Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Then he called his twelve disciples together, and gave them power and authority over all devils, and to cure diseases.Luke 9:1. [Συγκαλεσάμενος, having called together) Therefore it was no ordinary business.—V. g.]—πάντα, all) All of every kind, which might meet them.—θεραπεύειν, to cure) This depends on ἔδωκεν, He gave.
And he sent them to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick.
And he said unto them, Take nothing for your journey, neither staves, nor scrip, neither bread, neither money; neither have two coats apiece.Luke 9:3. Ἔχειν, to have) The Infinitive may be resolved either into an Imperative or into a Gerund.
And whatsoever house ye enter into, there abide, and thence depart.Luke 9:4. Ἐκεῖθεν, from thence) Let your exit from the house and from the city be at one and the same time.
And whosoever will not receive you, when ye go out of that city, shake off the very dust from your feet for a testimony against them.
And they departed, and went through the towns, preaching the gospel, and healing every where.Luke 9:6. Κώμας, the villages [towns]) The cities are not excluded, but much rather are taken for granted: Luke 9:5.
Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him: and he was perplexed, because that it was said of some, that John was risen from the dead;Luke 9:7. Διηπόρει, was perplexed) They who have not faith are liable to be miserably carried about by the various opinions of others. [And whosoever are given to self-indulgence (whoever indulge their appetites), their disquieting alarms are at once excited, as soon as ever anything falls upon them connected with spiritual matters.—V. g.]
And of some, that Elias had appeared; and of others, that one of the old prophets was risen again.Luke 9:8. Ἐφάνη, appeared) This is put midway between ἠγέρθη, was raised up, and ἀνέστη, had risen again. For Elias had not died.
And Herod said, John have I beheaded: but who is this, of whom I hear such things? And he desired to see him.Luke 9:9. Ἐζήτει, he desired) Any one of the common people that wished, could more readily accomplish that desire. For Jesus was not one wont to enter courts: Herod was not one who thought it necessary to go forth from his court (palace) for the sake of Jesus.—[ἰδεῖν αὐτὸν, to see Him) Whether He was like John, or whether, for the sake of Herod, He would perform a miracle?—V. g.]
And the apostles, when they were returned, told him all that they had done. And he took them, and went aside privately into a desert place belonging to the city called Bethsaida.
And the people, when they knew it, followed him: and he received them, and spake unto them of the kingdom of God, and healed them that had need of healing.Luke 9:11. Δεξάμενος αὐτοὺς, having received them) Adhere closely to Jesus, and give in your name to Him as His follower, if indeed such be your desire: and you will be at once received by Him.—V. g.]
And when the day began to wear away, then came the twelve, and said unto him, Send the multitude away, that they may go into the towns and country round about, and lodge, and get victuals: for we are here in a desert place.
But he said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they said, We have no more but five loaves and two fishes; except we should go and buy meat for all this people.
For they were about five thousand men. And he said to his disciples, Make them sit down by fifties in a company.Luke 9:14. Ἀνὰ πεντήκοντα, by fifties) A convenient number, on account of there being five loaves: and also the men thus formed one hundred fifties; Mark 6:40.
And they did so, and made them all sit down.
Then he took the five loaves and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed them, and brake, and gave to the disciples to set before the multitude.
And they did eat, and were all filled: and there was taken up of fragments that remained to them twelve baskets.
And it came to pass, as he was alone praying, his disciples were with him: and he asked them, saying, Whom say the people that I am?Luke 9:18. [Καὶ ἐγένετο, and it came to pass) A memorable point of termination (epoch or boundary of time), marked at once by Matthew, Mark, and Luke (Matthew 16:13, Mark 8:27). They all, with a remarkable concert of statement, place here the commencement of the last departure of the Saviour to the northern borders (coasts) of the land of Israel. It is near Cæsarea-Philippi that He privately asks His disciples, Whom do men say that I am? And then He informs them as to His Passion. Then He so directs His route, as finally now to sow the good seed throughout the whole land of Israel. After the transfiguration He again returns to Capernaum, passing thence through the middle of Samaria and Galilee: further, in continuation, having crossed the Jordan, He proceeds to the land of Judea from that side; and having at length bid farewell to Bethabara and crossed the Jordan again, He came to Jericho and Bethany.—Harm., p. 367.]—προσευχόμενον, praying) Jesus had prayed the Father that He would reveal Himself to His disciples. For the subject of the prayers of Jesus may be inferred from His subsequent words and actions; ch. Luke 6:12-13 [His praying all night was preparatory to the election of the Twelve].
They answering said, John the Baptist; but some say, Elias; and others say, that one of the old prophets is risen again.
He said unto them, But whom say ye that I am? Peter answering said, The Christ of God.
And he straitly charged them, and commanded them to tell no man that thing;
Saying, The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.
And he said to them all, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me.Luke 9:23, Ἔλεγε, He said) Matthew states the occasion of His speaking thus, which having taken for granted, Luke thinks it sufficient to set down the discourse itself.—πρὸς πάντας, to all) even to those who had not heard concerning the coming Passion of the Lord.
For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: but whosoever will lose his life for my sake, the same shall save it.
For what is a man advantaged, if he gain the whole world, and lose himself, or be cast away?Luke 9:25. Ἀπολέσας, having destroyed himself) when he might have been saved [Luke 9:24].—ζημιωθεὶς, having incurred loss [having become a castaway]) when he might have gained [Luke 9:25] himself.
For whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my words, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he shall come in his own glory, and in his Father's, and of the holy angels.Luke 9:26. Καὶ—καὶ, and—and) The mention of God and His creature is here conjoined. See Jdg 7:18; Jdg 7:20; 1 Samuel 12:18; Hebrews 12:23; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 14:10.—[τῶν ἁγίων ἀγγέλων, of the holy angels) who by their attendance on Him as His retinue, shall subserve to the glorifying of GOD and of His Son.—V. g.]
But I tell you of a truth, there be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the kingdom of God.Luke 9:27. Τῶν ὧδε ἑστώτων) This Genitive may seem to have arisen from parallelism. For the Vulg. has “hic stantes.”
 To stand parallel to the Genitives at the close of Luke 9:26.—ED. and TRANSL.
 So also ab. But “hic stantium” in c; d has “qui hic stant.”—ED. and TRANSL.
And it came to pass about an eight days after these sayings, he took Peter and John and James, and went up into a mountain to pray.Luke 9:28. Ἐγένετο, it came to pass) Impersonal. For with ἡμέραι, we are to understand ἦσαν, as in ὁσημέραι [ἦσαν], daily. So Mark 8:2, in the best MSS., ἡμέραι τρεῖς προσμένουσί μοι.—καὶ Ἰωάννην καὶ Ἰάκωβον, and John and James) Where the most usual order of these names [James and John] is kept, nothing particular can be elicited from them: as in Luke 9:54. But where the order is changed, in no case must this be thought to have been done without purpose. Here Luke puts John before James, who had been put to death long ago, before the time when Luke wrote, inasmuch as John was yet alive, and therefore a better known witness of this most important event: in this respect he writes differently from Mark, ch. Luke 5:37, who, it seems, wrote before Luke.
 The Germ. Vers. has “James and John,” following the margin of both editions rather than the Gnomon in this place.—E. B. DL support “James and John.” But Lachm. with best reading of Vulg. and some of the oldest authorities, has “John and James.”—ED. and TRANSL.
And as he prayed, the fashion of his countenance was altered, and his raiment was white and glistering.Luke 9:29. Εἶδος) the aspect, the expression and look of His countenance.—ἕτερον, altered) The language of the earth does not suffice to express things strictly celestial. So it is said of the godly, ἀλλαγησόμεθα, we shall be changed, 1 Corinthians 15:51.—ἐξαστράπτων. glistering [flashing brightly forth]) the glory of His body shining out transparently from within, and passing through the pores of the garment.
And, behold, there talked with him two men, which were Moses and Elias:Luke 9:30. Ἄνδρες δύο, two men) Who would believe that these were not angels, but that their names as men are added?
Who appeared in glory, and spake of his decease which he should accomplish at Jerusalem.Luke 9:31. Ἐν δόξῃ, in glory) They were like their Lord in this scene [and seem to have obtained a greater degree of glory after the death and glorification of Christ. These two personages are a sample of the coming resurrection and transfiguration.—V. g.]—ἔξοδον, His departure [decease]) out of the world. Comp. Hebrews 13:12-13. The same word occurs, 2 Peter 1:15. The subject was a great one: the term describing it a very weighty one, wherein are contained the Passion, Cross, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension of Christ. The antithetic word is ΕἼΣΟΔΟς, His entrance into the world, Acts 13:24.
 Appropriately it was used by one who had himself been an eye-witness of the transfiguration, and who was divinely taught the connection of the ἔξοδος with the δόξα, 1 Peter 1:11.—ED. and TRANSL.
But Peter and they that were with him were heavy with sleep: and when they were awake, they saw his glory, and the two men that stood with him.Luke 9:32. Σὺν αὐτῷ, with him) By this formula Peter is given the precedency over James and John.—ὕπνῳ, with sleep) Comp. Genesis 2:21. [By the mediation of that sleep an oblivion of all earthly thoughts and images whatever took possession of them.—V. g.]—διαγρηγορήσαντες) when they had recovered themselves from sleep. [By the sleep they were now become more alert.—V. g.] It is probable that it was night: Luke 9:37 [“the next day”] seems to imply this.—εἶδον τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, they saw His glory) Peter, who was present at the scene, has described it in the same words, 2 Peter 1:16-17 : so also John 1:14.
And it came to pass, as they departed from him, Peter said unto Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias: not knowing what he said.
While he thus spake, there came a cloud, and overshadowed them: and they feared as they entered into the cloud.Luke 9:34. [Νεφέλη, a cloud) This cloud, as is evident from what follows, let itself down low to the earth.—V. g.—εἰς τὴν νεφέλην, into the cloud) out of which the voice of GOD issued forth. To such an exalted audience (presence) are both of these saints admitted. Exodus 34:5; 1 Kings 19:13.—V. g.]—ἐκείνους, as they entered, etc.) The they refers to Moses and Elias [not to the disciples].
And there came a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him.
And when the voice was past, Jesus was found alone. And they kept it close, and told no man in those days any of those things which they had seen.
And it came to pass, that on the next day, when they were come down from the hill, much people met him.
And, behold, a man of the company cried out, saying, Master, I beseech thee, look upon my son: for he is mine only child.
And, lo, a spirit taketh him, and he suddenly crieth out; and it teareth him that he foameth again, and bruising him hardly departeth from him.
And I besought thy disciples to cast him out; and they could not.[40. Οὐκ ἠδυνήθησαν, they were not able) This demon was one of a peculiar kind. For in Luke 9:1, the disciples are said to have received power over all demons.—V. g.]
And Jesus answering said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you, and suffer you? Bring thy son hither.
And as he was yet a coming, the devil threw him down, and tare him. And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed the child, and delivered him again to his father.
And they were all amazed at the mighty power of God. But while they wondered every one at all things which Jesus did, he said unto his disciples,Luke 9:43. Ἐξεπλήσσοντο, they were struck with amazement) in mind.—μεγαλειότητι) God is, μέγας, great; His works are μεγαλεῖα, magnificent.—θαυμαζόντων, whilst they were wondering) and were also expressing their wonder in words.—εἶπε, said) For this one word the Gothic Version has the following: Quath Pætrus, Fan, du vve veis ni mahtedum usdreiban thamma: ith Jesus quath: thata kuni ni usgangith nibai in bidom jah in fastubnja: quath than; that is, Peter said, Lord, why were we not able to cast him out? And Jesus said, This sort goeth not forth but in prayer and fasting. Then He said, etc. Comp. App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. If Luke himself wrote these words, we must suppose that Peter along with the rest, struck with admiration at the magnificent miracles performed by the Lord, identifies himself with the inability of the disciples to perform the miracle, and acknowledges that if he had been present [which he was not, being at the transfiguration at the time], he would not have prevailed against the unclean spirit. Therefore he inquires the cause why not.
 ABDab Vulg. support the omission of these words. c however agrees with Goth. Vers. in inserting them. They seem to me to have crept in here through the Harmonies and transcribers from the parallel passages, Matthew 17:19; Matthew 17:21, Mark 9:28-29.—ED. and TRANSL.
 However the Vers. Germ. omits this inserted clause.—E. B.
Let these sayings sink down into your ears: for the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men.Luke 9:44. Ὑμεῖς, ye) It is a secret hidden from others.—εἰς τὰ ὦτα, into your ears) The first degree of comprehension: the heart of the disciples was still less capable of comprehending this matter. See Luke 9:45.—τούτους, these) This may also be referred to what precedes.—παραδίδοσθαι, delivered up) He hereby produces an equilibrium in their thoughts, which are thus evenly balanced between His glory on the one hand, and His Passion on the other. Comp. what goes before this ver., and also Luke 9:35; Luke 9:20; Luke 9:22. In joy we are to remember the cross: and the knowledge of His Majesty is a preparation for receiving the word of the cross.
 It proved to be hid also from the disciples themselves, Luke 9:45.—ED. and TRANSL.
But they understood not this saying, and it was hid from them, that they perceived it not: and they feared to ask him of that saying.Luke 9:45. Αἴσθωνται, that they perceived it not) Ἐπίγνωσις, knowing a thing, or understanding it (referring to ἠγνόουν), produces αἴσθησις, sense, or perception and feeling of it: when the former is wanting, the latter is necessarily so.
Then there arose a reasoning among them, which of them should be greatest.Luke 9:46. Εἰσῆλθε, entered [arose] among) The flesh often takes occasion for its motions: and this, even when all things are opposed to it.
And Jesus, perceiving the thought of their heart, took a child, and set him by him,
And said unto them, Whosoever shall receive this child in my name receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me receiveth him that sent me: for he that is least among you all, the same shall be great.Luke 9:48. Γὰρ, for) It is the part of humility to care for little children: it is the part of greatness to receive God.
 And whoever receives a little child, Jesus saith, receiveth God. Therefore “he that is least,” in this sense, “the same shall be great.”—ED. and TRANSL.
And John answered and said, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name; and we forbad him, because he followeth not with us.Luke 9:49. Ὁ Ἰωάννης, John) Comp. concerning this Luke 9:54, [where, along with his brother James, he likewise evinced extraordinary zeal after the glorification on the mount.—V. g.]
And Jesus said unto him, Forbid him not: for he that is not against us is for us.Luke 9:50. Ὃς γὰρ οὐκ ἔστι καθʼ ὑμῶν, ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐστιν, for he who is not against you is for you) So too Mark 9:40, although some Greek MSS. in Mark, and most of them in Luke, have written ἡμῶν for ὑμῶν. To such a degree were the Greek transcribers indifferent in their confounding these pronouns, that the true reading must be decided not so much by the number of Greek MSS., as by the ancient versions, which translate and present these pronouns with greater accuracy of distinction, and also especially by a comparison of the context. The more or the less different is the condition of these concerning whom the expression we and you is used, the more or the less weight in proportion the variety of reading has. And in this passage the variety of reading is not a matter of indifference. For when He is speaking of external association and mode of procedure (conversatione), the Lord used the first person Plural, “Let us pass over to the other side; Lo, we go up to Jerusalem,” etc. But when matters of a more internal character were concerned, He made an appropriate distinction in His language, and did not say, we, but, I, or else, you. “I ascend,” saith He, “to My Father and your Father, and My God and your God,” not, “to our Father and God.” Therefore He does not here say, “He who is not against us, is for us,” but, “he who is not against you, is for you;” and in another passage, “He who is not with Me, is against Me.”
 ABCDabc Vulg. have καθʼ ὑμῶν. BCDabc Vulg. have also ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν. But AΔ have ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν. Rec. Text has καθʼ ἡμῶν—ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν. In Mark 9:40, ADabc Vulg. read ὑμῶν twice. But BCΔ Memph. later Syr. in marg. read ἡμῶν.—ED. and TRANSL.
And it came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he stedfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem,Luke 9:51. Ἀναλήψεως, of His being received up [of His assumption]) An appropriate term, especially after His glorification on the mount: comp. Acts 1:2. There was but one day of His being received up into heaven; but the forty days after the resurrection, nay, even these days before His Passion, were equivalent to a Preparation (parascene): comp. Luke 2:22. There were still imminent His passion, cross, death, sepulture; but through all these Jesus looked onward to the goal; and this feeling of His is imitated by the style of the Evangelist. He who is aiming at reaching the city, and must pass a rugged part of the path to it, does not mention the path but the goal, when he wishes to say whither he is going. [The passages, Luke 9:51; Luke 10:38; Luke 13:10; Luke 13:22; Luke 13:33; Luke 17:11; Luke 18:31; Luke 18:35; Luke 19:11; Luke 19:28, with which comp. Luke 9:31, subsequently bring Him on nearer and hearer towards Jerusalem, and cannot be understood excepting of one and the same journey.——No other journey can be placed between this journey and the Passion itself, excepting that secret going up to the Feast of Tabernacles, John 7:10.—Harm., p. 387.]—τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ, His face) Luke 9:29.—ἐστήριξε) Ezekiel 28:21, שים פּניך, LXX. στηριξον τὸ πρόσωπόν σου. And so often. Add Isaiah 50:6-7, τὸ πρόσωπόν μου οὐκ ἀπέστρεψα ἀπὸ αἰσχύνης ἐμπτυσμάτων—ἔθηκα τὸ πρόσωπόν μου ὡς στερεὰν πέτραν, καὶ ἔγνων, ὅτι οὐ μὴ αἰσχυνθῶ. [A firm resolution is of the greatest use in the case of difficulties.—V. g.]—εἰς Ἱερουσαλὴμ, to Jerusalem) Luke 9:31. Herein is seen the fruit of the ‘appearance’ on the mount [Luke 9:31].
And sent messengers before his face: and they went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, to make ready for him.Luke 9:52. Ἑτοιμάσαι, to make ready) viz. whatever needed to be made ready. The great number of those accompanying Him required this: nor was Jesus wont in His place of lodging to blend with the crowd.
And they did not receive him, because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem.Luke 9:53. Ὅτι, because) It was openly manifest that He was seeking to reach Jerusalem: this the Samaritans regarded with aversion [as being bitter enemies to Jewish ordinances of worship.—V. g.]—πρόσωπον, face) So the LXX. 2 Samuel 17:11, καὶ τὸ πρόσωπόν σου πορευόμενον ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν. “Whithersoever the face is turned, thither is directed the ardour of mind which conquers every difficulty.
And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them, even as Elias did?Luke 9:54. Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωάννης, James and John) Who had been selected above the others to see the glory of Jesus, Luke 9:28, along with Peter, who however in this instance remained quiet. After that they had heard of the approaching death of Jesus [Luke 9:44], on that account the more they try now to preserve His life. They seem also to have had in mind that injunction which is recorded, Luke 9:5 : see Mark 9:41.—πῦρ, fire) It was not for this end that they were named the Sons of Thunder. Christ wrought miracles in all the elements except fire. Fire was reserved for the end (consummation) of the present world.—ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, from heaven) Vengeance being impotent on earth, is readily disposed to stretch out its hand, its wishes, its sighs, to heaven for the weapons from above.—ὡς καὶ, even as) We are too willing to imitate the saints just in the cases where we ought not.—Ἡλίας, Elias) who also did so, as in the present case, against the Samaritans, 2 Kings 1:2, seqq. They at the time had Elias fresh in their remembrance and thoughts; Luke 9:8; Luke 9:19; Luke 9:30.
But he turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of.Luke 9:55. Οἵου πνεύματος, of what manner of Spirit) Namely, of that Spirit which is the Spirit of Christ, and the Spirit of grace. There may be compared with this the fact, that when Jesus prayed on the cross, employing the very words of the twenty-second and thirty-first psalms, yet He did not pray against His enemies, which would have been also in accordance with prophetical psalms, but for His enemies.—ὑμεῖς) ye. The appeal to Elias is hereby proved erroneous.
For the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them. And they went to another village.Luke 9:56. Ψυχὰς, souls [lives]) which are precious.—ἑτέρεν, another) A most excellent and clearly-obvious plan; see Matthew 2:12; Numbers 20:21.—κώμην, village) the inhabitants of which were εὐγενέστεροι, of a more liberal spirit, than those of whom Luke 9:52 speaks.
And it came to pass, that, as they went in the way, a certain man said unto him, Lord, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.[57. Εἶπέ τις πρὸς αὐτὸν, a certain man said unto Him) Three persons are recorded in this place as having been stirred up to follow Christ, of whom the two first, who had been mentioned already by Matthew (ch. Matthew 8:19-22), are, now that the suitable occasion presents itself (ch. Luke 10:1, which follows immediately after), joined to a third, who has been adopted (enrolled) by Luke among the number of the Seventy, as we may conjecture.—Harm., p. 388.]
And Jesus said unto him, Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head.Luke 9:58. Οὐκ ἔχει, hath not) In Luke 9:53; Luke 9:56 an example occurs.
And he said unto another, Follow me. But he said, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father.Luke 9:59. Ἀπελθόντι, having departed [i.e. to go and]) The dative. Here the man takes for granted his departure, does not ask leave for it. A different Kind of departure (ἀπελθὼν, “go thou and preach”) is enjoined in Luke 9:60.
Jesus said unto him, Let the dead bury their dead: but go thou and preach the kingdom of God.Luke 9:60. Διάγγελλε) announce everywhere. The same verb occurs, Romans 9:17. This the Lord was pressing forward at the time with the utmost ardour; comp. Luke 9:62, and the beginning of the following chapter. [It is probable that both this person and he of whom the following verses treat, were shortly after enrolled in the number of the Seventy.—V. g.]
 This is the force of διὰ, throughout, everywhere.—ED. and TRANSL.
And another also said, Lord, I will follow thee; but let me first go bid them farewell, which are at home at my house.Luke 9:61. Πρῶτον, first) This person was one as yet entangled in natural affections; therefore the less indulgence was to be given him in respect of them. Moreover, he seems to have had in mind the example of Elisha, to whom Elijah gave the same indulgence; for Jesus replies in an image derived from the plough (comp. 1 Kings 19:19). The kingdom of God demands souls more unencumbered for its service than the prophetic discipleship: nor must we appeal to Elijah or Elisha, without making the necessary distinctions between the case now as compared with then; see Luke 9:53.—ἀποτάξασθαι, to bid farewell) Perhaps attended with a sumptuous farewell feast.
 Lest they should rob him of that self-denial which the Christian, and especially the preacher, needs.—ED. and TRANSL.
And Jesus said unto him, No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God.Luke 9:62. Ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Jesus) Being presently after about to send forth the Seventy.—βλέπων, looking) He who looks back, strictly speaking, is deranged.—εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ, for the kingdom of God) [the Gospel], viz. for holding it fast and propagating it.
 Delirat, alluding to its literal meaning, to draw the furrow awry in ploughing, Th. de and lira, a furrow; metaphorically, is demented, misses the right Gospel track.—ED. and TRANSL.