a) We must know by this, that we still receive the same effect from faith.

(b) By which grace, that is, by which gracious love and good will, or that state unto which we are graciously taken.

(c) We stand steadfast.

(3) A preventing of an objection against those who, beholding the daily miseries and calamities of the Church, think that the Christians dream when they brag of their felicity: to whom the apostle answers, that their felicity is laid up under hope of another place: which hope is so certain and sure, that they rejoice for that happiness just as if they presently enjoyed it.

(d) Our minds are not only quiet and settled, but we are also marvellously glad, and have great joy because of the heavenly inheritance which awaits us.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Romans 5:2. Δἰ οὗ καὶ κ.τ.λ[1137]] Confirmation and more precise definition of the preceding διὰ.… Ἰησοῦ Χ. The καί does not merely append (Stölting), but is rather the “also” of corresponding relation, giving prominence precisely to what had here an important practical bearing i.e. as proving the previous διὰ κυρίου κ.τ.λ[1138] Comp Romans 9:24; 1 Corinthians 4:5; Php 4:10. The climactic interpretation here (Köllner: “a heightened form of stating the merit of Christ;” comp Rückert) is open to the objection that the ΠΡΟΣΑΓΩΓῊ ΕἸς Τ. ΧΆΡ. is not something added to or higher than the ΕἸΡΉΝΗ, but, on the contrary, the foundation of it. If we were to take καὶ.… καί in the sense “as well.… as” (Th. Schott, Hofmann), the two sentences, which are not to be placed in special relation to Romans 3:23, would be made co-ordinate, although the second is the consequence of that which is affirmed in the first.

τὴν προσαγωγήν] the introduction,[1141] Xen. Cyrop. vii. 5, 45; Thuc. i. 82, 2; Plut. Mor. p. 1097 E, Lucian, Zeux. 6; and see also on Ephesians 2:18. Through Christ we have had our introduction to the grace, etc., inasmuch as He Himself (comp 1 Peter 3:18) in virtue of His atoning sacrifice which removes the wrath of God, has become our προσαγωγεύς, or, as Chrysostom aptly expresses it, μακρὰν ὄντας προσήγαγε. In this case the preposition διά, which corresponds with the διά in Romans 5:1, is fully warranted, because Christ has brought us to grace in His capacity as the divinely appointed and divinely given Mediator. Comp Winer, p. 354 f. [E. T. 473].

To τ. προσαγ. ἐσχήκ. belongs εἰς τ. χάριν ταύτην; and τῇ πίστει, by means of faith, denotes the subjective medium of τ. προσαγ. εσχήκαμεν. On the other hand, Oecumenius, Bos, Wetstein, Michaelis, Reiche, Baumgarten-Crusius take τ. προσαγωγ. absolutely, in the sense of access to God (according to Reiche as a figurative mode of expressing the beginning of grace), and εἰς τὴν χάρ. ταύτ. as belonging to τῇ πίστει. In that case we must supply after προσαγ. the words πρὸς τ. Οεόν from Romans 5:1 (Ephesians 2:18; Ephesians 3:12); and we may with Bos and Michaelis explain προσαγωγή by the usage of courts, in accordance with which access to the king was obtained through a προσαγωγεύς, sequester (Lamprid. in Alex. Sev. 4). But the whole of this reading is liable to the objection that πίστις εἰς τὴν χάριν would be an expression without analogy in the N. T.

ἐσχήκαμεν] Not: habemus (Luther and many others), nor nacti sumus et habemus (most modern interpreters, including Tholuck, Rückert, Winzer, Ewald), but habuimus, namely, when we became Christians. So also de Wette, Philippi, Maier, van Hengel, Hofmann. Comp 2 Corinthians 1:9; 2 Corinthians 2:13; 2 Corinthians 7:5. The perfect realises as present the possession formerly obtained, as in Plat. Apol. p. 20 D, and see Bernhardy, p. 379.

εἰς τὴν χάρ. ταύτ.] The divine grace of which the justified are partakers[1145] is conceived as a field of space, into which they have had (ἐσχήκαμεν) introduction through Christ by means of faith, and in which they now have (ἔχομεν) peace with God.

ἐν ᾗ ἑστήκαμεν] does not refer to τῇ πίστει (Grotius), but to the nearest antecedent, τὴν χάριν, which is also accompanied by the demonstrative: in which we stand. The joyful consciousness of the present, that the possession of grace once entered upon is permanent, suggested the word to the Apostle. Comp 1 Corinthians 15:1; 1 Peter 5:12.

καὶ καυχώμεθα] may be regarded as a continuation either of the last relative sentence (ἐν ᾗ ἑστήκ., so van Hengel, Ewald, Mehring, Stölting), or of the previous one (διʼ οὗ καὶ κ.τ.λ[1147]), or of the principal sentence (ΕἸΡΉΝ. ἜΧΟΜΕΝ). The last alone is suggested by the context, because, as Romans 5:3 shows, a new and independent element in the description of the blessed condition is introduced with καὶ καυχώμεθα.

καυχᾶσθαι expresses not merely the idea of rejoicing, not merely “the inward elevating consciousness, to which outward expression is not forbidden” (Reiche), but rather the actual glorying, by which we praise ourselves as privileged (“what the heart is full of, the mouth will utter”). Such is its meaning in all cases.

On ἐπί, on the ground of, i.e. over, joined with καυχ. comp Psalm 48:6; Proverbs 25:14; Wis 17:7; Sir 30:2. No further example of this use is found in the N. T.; but see Lycurgus in Beck. Anecd. 275, 4; Diod. S. xvi. 70; and Kühner, II. 1, p. 436. It is therefore unnecessary to isolate καυχώμεθα, so as to make ἘΠʼ ΕΛΠΊΔΙ independent of it (Romans 4:18; so van Hengel). Comp on the contrary, the ΣΕΜΝΎΝΕΣΘΑΙ ἘΠΊ ΤΙΝΙ frequent in Greek authors. The variation of the prepositions, ἘΠΊ and in Romans 5:3 ἘΝ, is not to be imputed to any set purpose; comp on Romans 3:20; Romans 3:25 f. al[1151]

The ΔΌΞΑ Τ. ΘΕΟῦ is the glory of God, in which the members of the Messiah’s kingdom shall hereafter participate. Comp 1 Thessalonians 2:12; John 17:22, also Romans 8:17; Revelation 21:11; 1 John 3:2; and see Weiss, bibl. Theol. p. 376. The reading of the Vulg.: gloriae filiorum Dei, is a gloss that hits the right sense. Reiche and Maier, following Luther and Grotius, take the genitive as a genit. auctoris. But that God is the giver of the δόξα, is self-evident and does not distinctively characterize it. Rückert urges here also his exposition of Romans 3:23; comp Ewald. But see on that passage. Flatt takes it as the approval of God (Romans 3:23), but the ἐλπίδι, pointing solely to the glorious future, is decisive against this view. It is aptly explained by Melancthon: “quod Deus sit nos gloria sua aeterna ornaturus, i. e. vita aeterna et communicatione sui ipsius.”

[1137] .τ.λ. καὶ τὰ λοιπά.

[1138] .τ.λ. καὶ τὰ λοιπά.

[1141] Προσαγωγή ought not to be explained as access (Vulg. accessum, and so most interpreters), but as leading towards, the meaning which the word always has (even in Ephesians 2:18; Ephesians 3:12). See Xen. l.c.: τοὺς ἐμοὺς φίλους δεομένους προσαγωγῆς. Polybius uses it to express the bringing up of engines against a besieged town, xi. 41, 1, xiv. 10, 9; comp. i. 48, 2; the bringing up of ships to the shore, x, i. 6; the bringing of cattle into the stall, xii. 4, 10. In Herod. ii. 58 also the literal meaning is: a leading up, carrying up in solemn procession. Tholuck and van Hengel have rightly adopted the active meaning in this verse (comp. Weber, vom Zorne Gottes, p. 316); whilst Philippi, Umbreit, Ewald, Hofmann (comp. Mehring) abide by the rendering “access.” Chrysostom aptly observes on Ephesians 2:18 : οὐ γὰρ ἀφʼ ἑαυτῶν προσήλθομεν, ἀλλʼ ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ προσήχθημεν.

[1145] For to nothing else than the grace experienced in justification can εἰς τ. χάρ. τ. be referred in accordance with the context (δικαιωθέντες)—not to the blessings of Christianity generally (Chrysostom and others, including Flatt and Winzer; comp. Rückert and Köllner); not to the Gospel (Fritzsche); and not to the εἰρήνη (Mehring, Stölting), which would yield a tame tautology.—The demonstrative ταύτην implies something of triumph. Compare Photius. The joyful consciousness of the Apostle is still full of the high blessing of grace, which he has just expressed in the terms δικαίωσις and δικαιωθέντες.

[1147] .τ.λ. καὶ τὰ λοιπά.

[1151] l. and others; and other passages; and other editions.Romans 5:2. διʼ οὗ καὶ: through whom also. To the fact that we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ corresponds this other fact, that through Him we have had (and have) our access into this grace, etc. προσαγωγὴ has a certain touch of formality. Christ has “introduced” us to our standing as Christians: cf. Ephesians 2:18, 1 Peter 3:18. τῇ πίστει: by the faith referred to in Romans 5:1. Not to be construed with εἰς τὴν χάριν ταύτην: which would be without analogy in the N.T. The grace is substantially one with justification: it is the new spiritual atmosphere in which the believer lives as reconciled to God. καυχώμεθα, which always implies the expression of feeling, is to be co-ordinated with ἔχομεν. ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ: on the basis of hope in the glory of God, i.e., of partaking in the glory of the heavenly kingdom. For ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι, cf. Romans 4:18 : the construction is not elsewhere found with καυχᾶσθαι.2. by whom] Lit. through whom; the same construction as that just before.

also] i.e. “we owe to Him our entrance to grace, as well as our standing in it.”

we have access] Lit. we have had; “we have found.” The time-reference is to a past reception resulting in present possession.—“Access:”—lit. the introduction; “our introduction.” Same word as Ephesians 2:18; Ephesians 3:12 (though the reference there is not precisely that here), and 1 Peter 3:18 (where E. V. has “bring us to God”). The idea is of the acceptance of the acquitted. Both ideas, acquittal by a Judge and acceptance by a reconciled Father, reside in Justification.

by faith] Our side of the matter. The Lord’s “introduction” of us to His Father’s acceptance takes effect individually when we individually believe.

this grace] i.e. “acceptance” (Ephesians 1:6) and resulting “peace.” The word recalls the fact that acceptance, as previously proved (see ch. 4), is “according to grace,” not debt.

wherein we stand] The word “stand” is in contrast to the “fall” of the rejected and condemned. See Romans 11:20; also Psalm 1:5; Psalm 130:3; Revelation 6:17; and 1 Corinthians 15:1, where the context gives the idea of acceptance and safety, as here. That of perseverance (as in Acts 26:22, E. V. “continue”) may also be present; but the context shews that acceptance is at least the main point.

rejoice] A word elsewhere rendered “glory” (as just below, Romans 5:3), or “boast.” See on Romans 4:2. The reasoning here rises, from the foundation-truth of lawful justification, to the holy elevations of consequent joy and energy in the justified.

in hope] Lit. on hope. Perhaps here (as in Romans 4:18, q. v.) the “hope” is objective; “the hope set before us” (Hebrews 6:18), i.e. the promise and pledges of glory. On this our joy is based.

the glory of God] For commentary, see Romans 8:18; Romans 8:21; Romans 8:30.—The eternal bliss of the justified is called “the glory of God” because it is a state of joy, love, majesty, and holiness, bestowed by God; in the presence of God; and being in its essence the Vision of God, and likeness to Him. Cp. John 17:24; 2 Corinthians 4:17; Php 3:21; Colossians 1:27; 2 Timothy 2:10; 1 Peter 4:13; Revelation 21:11; Revelation 21:23.—This ver. is a brief anticipation of ch. 8.Romans 5:2. Προσαγωγὴν, access) Ephesians 2:18; Ephesians 3:12.—ἐσχήκαμεν, we have had) the preterite antithetic to the present, we have, Romans 5:1. Justification is access unto grace; peace is the state of permanent remaining in grace, which removes the enmity. So, accordingly, Paul in his salutations usually joins them together, grace to you and peace; comp. Numbers 6:25-26. It comprehends both the past and present; and, presently after, speaking of hope, the future; wherefore construe the words in this connection, we have peace and we [rejoice] glory.—ἐν ᾑ, in which) Grace always remains grace; it never becomes debt.—ἐστήκαμεν, we have stood) we have obtained a standing-place.—καυχώμεθα, [rejoice] we glory) in a manner new and true; comp. ch. Romans 3:27.—ἐπ ἐλπίδι τῆς δόξης τοῦ Θεοῦ, in [over, concerning, ‘super’] hope of the glory of God) comp. ch. Romans 3:23, Romans 8:30; Judges 1:24. Christ in us, the hope of glory, Colossians 1:27; John 17:22. Therefore, glory is not glorying itself, but is its surest objects, as regards the future.Verse 2. - Through whom also we have (rather, have had - ἐδχήκαμεν ( ρεφερρινγ το the past time of conversion and baptism, but with the idea of continuance expressed by the perfect) the (or, our) access by faith (the words, "by faith," which are not required, are absent from many manuscripts) into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice (properly, glory, καυχώμεθα, the same word as in the following verse, and most usually so rendered elsewhere, though sometimes by "boast." Our translators seem in this verse to have departed from their usual rendering because of the substantive "glory," in a different sense, which follows) in hope of the glory of God. Προσαγωγὴ (translated "access") occurs in the same sense in Ephesians 2:18 and Ephesians 3:12; in both cases, as here, with the article, so as to denote some well-known access or approach. It means the access to the holy God, which had been barred by sin, but which has been opened to us through Christ (cf. Hebrews 10:19). It is a question whether εἰς τὴν χάριν is properly taken (as in the Authorized Version) in immediate connection with προσαγωγὴν, as denoting that into which we have our access. In Ephesians 2:18 the word is followed by the more suitable preposition πρὸς, the phrase being, "access to the Father;" and this may be understood here, the sense being, "We have through Christ our access (to the Father) unto (ie. so as to result in) the state of grace and acceptance in which we now stand." As to "the glory of God," see above on Romans 3:23. Here our hoped-for future participation in the Divine glory is more distinctly intimated by the words, ἐπ ἐλπίδι. This last phrase bears the same sense as in 1 Corinthians 9:10, and probably in Romans 4:18 above. It does not mean that hope is that wherein we glory, but that, being in a state of hope, we glory. Access (προσαγωγὴν)

Used only by Paul. Compare Ephesians 2:18; Ephesians 3:12. Lit., the act of bringing to. Hence some insist on the transitive sense, introduction. Compare 1 Peter 3:18; Ephesians 2:13. The transitive sense predominates in classical Greek, but there are undoubted instances of the intransitive sense in later Greek, and some illustrations are cited from Xenophon, though their meaning is disputed.

Into this grace

Grace is conceived as a field into which we are brought. Compare Galatians 1:6; Galatians 5:4; 1 Peter 5:12. The; state of justification which is preeminently a matter of grace.

In hope (ἐπ' ἐλπίδι)

Lit., on the ground of hope.

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