|New International Version (©2011)|
Isn't this the cup my master drinks from and also uses for divination? This is a wicked thing you have done.'"
New Living Translation (©2007)
Why have you stolen my master's silver cup, which he uses to predict the future? What a wicked thing you have done!'"
English Standard Version (©2001)
Is it not from this that my lord drinks, and by this that he practices divination? You have done evil in doing this.’”
New American Standard Bible (©1995)
'Is not this the one from which my lord drinks and which he indeed uses for divination? You have done wrong in doing this.'"
King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and whereby indeed he divineth? ye have done evil in so doing.
Holman Christian Standard Bible (©2009)
Isn't this the cup that my master drinks from and uses for divination? What you have done is wrong!'"
International Standard Version (©2012)
Don't you have the cup that my master uses to drink from and also uses to practice divination? You're wrong to have done this.'"
NET Bible (©2006)
Doesn't my master drink from this cup and use it for divination? You have done wrong!'"
GOD'S WORD® Translation (©1995)
Isn't this the cup that my master drinks from and that he uses for telling the future? What you have done is evil!'"
King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
Is not this it from which my lord drinks, and by which indeed he divines? you have done evil in so doing.
American King James Version
Is not this it in which my lord drinks, and whereby indeed he divines? you have done evil in so doing.
American Standard Version
Is not this that in which my lord drinketh, and whereby he indeed divineth? ye have done evil in so doing.
The cup which you have stolen is that in which my lord drinketh, and in which he is wont to divine: you have done a very evil thing.
Darby Bible Translation
Is not this it in which my lord drinks, and in which indeed he divines? Ye have done evil in what ye have done.
English Revised Version
Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and whereby he indeed divineth? ye have done evil in so doing.
Webster's Bible Translation
Is not this the cup in which my lord drinketh, and by which indeed he divineth? ye have done evil in so doing.
World English Bible
Isn't this that from which my lord drinks, and by which he indeed divines? You have done evil in so doing.'"
Young's Literal Translation
Is not this that with which my lord drinketh? and he observeth diligently with it; ye have done evil in that which ye have done.'
|Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary|
44:1-17 Joseph tried how his brethren felt towards Benjamin. Had they envied and hated the other son of Rachel as they had hated him, and if they had the same want of feeling towards their father Jacob as heretofore, they would now have shown it. When the cup was found upon Benjamin, they would have a pretext for leaving him to be a slave. But we cannot judge what men are now, by what they have been formerly; nor what they will do, by what they have done. The steward charged them with being ungrateful, rewarding evil for good; with folly, in taking away the cup of daily use, which would soon be missed, and diligent search made for it; for so it may be read, Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, as having a particular fondness for it, and for which he would search thoroughly? Or, By which, leaving it carelessly at your table, he would make trial whether you were honest men or not? They throw themselves upon Joseph's mercy, and acknowledge the righteousness of God, perhaps thinking of the injury they had formerly done to Joseph, for which they thought God was now reckoning with them. Even in afflictions wherein we believe ourselves wronged by men, we must own that God is righteous, and finds out our sin.
Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible
Is not this it, in which my lord drinketh,.... Which was for his own particular use, and so the more ungrateful in them to take it:
and whereby indeed he divineth? according to our version and others, Joseph is here represented by his steward as a diviner or soothsayer, and so he might be thought to be by the Egyptians, from being such an exact interpreter of dreams, foretelling things to come, and that he made his divinations by the silver cup; and we are told that the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and Egyptians, used to fill basins with water, in which they put plates of silver and precious stones, marked with certain characters, and pronouncing certain words, called to the devil, who uttered a voice in the water like an hissing, and returned answers to the things inquired about (i): a like practice is used by the Africans now (k); which method Andronicus took to know who would be his successor, but was reckoned among the most infamous and scandalous parts of the magic art (l) wherefore, as Joseph never practised any thing of this kind, so neither would he dissemble, or make as if he did; though it must be owned that the Arabs (m) in Egypt at this day pretend to consult with the cup and divine by it: but the words will bear another version and sense, for it may signify to tempt, to try, to make an experiment, and by experience to know a thing, as in Genesis 30:27; and so the Arabic version, "and indeed he hath tried you by it": so Aben Ezra interprets it of his trying of them by it, whether they were thieves or not, whether they were a parcel of light fingered filching fellows: the cup, he pretends, was set before them, and he turned himself another way, either Joseph or the steward, and they took the opportunity of carrying it off; or else, as others think, he tried them by drinking in it very freely and liberally, what sort of men they were, how they would behave themselves in their cups, when truth is commonly spoke, the wit being out when the wine is in: but of these two senses the former is to be preferred; though it seems best of all to understand this not of the cup as the instrument by which he tried, searched, and inquired into things, but as the object searched after and inquired of; for the word signifies to inquire, and make a strict observation of things, and thereby make shrewd guesses and conjectures, as in 1 Kings 20:33; and so the sense is, either according to R. Jonah (n), that his master would diligently inquire of the soothsayers concerning it, in order to find out who took it away, and so Ben Melech; for the words may be rendered, "for which he certainly makes", or has made, or will make "divination", which agrees with Genesis 44:15; for if the cup was gone, how could he make divination with it? it must be for it; or indeed they might well conclude themselves, that as such a thing would soon be missed, diligent inquiry would be made after it, and it would be at once conjectured that it was taken away, not by any of the household, but by those strangers that had dined with Joseph; and a man of his sagacity and penetration would soon find it out, and therefore it was madness and folly to do such an action, and think to get off clear:
ye have done evil in so doing: both a mad and foolish action, and a base, wicked, and ungrateful one, as well as what was infamous and scandalous; for nothing was reckoned more so than for a guest at a prince's table to carry away a cup, or anything of that kind, with him: so Claudius the Roman emperor, a guest of his, the day before, having taken away a golden cup, as was supposed, ordered an earthen one to be put in its place (o), which was a putting him to public shame and reproach: Dioxippus the Athenian, being at table with Alexander the great, a golden cup was taken away privately, by some that envied him; and the hint being given as if he had done it, all eyes were turned on him as the thief, which he could not bear, but went out, and wrote a letter to the king, and then killed himself (p).
(i) Julius Serenus de fato, l. 9. c. 18. apud Rivet. Exercit. 165. p. 808. (k) R. Leo. African. Descriptio Africae, l. 3. p. 335. (l) Nic. Choniates in Andronico, l. 2.((m) Norden's Travels in Egypt, vol. 2. p. 150. (n) Apud Aben Ezram in loc. (o) Suetonius in Vita Claudii, c. 32. (p) Curtii Hist. l. 9. c. 7.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
5. Is not this it in which my lord drinketh—not only kept for the governor's personal use, but whereby he divines. Divination by cups, to ascertain the course of futurity, was one of the prevalent superstitions of ancient Egypt, as it is of Eastern countries still. It is not likely that Joseph, a pious believer in the true God, would have addicted himself to this superstitious practice. But he might have availed himself of that popular notion to carry out the successful execution of his stratagem for the last decisive trial of his brethren.
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