1 Samuel 1:6
Parallel Verses
New International Version
Because the LORD had closed Hannah's womb, her rival kept provoking her in order to irritate her.

New Living Translation
So Peninnah would taunt Hannah and make fun of her because the LORD had kept her from having children.

English Standard Version
And her rival used to provoke her grievously to irritate her, because the LORD had closed her womb.

New American Standard Bible
Her rival, however, would provoke her bitterly to irritate her, because the LORD had closed her womb.

King James Bible
And her adversary also provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up her womb.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Her rival would taunt her severely just to provoke her, because the LORD had kept Hannah from conceiving.

International Standard Version
Her rival would provoke her severely so that she complained loudly because the LORD had closed her womb.

NET Bible
Her rival wife used to upset her and make her worry, for the LORD had not enabled her to have children.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Because the LORD had made her unable to have children, her rival [Peninnah] tormented her endlessly in order to make her miserable.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And her rival provoked her to anger and sorrow because the LORD had shut up her womb.

King James 2000 Bible
And her adversary also provoked her severely to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up her womb.

American King James Version
And her adversary also provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up her womb.

American Standard Version
And her rival provoked her sore, to make her fret, because Jehovah had shut up her womb.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Her rival also afflicted her, and troubled her exceedingly, insomuch that she upbraided her, that the Lord had shut up her womb:

Darby Bible Translation
And her adversary provoked her much also, to make her fret, because Jehovah had shut up her womb.

English Revised Version
And her rival provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up her womb.

Webster's Bible Translation
And her adversary also provoked her greatly, to make her fret, because the LORD had made her barren.

World English Bible
Her rival provoked her severely, to make her fret, because Yahweh had shut up her womb.

Young's Literal Translation
and her adversity hath also provoked her greatly, so as to make her tremble, for Jehovah hath shut up her womb.
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

1:1-8 Elkanah kept up his attendance at God's altar, notwithstanding the unhappy differences in his family. If the devotions of a family prevail not to put an end to its divisions, yet let not the divisions put a stop to the devotions. To abate our just love to any relation for the sake of any infirmity which they cannot help, and which is their affliction, is to make God's providence quarrel with his precept, and very unkindly to add affliction to the afflicted. It is evidence of a base disposition, to delight in grieving those who are of a sorrowful spirit, and in putting those out of humour who are apt to fret and be uneasy. We ought to bear one another's burdens, not add to them. Hannah could not bear the provocation. Those who are of a fretful spirit, and are apt to lay provocations too much to heart, are enemies to themselves, and strip themselves of many comforts both of life and godliness. We ought to notice comforts, to keep us from grieving for crosses. We should look at that which is for us, as well as what is against us.

Pulpit Commentary

Verses 6, 7, 8. - Her adversary also provoked her sore. The pleasure of this domestic festival was spoiled by the discord of the wives. Peninnah, triumphant in her fruitfulness, is yet Hannah's adversary, because, in spite of her barrenness, she has the larger portion of the husband's love; while Hannah is so sorely vexed at the taunts of her rival, that she weeps from sheer vexation. In vain Elkanah tries to give her comfort. The husband really is not "better than ten sons," for the joy of motherhood is quite distinct from that of conjugal affection, and especially to a Hebrew woman, who had special hopes from which she was cut off by barrenness. In ver. 7 there is a strange confusion of subject, owing to the first verb having been read as an active instead of a passive. It should be, "And so it happened year by year: when she (Hannah) went up to the house of Jehovah she (Peninnah) thus provoked her, and she wept and did not eat." It must be remembered that the Hebrews had no written vowels, but only consonants; the vowels were added in Christian times, many centuries after the coming of our Lord, and represent the traditional manner of reading of one great Jewish school. They are to be treated with the greatest respect, because as a rule they give us a sense confirmed by the best authorities; but they are human, and form no part of Holy Scripture. The ancient versions, the Septuagint, the Syriac, and the Vulgate, which are all three older than the Masoretic vowels, translate, "And so she (Peninnah) did year by year;" but this requires a slight change of the consonants.



Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

And her adversary also provoked her sore,.... That is, Peninnah, the other wife of Elkanah; for when a man had more wives, two or more, they were usually at enmity to one another, as the two wives of Socrates were, being always jealous lest one should have more love and respect than the other from the husband; and this woman provoked Hannah one time after another, and continually, by upbraiding her with her barrenness; and this was another reason why Elkanah did all he could to comfort her, not only because the Lord had restrained her from bearing children, but because also she that envied and emulated her sadly provoked her:

for to make her fret; and be uneasy, and murmur at and complain of her unhappy circumstances: some render it, "because she thundered" (l) against her; that is, Peninnah was exceeding loud and clamorous with her reproaches and scoffs, which were grievously provoking to Hannah. So said Socrates, when Xantippe first scolded at him, and then poured foul water on him: did not I say, says he, that Xantippe first thunders, and then rains (m)?

because the Lord had shut up her womb; it was this Peninnah upbraided her with, and at which Hannah fretted and grieved.

(l) "propterea quod intonabat contra eam", Piscator. (m) Laert. in Vit. Socrat. p. 112.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

6. her adversary also provoked her sore—The conduct of Peninnah was most unbecoming. But domestic broils in the houses of polygamists are of frequent occurrence, and the most fruitful cause of them has always been jealousy of the husband's superior affection, as in this case of Hannah.

1 Samuel 1:6 Additional Commentaries
Context
Elkanah and his Wives
5but to Hannah he would give a double portion, for he loved Hannah, but the LORD had closed her womb. 6Her rival, however, would provoke her bitterly to irritate her, because the LORD had closed her womb. 7It happened year after year, as often as she went up to the house of the LORD, she would provoke her; so she wept and would not eat.…
Cross References
Genesis 30:1
When Rachel saw that she was not bearing Jacob any children, she became jealous of her sister. So she said to Jacob, "Give me children, or I'll die!"

1 Samuel 1:7
This went on year after year. Whenever Hannah went up to the house of the LORD, her rival provoked her till she wept and would not eat.

Job 24:21
They prey on the barren and childless woman, and to the widow they show no kindness.
Treasury of Scripture

And her adversary also provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up her womb.

adversary

Leviticus 18:18 Neither shall you take a wife to her sister, to vex her, to uncover …

Job 6:14 To him that is afflicted pity should be showed from his friend; but …

provoked her [heb] angered her

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