Romans 9:18
Parallel Verses
New International Version
Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.

New Living Translation
So you see, God chooses to show mercy to some, and he chooses to harden the hearts of others so they refuse to listen.

English Standard Version
So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.

New American Standard Bible
So then He has mercy on whom He desires, and He hardens whom He desires.

King James Bible
Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
So then, He shows mercy to those He wants to, and He hardens those He wants to harden.

International Standard Version
Therefore, God has mercy on whomever he chooses, and he hardens the heart of whomever he chooses.

NET Bible
So then, God has mercy on whom he chooses to have mercy, and he hardens whom he chooses to harden.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
So then, he shows compassion on whomever he will, and whomever he will, he hardens.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Therefore, if God wants to be kind to anyone, he will be. If he wants to make someone stubborn, he will.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Therefore he has mercy on whom he will have mercy, and he hardens whom he will.

King James 2000 Bible
Therefore has he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardens.

American King James Version
Therefore has he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardens.

American Standard Version
So then he hath mercy on whom he will, and whom he will be hardeneth.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will; and whom he will, he hardeneth.

Darby Bible Translation
So then, to whom he will he shews mercy, and whom he will he hardens.

English Revised Version
So then he hath mercy on whom he will, and whom he will he hardeneth.

Webster's Bible Translation
Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.

Weymouth New Testament
This is a proof that wherever He chooses He shows mercy, and wherever he chooses He hardens the heart.

World English Bible
So then, he has mercy on whom he desires, and he hardens whom he desires.

Young's Literal Translation
so, then, to whom He willeth, He doth kindness, and to whom He willeth, He doth harden.
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

9:14-24 Whatever God does, must be just. Wherein the holy, happy people of God differ from others, God's grace alone makes them differ. In this preventing, effectual, distinguishing grace, he acts as a benefactor, whose grace is his own. None have deserved it; so that those who are saved, must thank God only; and those who perish, must blame themselves only, Hos 13:9. God is bound no further than he has been pleased to bind himself by his own covenant and promise, which is his revealed will. And this is, that he will receive, and not cast out, those that come to Christ; but the drawing of souls in order to that coming, is an anticipating, distinguishing favour to whom he will. Why does he yet find fault? This is not an objection to be made by the creature against his Creator, by man against God. The truth, as it is in Jesus, abases man as nothing, as less than nothing, and advances God as sovereign Lord of all. Who art thou that art so foolish, so feeble, so unable to judge the Divine counsels? It becomes us to submit to him, not to reply against him. Would not men allow the infinite God the same sovereign right to manage the affairs of the creation, as the potter exercises in disposing of his clay, when of the same lump he makes one vessel to a more honourable, and one to a meaner use? God could do no wrong, however it might appear to men. God will make it appear that he hates sin. Also, he formed vessels filled with mercy. Sanctification is the preparation of the soul for glory. This is God's work. Sinners fit themselves for hell, but it is God who prepares saints for heaven; and all whom God designs for heaven hereafter, he fits for heaven now. Would we know who these vessels of mercy are? Those whom God has called; and these not of the Jews only, but of the Gentiles. Surely there can be no unrighteousness in any of these Divine dispensations. Nor in God's exercising long-suffering, patience, and forbearance towards sinners under increasing guilt, before he brings utter destruction upon them. The fault is in the hardened sinner himself. As to all who love and fear God, however such truths appear beyond their reason to fathom, yet they should keep silence before him. It is the Lord alone who made us to differ; we should adore his pardoning mercy and new-creating grace, and give diligence to make our calling and election sure.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will,.... These are the express words of the former testimony: it follows,

and whom he will he hardeneth; which is the just and natural consequence of what is contained in the latter; for if God could, or he did, without any injustice, raise up Pharaoh, and harden his heart against him and his people, that he might rise up against him and destroy him by his power for his own glory, then he may harden any other person, and even whom he will: now this hardening of men's hearts may be understood in perfect agreement with the justice and holiness of God: men first harden their own hearts by sinning, as Pharaoh did; what God does, is by leaving them to the hardness of their hearts, denying them that grace which only can soften them, and which he is not obliged to give, and therefore does them no injustice in withholding it from them; by sending them both mercies and judgments, which through the corruption of their hearts, are the means of the greater hardening of them; so judgments in the case of Pharaoh, and mercies in the case of others; see Isaiah 6:10; by delivering them up into the hands of Satan, and to their own lusts, which they themselves approve of; and by giving them up to a judicial blindness and hardness of heart, as a just punishment for their impieties.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

18. Therefore hath he—"So then he hath." The result then is that He hath

mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth—by judicially abandoning them to the hardening influence of sin itself (Ps 81:11, 12; Ro 1:24, 26, 28; Heb 3:8, 13), and of the surrounding incentives to it (Mt 24:12; 1Co 15:38; 2Th 2:17).

Second objection to the doctrine of Divine Sovereignty:

Romans 9:18 Additional Commentaries
Context
God's Sovereign Choice
17For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, "FOR THIS VERY PURPOSE I RAISED YOU UP, TO DEMONSTRATE MY POWER IN YOU, AND THAT MY NAME MIGHT BE PROCLAIMED THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE EARTH." 18So then He has mercy on whom He desires, and He hardens whom He desires.
Cross References
Exodus 4:21
The LORD said to Moses, "When you return to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders I have given you the power to do. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

Exodus 7:3
But I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and though I multiply my signs and wonders in Egypt,

Exodus 9:12
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart and he would not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the LORD had said to Moses.

Exodus 10:1
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials so that I may perform these signs of mine among them

Exodus 10:20
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let the Israelites go.

Exodus 10:27
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he was not willing to let them go.

Exodus 11:10
Moses and Aaron performed all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let the Israelites go out of his country.

Exodus 14:4
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and he will pursue them. But I will gain glory for myself through Pharaoh and all his army, and the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD." So the Israelites did this.

Exodus 14:17
I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians so that they will go in after them. And I will gain glory through Pharaoh and all his army, through his chariots and his horsemen.

Deuteronomy 2:30
But Sihon king of Heshbon refused to let us pass through. For the LORD your God had made his spirit stubborn and his heart obstinate in order to give him into your hands, as he has now done.

Joshua 11:20
For it was the LORD himself who hardened their hearts to wage war against Israel, so that he might destroy them totally, exterminating them without mercy, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

John 12:40
"He has blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts, so they can neither see with their eyes, nor understand with their hearts, nor turn--and I would heal them."

Romans 11:7
What then? What the people of Israel sought so earnestly they did not obtain. The elect among them did, but the others were hardened,

Romans 11:25
I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in,
Treasury of Scripture

Therefore has he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardens.

hath.

Romans 9:15,16 For he said to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, …

Romans 5:20,21 Moreover the law entered, that the offense might abound. But where …

Ephesians 1:6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he has made us accepted …

will he.

Romans 1:24-28 Why God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their …

Romans 11:7,8 What then? Israel has not obtained that which he seeks for; but the …

See on

Exodus 4:21 And the LORD said to Moses, When you go to return into Egypt, see …

Exodus 7:13 And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he listened not to them; as …

Deuteronomy 2:30 But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him: for the LORD …

Joshua 11:20 For it was of the LORD to harden their hearts, that they should come …

Isaiah 63:17 O LORD, why have you made us to err from your ways, and hardened …

Matthew 13:14,15 And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which said, By hearing …

Acts 28:26-28 Saying, Go to this people, and say, Hearing you shall hear, and shall …

2 Thessalonians 2:10-12 And with all delusion of unrighteousness in them that perish; because …

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