Daniel 1:8
New International Version
But Daniel resolved not to defile himself with the royal food and wine, and he asked the chief official for permission not to defile himself this way.

New Living Translation
But Daniel was determined not to defile himself by eating the food and wine given to them by the king. He asked the chief of staff for permission not to eat these unacceptable foods.

English Standard Version
But Daniel resolved that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, or with the wine that he drank. Therefore he asked the chief of the eunuchs to allow him not to defile himself.

Berean Study Bible
But Daniel resolved in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food or wine. So he asked the chief official for permission not to defile himself.

New American Standard Bible
But Daniel made up his mind that he would not defile himself with the king's choice food or with the wine which he drank; so he sought permission from the commander of the officials that he might not defile himself.

King James Bible
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king's meat, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

Christian Standard Bible
Daniel determined that he would not defile himself with the king's food or with the wine he drank. So he asked permission from the chief eunuch not to defile himself.

Contemporary English Version
Daniel made up his mind to eat and drink only what God had approved for his people to eat. And he asked the king's chief official for permission not to eat the food and wine served in the royal palace.

Good News Translation
Daniel made up his mind not to let himself become ritually unclean by eating the food and drinking the wine of the royal court, so he asked Ashpenaz to help him,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Daniel determined that he would not defile himself with the king's food or with the wine he drank. So he asked permission from the chief official not to defile himself.

International Standard Version
Daniel determined within himself not to become defiled by the king's menu of rich foods or by the king's wine, so he requested permission from the chief officer not to defile himself.

NET Bible
But Daniel made up his mind that he would not defile himself with the royal delicacies or the royal wine. He therefore asked the overseer of the court officials for permission not to defile himself.

New Heart English Bible
But Daniel determined in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king's royal food, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Daniel made up his mind not to harm himself by eating the king's rich food and drinking the king's wine. So he asked the chief-of-staff for permission not to harm himself in this way.

JPS Tanakh 1917
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king's food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself.

New American Standard 1977
But Daniel made up his mind that he would not defile himself with the king’s choice food or with the wine which he drank; so he sought permission from the commander of the officials that he might not defile himself.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king's food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

King James 2000 Bible
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king's food, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

American King James Version
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king's meat, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

American Standard Version
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king's dainties, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And Daniel purposed in his heart, that he would not defile himself with the king's table, nor with the wine of his drink: and he intreated the chief of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

Douay-Rheims Bible
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not be defiled with the king's table, nor with the wine which he drank: and he requested the master of the eunuchs that he might not be defiled.

Darby Bible Translation
And Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not pollute himself with the king's delicate food, nor with the wine which he drank; and he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not have to pollute himself.

English Revised Version
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king's meat, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

Webster's Bible Translation
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king's food, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

World English Bible
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king's dainties, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

Young's Literal Translation
And Daniel purposeth in his heart that he will not pollute himself with the king's portion of food, and with the wine of his drinking, and he seeketh of the chief of the eunuchs that he may not pollute himself.
Study Bible
Daniel's Faithfulness
8But Daniel resolved in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food or wine. So he asked the chief official for permission not to defile himself. 9Now God had granted Daniel favor and compassion from the chief official,…
Cross References
Acts 10:14
"No, Lord!" Peter answered. "I have never eaten anything impure or unclean."

Acts 15:20
Instead, we should write and tell them to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals, and from blood.

Leviticus 11:47
You must distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between animals that may be eaten and those that may not."

Deuteronomy 32:38
which ate the fat of their sacrifices and drank the wine of their drink offerings? Let them rise up and help you; let them give you shelter!

Psalm 141:4
Do not let my heart be drawn to any evil thing or take part in works of wickedness with men who do iniquity; let me not feast on their delicacies.

Proverbs 23:3
Do not crave his delicacies, for that food is deceptive.

Ezekiel 4:13
Then the LORD said, "This is how the Israelites will eat their defiled bread among the nations to which I will banish them."

Ezekiel 4:14
"Ah, Lord GOD," I said, "I have never defiled myself. From my youth until now I have not eaten anything found dead or mauled by wild beasts. No unclean meat has ever entered my mouth."

Daniel 1:5
The king assigned them daily provisions of the royal food and wine. They were to be trained for three years, at the end of which they were to enter the king's service.

Daniel 5:4
As they drank the wine, they praised their gods of gold and silver, bronze and iron, wood and stone.

Hosea 9:3
They will not remain in the land of the LORD; Ephraim will return to Egypt and eat unclean food in Assyria.

Hosea 9:4
They will not pour out wine offerings to the LORD, and their sacrifices will not please Him, but will be to them like the bread of mourners; all who eat it will be defiled. For their bread will be for themselves; it will not enter the house of the LORD.

Treasury of Scripture

But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king's meat, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

purposed.

Ruth 1:17,18
Where thou diest, will I die, and there will I be buried: the LORD do so to me, and more also, if ought but death part thee and me…

1 Kings 5:5
And, behold, I purpose to build an house unto the name of the LORD my God, as the LORD spake unto David my father, saying, Thy son, whom I will set upon thy throne in thy room, he shall build an house unto my name.

Psalm 119:106,115
I have sworn, and I will perform it, that I will keep thy righteous judgments…

defile.

Leviticus 11:45-47
For I am the LORD that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy…

Deuteronomy 32:38
Which did eat the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink offerings? let them rise up and help you, and be your protection.

Psalm 106:28
They joined themselves also unto Baalpeor, and ate the sacrifices of the dead.







Lexicon
But Daniel
דָּנִיֵּאל֙ (dā·nî·yêl)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1840: Daniel -- 'God is my judge', the name of several Israelites

resolved
וַיָּ֤שֶׂם (way·yā·śem)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7760: Put -- to put, place, set

in
עַל־ (‘al-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

his heart
לִבּ֔וֹ (lib·bōw)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3820: The heart, the feelings, the will, the intellect, centre

that
אֲשֶׁ֧ר (’ă·šer)
Pronoun - relative
Strong's Hebrew 834: Who, which, what, that, when, where, how, because, in order that

he would not
לֹֽא־ (lō-)
Adverb - Negative particle
Strong's Hebrew 3808: Not, no

defile
יִתְגָּאַ֛ל (yiṯ·gā·’al)
Verb - Hitpael - Imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1351: To soil, desecrate

himself with the king’s
הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ (ham·me·leḵ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4428: A king

food
בְּפַתְבַּ֥ג (bə·p̄aṯ·baḡ)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 6598: Portion, delicacies

or wine.
וּבְיֵ֣ין (ū·ḇə·yên)
Conjunctive waw, Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3196: Wine, intoxication

So he asked
וַיְבַקֵּשׁ֙ (way·ḇaq·qêš)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Piel - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1245: To search out, to strive after

the chief
מִשַּׂ֣ר (miś·śar)
Preposition-m | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 8269: Chieftain, chief, ruler, official, captain, prince

official
הַסָּרִיסִ֔ים (has·sā·rî·sîm)
Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 5631: A eunuch, valet, a minister of state

for permission
אֲשֶׁ֖ר (’ă·šer)
Pronoun - relative
Strong's Hebrew 834: Who, which, what, that, when, where, how, because, in order that

not
לֹ֥א (lō)
Adverb - Negative particle
Strong's Hebrew 3808: Not, no

to defile himself.
יִתְגָּאָֽל׃ (yiṯ·gā·’āl)
Verb - Hitpael - Imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1351: To soil, desecrate
(8) Daniel purposed in his heart.--He was cautious from the first. He feared that he might eat something that had been consecrated to idols. (See 1 Corinthians 8)

Verse 8. - But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king's meat, nor with the wins which he drank, therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself. The Septuagint renders the first clause somewhat paraphrastically, "Daniel desired in his heart," led possibly to this by the more limited meaning assigned to "heart" in the psychology of ordinary Greek speech. Theodotion is, as usual, in close harmony with the Massoretic text. The Peshitta, instead of "heart," has r'ina, "mind." As before noticed, the G reek versions here render פּת־בג by δεῖπνον. Jerome renders it mensa In the Syriac the word is present, as we before said. We have above indicated that it is possible that the original word was not path-bag, but pathura. In regard to the Massoretic text as compared with the Greek and Latin versions, it seems certain that path-bag, if belonging to the text, was only understood in the East - a phenomenon that would be intelligible if this chapter be a condensation and translation of an original Aramaic text, especially if the Aramaic were Eastern, not Western. An ancient feast had always the nature of a sacrifice. It was the case with the Jews: thus in Deuteronomy 12:11, 12, directions are given for sacrificing in the place which the Lord should choose, and they and all their household rejoicing. But if the place chosen were too far, then permission was given them to eat flesh, only they were to be careful not to eat with the blood. It was the characteristic of the classic nations all through their whole history, that the feast should be consecrated by the offering of something of it to the Deity. The immense probability was that this was the case also among the Babylonians. It may be that this consecration of the feast arose from the same justifiable religious feeling which leads us to ask a blessing on our meals. The habit of the African Church to celebrate the Lord's Supper at every supper, was probably connected with this offering to God of what the guests were about to partake. This fact, that every feast had the character of a sacrifice, might easily make these Hebrew youths refuse the royal dainties. So far as animal food was concerned, the careful directions as to not eating with blood made partaking of the feasts of the Babylonian monarch peculiarly liable to bring on them defilement. The fact that Evil-Merodach provided Jeconiah with a portion from his table, and that Jeconiah did not refuse it, does not necessarily militate against the early date of Daniel. Jeconiah probably was not as conscientious as those youths, and, on the other hand, Daniel's influence by this time may have arranged some consideration for Jewish scruples. It is certain that in 2 Maccabees 5:27 Judas and his brethren are represented as living in the mountains on herbs, after the manner of beasts, that they might not be defiled; but as there is nothing parallel to this in 1 Maccabees, we may dismiss the statement as probably untrue. So the whole idea of this action on the part of Judas and his nine companions may have arisen from the case recorded before us. It has all the look of a rhetorical addition to the narrative, and the differences of the circumstances were not such as would strike a rhetorical scribe; but as this abstinence appeared to add to the sanctity of these four Hebrew youths, would it not add to the sanctity of Judas also? 'In the Assyrian feasts the guests do not seem to have sat at one long table or several long tables, as is usual with us. The guests were divided into sets of four, and had provisions served to them, and it is to be observed that the youths before us would have exactly occupied one of those tables. The word used for "defile" (ga'al) occurs in Isaiah, Lamentations, Zephaniah, Malachi, Ezra, and Nehemiah. It is an Exilic and post-Exilic word mainly; the old priestly word lama had not disappeared - it is used in Haggai. It is to be observed that there is nothing about defilement in the Peshitta; it is not impossible that the word is a later addition, only its presence both in Theodotion and the Septuagint renders the omission improbable. There is nothing in the passage here which makes it necessary for us to maintain that the principle of action followed by those youths was one which was generally acknowledged to be incumbent on all Jews. It may simply have been that, feeling the critical condition in which they were placed, it was well for them to erect a hedge about the Law. There may even have been an excess of scrupulosity which is in perfect dramatic suitability to the age of the youths. Such abstinence may well have occasioned the regular abstinence of the Essenes, but this state-merit concerning Daniel and his friends can scarcely have originated from the Essene dietary. It has been noted, as a proof of Daniel's courtesy and docility, that he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself. But to have refused the food provided by the king might have been construed as an insult to the king, and anything of that sort had swift and severe punishment meted out to it. Daniel's request was simply due to the necessities of the situation. 1:8-16 The interest we think we make for ourselves, we must acknowledge to be God's gift. Daniel was still firm to his religion. Whatever they called him, he still held fast the spirit of an Israelite. These youths scrupled concerning the meat, lest it should be sinful. When God's people are in Babylon they need take special care that they partake not of her sins. It is much to the praise of young people, not to covet or seek the delights of sense. Those who would excel in wisdom and piety, must learn betimes to keep the body under. Daniel avoided defiling himself with sin; and we should more fear that than any outward trouble. It is easier to keep temptation at a distance, than to resist it when near. And we cannot better improve our interest in any with whom we have found favour, than to use it to keep us from sin. People will not believe the benefit of avoiding excess, and of a spare diet, nor how much they contribute to the health of the body, unless they try. Conscientious temperance will always do more, even for the comfort of this life, than sinful indulgence.
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Alphabetical: and asked But chief choice commander Daniel defile drank food for from he himself his king's made might mind not of official officials or permission resolved royal so sought that the this to up way which wine with would

OT Prophets: Daniel 1:8 But Daniel purposed in his heart that (Dan. Da Dn) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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