Joel 1:4
New International Version
What the locust swarm has left the great locusts have eaten; what the great locusts have left the young locusts have eaten; what the young locusts have left other locusts have eaten.

New Living Translation
After the cutting locusts finished eating the crops, the swarming locusts took what was left! After them came the hopping locusts, and then the stripping locusts, too!

English Standard Version
What the cutting locust left, the swarming locust has eaten. What the swarming locust left, the hopping locust has eaten, and what the hopping locust left, the destroying locust has eaten.

Berean Study Bible
What the devouring locust has left, the swarming locust has eaten; what the swarming locust has left, the young locust has eaten; and what the young locust has left, the destroying locust has eaten.

New American Standard Bible
What the gnawing locust has left, the swarming locust has eaten; And what the swarming locust has left, the creeping locust has eaten; And what the creeping locust has left, the stripping locust has eaten.

King James Bible
That which the palmerworm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpiller eaten.

Christian Standard Bible
What the devouring locust has left, the swarming locust has eaten; what the swarming locust has left, the young locust has eaten; and what the young locust has left, the destroying locust has eaten.

Contemporary English Version
Swarm after swarm of locusts has attacked our crops, eating everything in sight.

Good News Translation
Swarm after swarm of locusts settled on the crops; what one swarm left, the next swarm devoured.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
What the devouring locust has left, the swarming locust has eaten; what the swarming locust has left, the young locust has eaten; and what the young locust has left, the destroying locust has eaten.

International Standard Version
Whatever the devouring locust left behind the locust swarm has consumed! Whatever the locust swarm has left behind, the young locust has consumed! Whatever the young locust has left behind, the ravaging locust has consumed!"

NET Bible
What the gazam -locust left the 'arbeh -locust consumed, what the 'arbeh -locust left the yeleq -locust consumed, and what the yeleq -locust left the hasil -locust consumed!

New Heart English Bible
What the swarming locust has left, the great locust has eaten. What the great locust has left, the grasshopper has eaten. What the grasshopper has left, the caterpillar has eaten.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
What young locusts leave, mature locusts will eat. What mature locusts leave, adult locusts will eat. What adult locusts leave, grasshoppers will eat.

JPS Tanakh 1917
That which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten; And that which the locust hath left hath the canker-worm eaten; And that which the canker-worm hath left hath the caterpiller eaten.

New American Standard 1977
What the gnawing locust has left, the swarming locust has eaten; And what the swarming locust has left, the creeping locust has eaten; And what the creeping locust has left, the stripping locust has eaten.

Jubilee Bible 2000
That which the palmerworm has left the locust has eaten; and that which the locust has left the cankerworm has eaten; and that which the cankerworm has left the caterpillar has eaten.

King James 2000 Bible
That which the cutting locust has left has the swarming locust eaten; and that which the swarming locust has left has the crawling locust eaten; and that which the crawling locust has left has the consuming locust eaten.

American King James Version
That which the palmerworm has left has the locust eaten; and that which the locust has left has the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm has left has the caterpillar eaten.

American Standard Version
That which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the canker-worm eaten; and that which the canker-worm hath left hath the caterpillar eaten.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
The leavings of the caterpillar has the locust eaten, and the leavings of the locust has the palmerworm eaten, and the leavings of the palmerworm has the cankerworm eaten.

Douay-Rheims Bible
That which the palmerworm hath left, the locust hath eaten: and that which the locust hath left, the bruchus hath eaten: and that which the bruchus hath left, the mildew hath destroyed.

Darby Bible Translation
that which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpillar eaten.

English Revised Version
That which the palmerworm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpiller eaten.

Webster's Bible Translation
That which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the canker-worm eaten; and that which the canker-worm hath left hath the caterpillar eaten.

World English Bible
What the swarming locust has left, the great locust has eaten. What the great locust has left, the grasshopper has eaten. What the grasshopper has left, the caterpillar has eaten.

Young's Literal Translation
What is left of the palmer-worm, eaten hath the locust, And what is left of the locust, Eaten hath the cankerworm, And what is left of the cankerworm, Eaten hath the caterpillar.
Study Bible
The Invasion of Locusts
3Tell your children about it, and let your children tell their children—and their children, the next generation. 4What the devouring locust has left, the swarming locust has eaten; what the swarming locust has left, the young locust has eaten; and what the young locust has left, the destroying locust has eaten. 5Wake up, you drunkards, and weep; wail, all you drinkers of wine, because of the sweet wine, for it has been cut off from your mouth.…
Cross References
Exodus 10:5
They will cover the face of the land so that no one can see it. They will devour whatever is left after the hail and eat every tree that grows in your fields.

Exodus 10:14
The locusts swarmed across the land and settled over the entire territory of Egypt. Never before had there been so many locusts, and never again will there be.

Deuteronomy 28:38
You will sow much seed in the field but harvest little, because the locust will consume it.

Isaiah 33:4
Your spoil will be gathered as if by locusts; like a swarm of locusts men will pounce on it.

Joel 2:25
I will repay you for the years that the swarming locusts have eaten--the young locust, the destroying locust, and the devouring locust--My great army that I sent against you.

Amos 4:9
"I struck you with blight and mildew in your growing gardens and vineyards; the locust devoured your fig and olive trees, yet you did not return to Me," declares the LORD.

Amos 7:1
This is what the Lord GOD showed me: He was preparing swarms of locusts just after the king's harvest, as the late spring crop was coming up.

Nahum 3:15
There the fire will devour you; the sword will cut you down and consume you like a young locust. Make yourself many like the young locust; make yourself many like the swarming locust!

Nahum 3:16
You have multiplied your merchants more than the stars of the sky. The young locust strips the land and flies away.

Malachi 3:11
I will rebuke the devourer for you, so that it will not destroy the fruits of your land, and the vine in your field will not fail to produce fruit," says the LORD of Hosts.

Treasury of Scripture

That which the palmerworm has left has the locust eaten; and that which the locust has left has the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm has left has the caterpillar eaten.

That which the palmer-worm hath left.

Joel 2:25
And I will restore to you the years that the locust hath eaten, the cankerworm, and the caterpiller, and the palmerworm, my great army which I sent among you.

Amos 4:9
I have smitten you with blasting and mildew: when your gardens and your vineyards and your fig trees and your olive trees increased, the palmerworm devoured them: yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the LORD.

Exodus 10:4
Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast:

the locust eaten.

Exodus 10:12-15
And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail hath left…

Deuteronomy 28:38,42
Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field, and shalt gather but little in; for the locust shall consume it…

1 Kings 8:37
If there be in the land famine, if there be pestilence, blasting, mildew, locust, or if there be caterpiller; if their enemy besiege them in the land of their cities; whatsoever plague, whatsoever sickness there be;

the canker-worm eaten.

Nahum 3:15-17
There shall the fire devour thee; the sword shall cut thee off, it shall eat thee up like the cankerworm: make thyself many as the cankerworm, make thyself many as the locusts…

the caterpillar.

Isaiah 33:4
And your spoil shall be gathered like the gathering of the caterpiller: as the running to and fro of locusts shall he run upon them.

Jeremiah 51:14,27
The LORD of hosts hath sworn by himself, saying, Surely I will fill thee with men, as with caterpillers; and they shall lift up a shout against thee…







Lexicon
What the devouring locust
הַגָּזָם֙ (hag·gā·zām)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1501: A kind of locust

has left,
יֶ֤תֶר (ye·ṯer)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3499: An overhanging, an excess, superiority, remainder, a small rope

the swarming locust
הָֽאַרְבֶּ֔ה (hā·’ar·beh)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 697: (a kind of) locust

has eaten;
אָכַ֣ל (’ā·ḵal)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 398: To eat

what the swarming locust
הָאַרְבֶּ֖ה (hā·’ar·beh)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 697: (a kind of) locust

has left,
וְיֶ֥תֶר (wə·ye·ṯer)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3499: An overhanging, an excess, superiority, remainder, a small rope

the young locust
הַיָּ֑לֶק (hay·yā·leq)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3218: A devourer, the young locust

has eaten;
אָכַ֣ל (’ā·ḵal)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 398: To eat

and what the young locust
הַיֶּ֔לֶק (hay·ye·leq)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3218: A devourer, the young locust

has left,
וְיֶ֣תֶר (wə·ye·ṯer)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3499: An overhanging, an excess, superiority, remainder, a small rope

the destroying locust
הֶחָסִֽיל׃ (he·ḥā·sîl)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2625: The ravager, a locust

has eaten.
אָכַ֖ל (’ā·ḵal)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 398: To eat
(4) That which the palmerworm hath left.--The picture is introduced suddenly and graphically. "Behold the desolation!" "Note the cause." The earth is bared by locusts beyond all previous experience. There were different sorts of locusts; as many as ninety have been reckoned. The four names, palmerworm, locust, cankerworm, caterpiller, indicate different swarms of the insect. The first--Gazam--points to its voracity; the second--Arbeh--its multitude; the third--Yelek--its manner of "licking up" the grass like cattle; the fourth--Chasil--its destructive effect. The number enumerated, four, draws attention to the "four sore judgments" with which Ezekiel was instructed to threaten Jerusalem, and to the four foreign invasions by the Assyrians, Chaldaeans, Macedonians, and Romans.

Verse 4. - That which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the canker-worm hath left hath the caterpillar eaten. Some interpreters consider, and rightly, we think, that the prophet enumerates in this verse four different species of locusts. The common or general name is arbeh, from rabhah, to be many; the gazam, or palmer-worm, is the gnawer, or biter, from a root (guzam) which signifies "to gnaw, bite, or cut off;" the yeleq, or canker-worm, is the licker, from yalaqlaqaq, to lick, or lick off; the chasil, or caterpillar, is the devourer, from chasal, to cut off. Thus we have the locust, or multitudinous one, the gnawer, the licker, and the devourer, either as

(1) four different species of locust; or

(2) the gnawer, licker, and devourer are poetical epithets of the locust, or multitudinous one.

These names do not denote the locust

(1) at different stages, according to Credner. Nor

(2) can we with propriety understand them allegorically, with Jerome, Cyril, and Theodoret, of the enemies of the Jews, whether

(a) the Assyrians, Babylonians, and Chaldeans,

(b) Medes and Persians,

(c) Macedonians and successors of Alexander, especially Antiochus, and

(d) the Romans;

or the hostile kings,

(a) Shalmaneser,

(b) Nebuchadnezzar,

(c) Antiochus, and

(d) the Romans;

or those other kings,

(a) Tiglath-Pileser,

(b) Shalma-neser,

(c) Sennacherib, and

(d) Nebuchadnezzar.

The most celebrated Hebrew commentators understand the passage of locusts in the proper and literal sense. Thus Rashi says, "The palmer-worm locust, cankerworm, and caterpillar are species of locusts; and the prophet prophesies about them that they will come; and they came in those days, and they devoured all the fruit of the trees and every herb of the field." Abon Ezra says, "This the prophet prophesied in reference to the locust which should come to destroy the land. In the days of Moses there was one kind of locust alone, but now, with the arbeh, there are the gazam and yeleq and chasil, and these three kinds are joined." He also quotes Japhet as saying "that gazam is equivalent to gozez, cutting, and the mere is like mere in chinmam reykam; and yeleq, that which licks (yiloq) with its tongue... and chasil of some signification (yachsele-nenu) as shall consume it." In like manner Kimohi gives the derivation of the words as follows: "Some say that gazam is so called because it cuts (gozez) the increase; and arbeh, because it is numerous in species; and yeleq, because it licks and depastures by licking the herb; and chasil, became it cuts the whole, from 'And the locust shall consume it' (Deuteronomy 28:38)." When, however, Kimchi distributes the comings of the locusts into four separate and successive years, we must reject his interpretation in that respect. He says, "What the gazam left in the first year, the locust ate in the second year; for the four kinds did not come in one year, but one after another in four years; and he says, ' I will restore to you the years the locust hath eaten.'" 1:1-7 The most aged could not remember such calamities as were about to take place. Armies of insects were coming upon the land to eat the fruits of it. It is expressed so as to apply also to the destruction of the country by a foreign enemy, and seems to refer to the devastations of the Chaldeans. God is Lord of hosts, has every creature at his command, and, when he pleases, can humble and mortify a proud, rebellious people, by the weakest and most contemptible creatures. It is just with God to take away the comforts which are abused to luxury and excess; and the more men place their happiness in the gratifications of sense, the more severe temporal afflictions are upon them. The more earthly delights we make needful to satisfy us, the more we expose ourselves to trouble.
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OT Prophets: Joel 1:4 What the swarming locust has left (Jl Joe.) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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