Joel 1:4
Parallel Verses
New International Version
What the locust swarm has left the great locusts have eaten; what the great locusts have left the young locusts have eaten; what the young locusts have left other locusts have eaten.

King James Bible
That which the palmerworm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpiller eaten.

Darby Bible Translation
that which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpillar eaten.

World English Bible
What the swarming locust has left, the great locust has eaten. What the great locust has left, the grasshopper has eaten. What the grasshopper has left, the caterpillar has eaten.

Young's Literal Translation
What is left of the palmer-worm, eaten hath the locust, And what is left of the locust, Eaten hath the cankerworm, And what is left of the cankerworm, Eaten hath the caterpillar.

Joel 1:4 Parallel
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

That which the palmerworm hath left - Here he begins to open his message, and the words he chooses show that he is going to announce a devastation of the land by locusts, and a famine consequent on their depredations. What the different insects may be which he specifies is not easy to determine. I shall give the words of the original, with their etymology.

The palmerworm, גזם gazam, from the same root, to cut short; probably the caterpillar, or some such blight, from its cutting the leaves of the trees into pieces for its nourishment.

The locust, ארבה arbeh, from רבה rabah, to multiply, from the immense increase and multitude of this insect.

Cankerworm, ילק yelek, from לק lak, to lick or lap with the tongue; the reference is uncertain.

Caterpillar, חסיל chasil, from חסל chasal, to consume, to eat up, the consumer. Bishop Newcome translates the first grasshopper; the second, locust; the third, devouring locust; and the fourth, consuming locust. After all that has been said by interpreters concerning these four animals, I am fully of opinion that the arbeh, or locust himself, is the gazam, the yelek, and the chasil and that these different names are used here by the prophet to point out the locust in its different states, or progress from embryo to full growth. See the note on Joel 2:2 (note).

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

That which the palmer-worm hath left. Heb. The residue of the palmer-worm.

Joel 2:25 And I will restore to you the years that the locust has eaten, the cankerworm, and the caterpillar, and the palmerworm...

Amos 4:9 I have smitten you with blasting and mildew: when your gardens and your vineyards and your fig trees and your olive trees increased...

The learned Bochart, and others, are of the opinion that the four Hebrew words, {gazam, yelek, arbeh, chasil}, respectively rendered the palmer-worm, locust, canker-worm and caterpillar, denote four different species of locusts. See on

Exodus 10:4 Else, if you refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into your coast:

the locust eaten.

Exodus 10:12-15 And the LORD said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up on the land of Egypt...

Deuteronomy 28:38,42 You shall carry much seed out into the field, and shall gather but little in; for the locust shall consume it...

1 Kings 8:37 If there be in the land famine, if there be pestilence, blasting, mildew, locust, or if there be caterpillar...

2 Chronicles 6:28 If there be dearth in the land, if there be pestilence, if there be blasting, or mildew, locusts, or caterpillars...

2 Chronicles 7:13 If I shut up heaven that there be no rain, or if I command the locusts to devour the land, or if I send pestilence among my people;

Psalm 78:46 He gave also their increase to the caterpillar, and their labor to the locust.

Psalm 105:34 He spoke, and the locusts came, and caterpillars, and that without number,

Amos 7:1 Thus has the Lord GOD showed to me; and, behold, he formed grasshoppers in the beginning of the shooting up of the latter growth; and...

Revelation 9:3-7 And there came out of the smoke locusts on the earth: and to them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power...

the canker-worm eaten.

Nahum 3:15-17 There shall the fire devour you; the sword shall cut you off, it shall eat you up like the cankerworm...

the caterpillar.

Isaiah 33:4 And your spoil shall be gathered like the gathering of the caterpillar: as the running to and fro of locusts shall he run on them.

Jeremiah 51:14,27 The LORD of hosts has sworn by himself, saying, Surely I will fill you with men, as with caterpillars...

Grace Before Meat.
O most gracious God, and loving Father, who feedest all creatures living, which depend upon thy divine providence, we beseech thee, sanctify these creatures, which thou hast ordained for us; give them virtue to nourish our bodies in life and health; and give us grace to receive them soberly and thankfully, as from thy hands; that so, in the strength of these and thy other blessings, we may walk in the uprightness of our hearts, before thy face, this day, and all the days of our lives, through Jesus
Lewis Bayly—The Practice of Piety

Visions of Future Glory
In the darkest days of her long conflict with evil, the church of God has been given revelations of the eternal purpose of Jehovah. His people have been permitted to look beyond the trials of the present to the triumphs of the future, when, the warfare having been accomplished, the redeemed will enter into possession of the promised land. These visions of future glory, scenes pictured by the hand of God, should be dear to His church today, when the controversy of the ages is rapidly closing and the
Ellen Gould White—The Story of Prophets and Kings

Cross References
Exodus 10:5
They will cover the face of the ground so that it cannot be seen. They will devour what little you have left after the hail, including every tree that is growing in your fields.

Exodus 10:14
they invaded all Egypt and settled down in every area of the country in great numbers. Never before had there been such a plague of locusts, nor will there ever be again.

Deuteronomy 28:38
You will sow much seed in the field but you will harvest little, because locusts will devour it.

Isaiah 33:4
Your plunder, O nations, is harvested as by young locusts; like a swarm of locusts people pounce on it.

Joel 2:25
"I will repay you for the years the locusts have eaten-- the great locust and the young locust, the other locusts and the locust swarm -- my great army that I sent among you.

Amos 4:9
"Many times I struck your gardens and vineyards, destroying them with blight and mildew. Locusts devoured your fig and olive trees, yet you have not returned to me," declares the LORD.

Amos 7:1
This is what the Sovereign LORD showed me: He was preparing swarms of locusts after the king's share had been harvested and just as the late crops were coming up.

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