Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And it came to pass afterward, that he went throughout every city and village, preaching and shewing the glad tidings of the kingdom of God: and the twelve were with him,Luke 8:1. Αὐτὸς διώδευε κατὰ πόλιν καὶ κώμην, The Lord Himself was passing throughout every city and village [lit. city by city and village by village]) How great was the loving condescension of the Son of God! [There is no need that we should be anxious to form a calculation of the number of His journeyings. The several evangelists record them on different occasions: in fact, all the daily life of Jesus was spent in conferring benefits on all by word and deed.—Harm., p. 315.]
And certain women, which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils,Luke 8:2. Τεθεραπευμέναι, healed) By this the power of Jesus was being shown, as well as the pious affection of the women, in that they were following Him. [Though these women were not present at the voyage to Gadara, which is to be presently mentioned by Luke, although it in reality occurred previously, nor, as it appears, at the journey which the Lord took “in secret” (John 7:10) to the feast of tabernacles, and which is narrated by John alone; yet, from this point of time, which was (distant) by the interval of a year from the Passion, they endeavoured in every way to show their adherence to the Lord Jesus, and to minister to Him: for it was during this very attendance on Him that they accompanied Him to Jerusalem; which is the reason why Luke, ch. Luke 23:49; Luke 23:55, thinks it unnecessary to repeat their names, as he refers to this very passage, ch. Luke 8:2.—Harm., p. 315, 316.] This retinue of women were, from the utmost wretchedness [viz. their possession by evil spirits], admitted to the utmost felicity [viz. their hourly communion with Jesus], just as happened in the case of David’s veteran band. It was a matter of custom among the Jews (as Simonius remarks), that women, especially widows, should relieve doctors and Rabbis out of their private resources, and should, for that purpose, accompany them on their journeys.—[Μαρία, Mary) Somewhat fastidious men, even then, may have been inclined to turn away from her with disgust, on account of her former wretchedness: but she was held in high account with Jesus.—V. g.]
And Joanna the wife of Chuza Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others, which ministered unto him of their substance.Luke 8:3. Ἰωάννα, Joanna) the wife of a husband of high standing in the world. [Her public attendance on the Saviour does not seem to have been without effect, in bringing it about that Herod came to know something concerning Jesus, ch. Luke 9:7.—V. g.]: yet in the household of Jesus Mary Magdalene takes precedency of her.—ἐπιτρόπου, steward).—διηκόνουν, ministered) The record of their ministry to the Lord is an ample reward of their liberality. But at that time, no doubt, many supposed them to be silly women.
And when much people were gathered together, and were come to him out of every city, he spake by a parable:Luke 8:4. Τῶν κατὰ πόλιν) out of every city there was some body of men.—ἐπιπορευομένων) Ἐπὶ is to be referred to the multitude of the people.
A sower went out to sow his seed: and as he sowed, some fell by the way side; and it was trodden down, and the fowls of the air devoured it.Luke 8:5. Ὁ σπείρων τοῦ σπεῖραι τὸν σπόρον, a sower to sow his seed) Conjugate words excite attention.
And some fell upon a rock; and as soon as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked moisture.
And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang up with it, and choked it.
And other fell on good ground, and sprang up, and bare fruit an hundredfold. And when he had said these things, he cried, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.Luke 8:8. Ἑκατονταπλασίονα, a hundredfold) Matthew and Mark add sixty and thirty. Luke, wishing to give but one genus, expresses, as is customary, the highest; in which the others are included.
And his disciples asked him, saying, What might this parable be?
And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand.
Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God.
Those by the way side are they that hear; then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe and be saved.Luke 8:12. Ἀπὸ τῆς καρδίας, out of their heart) Implying the great power of the Devil; [who, however, has less power on the second and third classes mentioned in this place than on the first.—V. g.]—πιστεύσαντες, having believed) We are saved by the word through faith: Luke 8:13. Faith is the appropriate fruit of the word.
They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which for a while believe, and in time of temptation fall away.Luke 8:13. Δέχονται, receive) This is the beginning of faith.—πρὸς καιρὸν) So 1 Corinthians 7:5.
And that which fell among thorns are they, which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked with cares and riches and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection.Luke 8:14. Καὶ πλούτου) Repeat ὑπὸ; comparing Mark 4:19, [where the cares of this world are made distinct from the deceitfulness of riches: showing that πλούτου here is governed, not by μεριμνῶν, but by ὑπό.] Construe the words with συμπνίγονται, they are choked.—πορευόμενοι, setting out, going their way) without any rapid and manifest apostasy (falling away), nay, even with some degree of progress. For this is the force of the verb ילך πορεύομαι. The increments in good and evil go on simultaneously, not only in the case of men collectively, Matthew 13:30, but also in the case of individuals.—οὐ τελεσφοροῦσι) they do not hear the fruit perfected and ripened, viz. faith itself, in such a way as that they should attain the τέλος, or “end of faith, the salvation of their souls:” Luke 8:12 : comp. 1 Peter 1:9. Plutarch, τελεσφόρα δένδρα.
But that on the good ground are they, which in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience.Luke 8:15. [Ἐν τῇ καλῇ γῇ, on the good ground) Lest such a soil should not be sown upon, it is better that some seed should be thrown away on the wayside, etc.—V. g.]—καλῇ καὶ ἀγαθῇ) See Matthew 7:17. A frequent compound is καλοκἀγαθός. Καλὸς has somewhat of a relative meaning, ἀγαθός is absolute.—κατέχουσι, retain, keep it fast) not as on the wayside.—καρποφοροῦσι, bear fruit) not as among the thorns.—ἐν ὑπομονῇ, with patience) not as on the rocky ground. Ὑπομονή answers to the one Hebrew word תקוה, waiting, hope. It is strength of mind, sustained by good hope. It precedes the act of bearing fruit in such a way as even to accompany it: on this account it is here put at the end. This constitutes the sum of Christianity.
No man, when he hath lighted a candle, covereth it with a vessel, or putteth it under a bed; but setteth it on a candlestick, that they which enter in may see the light.Luke 8:16. Τὸ φῶς) the light, not the candlestick [or lamp which holds the light, λύχνον]. Man’s nature no more has light of itself [derived from itself], than the material of the candlestick has it. For this light is added from without, that is, by Divine agency, through the word. Therefore the candlestick does not seek to be beheld, as far as itself is concerned, but serves that the light may be beheld: and the good hearer, like the candlestick, always hears in such a way as that he may be of use to as many as possible by his shining: and he himself, in turn, day by day increases in the brightness of his shining.
For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest; neither any thing hid, that shall not be known and come abroad.Luke 8:17. Γὰρ, for) The light even now already loves to be seen, because it is about to be wholly revealed.
Take heed therefore how ye hear: for whosoever hath, to him shall be given; and whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he seemeth to have.Luke 8:18. [Πῶς, how) With what result and fruit.—V. g.—ἀκούετε, ye hear) Ye especially who are appointed to instruct others.—V. g ὅς γὰρ ἂν ἔχῃ, for whosoever hath) and has accordingly done his best, by word and deed, to effect that the word or light should strike the eyes of others.—V. g.]—δοκεῖ, seems) He only seems to have who does not use. Accordingly, if that too[the semblance of having] be taken away, what, I would ask, will remain left to the wretched being?
Then came to him his mother and his brethren, and could not come at him for the press.
And it was told him by certain which said, Thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to see thee.Luke 8:20. Λεγόντων) The genitive absolute, i.e. when they were saying, לאמר. So the LXX. 1 Chronicles 17:24, etc.
And he answered and said unto them, My mother and my brethren are these which hear the word of God, and do it.Luke 8:21. [Μήτηρ μου, my mother) See Luke 8:2.—V. g.—ἀδελφοί μου, my brethren) Luke 8:1, at the end.—V. g.]—οὗτοι, these) Used demonstratively.
Now it came to pass on a certain day, that he went into a ship with his disciples: and he said unto them, Let us go over unto the other side of the lake. And they launched forth.Luke 8:22. Καὶ ἐγένετο, and it came to pass) The author, in the Harm. Ev., § 49, shows that a transposition has place here in Luke, and also in Mark; and in the same work, p. 264, he considers as most corresponding to the truth such a series of events, as that there should follow after one another in succession: 1) The evening, on which Christ bade them get ready for the voyage (sailing) across (Mark 4:35; Luke 8:22); 2) The morning, in which, having been sought out by the multitude, He declared that He must preach to others also (Mark 1:35-36; Luke 4:42-43); 3) The voyage, and the preaching throughout the whole of Galilee, partly before, partly after the voyage (Matthew 8:23; Mark 4:36-37; Mark 1:39; Luke 8:22-23; Luke 4:44).
But as they sailed he fell asleep: and there came down a storm of wind on the lake; and they were filled with water, and were in jeopardy.Luke 8:23. Κατέβη, came down) viz. from the air.
And they came to him, and awoke him, saying, Master, master, we perish. Then he arose, and rebuked the wind and the raging of the water: and they ceased, and there was a calm.Luke 8:24. Ἐπιστάτα, ἐπιστάτα, Master, Master) An Epizeuxis [a repetition of the same word in the same sentence to give force. Append.] answering to the feeling of the moment.
And he said unto them, Where is your faith? And they being afraid wondered, saying one to another, What manner of man is this! for he commandeth even the winds and water, and they obey him.Luke 8:25. Ποῦ, where) There was some faith on their part, but it was not ready at hand in the emergency.
And they arrived at the country of the Gadarenes, which is over against Galilee.
And when he went forth to land, there met him out of the city a certain man, which had devils long time, and ware no clothes, neither abode in any house, but in the tombs.Luke 8:27. [Ἀνήρ τις, a certain man) A remarkable and extraordinary instance of demoniacal possession.—V. g.]—οὐκ ἐνεδιδύσκετο, wore no clothes) Satan, when he can, reduces man to such a state of misery as even to neglect natural decorum. God loves order, propriety, measure, etc.
When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell down before him, and with a loud voice said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God most high? I beseech thee, torment me not.
(For he had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For oftentimes it had caught him: and he was kept bound with chains and in fetters; and he brake the bands, and was driven of the devil into the wilderness.)Luke 8:29. Γὰρ, for) This assigns the cause of the expulsion, and of the greater suffering which was conjoined with it.—ἠλαύνετο, was driven) with the utmost violence; comp. Luke 8:33; and without his being able to exercise Ins reason, Luke 8:35.
And Jesus asked him, saying, What is thy name? And he said, Legion: because many devils were entered into him.
And they besought him that he would not command them to go out into the deep.Luke 8:31. Εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον, into the deep) תהם, LXX. ἄβυσσος; often; comp. Revelation 9:11; Revelation 20:3. In the deep or abyss, 1) They are not worshipped by bad men; 2) They cannot injure men; 3) They feed (brood) upon their own wretchedness, and do not, however, as yet seem to be tortured in that place of confinement. The power of Jesus Christ extends over animals, demons, and the abyss: and the demons acknowledged the fact.
And there was there an herd of many swine feeding on the mountain: and they besought him that he would suffer them to enter into them. And he suffered them.
Then went the devils out of the man, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the lake, and were choked.
When they that fed them saw what was done, they fled, and went and told it in the city and in the country.
Then they went out to see what was done; and came to Jesus, and found the man, out of whom the devils were departed, sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid.
They also which saw it told them by what means he that was possessed of the devils was healed.
Then the whole multitude of the country of the Gadarenes round about besought him to depart from them; for they were taken with great fear: and he went up into the ship, and returned back again.
Now the man out of whom the devils were departed besought him that he might be with him: but Jesus sent him away, saying,
Return to thine own house, and shew how great things God hath done unto thee. And he went his way, and published throughout the whole city how great things Jesus had done unto him.[39. Σοὶ, unto thee) Every one can be the weightiest witness of those things which have been vouchsafed to himself by the Divine favour.—V. g.
And it came to pass, that, when Jesus was returned, the people gladly received him: for they were all waiting for him.
And, behold, there came a man named Jairus, and he was a ruler of the synagogue: and he fell down at Jesus' feet, and besought him that he would come into his house:
For he had one only daughter, about twelve years of age, and she lay a dying. But as he went the people thronged him.Luke 8:42. Μονογενής, one only-begotten) Ch. Luke 7:12.—V. g.]
And a woman having an issue of blood twelve years, which had spent all her living upon physicians, neither could be healed of any,Luke 8:43. Ἰατροῖς, physicians) Luke, being a physician himself, writes candidly.—προσαναλώσασα) The πρὸς implies, besides his affliction of body.—οὐκ ἴσχυσεν—θεραπευθῆναι) was not able—to be healed, i.e. the physicians were not able to heal her.
Came behind him, and touched the border of his garment: and immediately her issue of blood stanched.
And Jesus said, Who touched me? When all denied, Peter and they that were with him said, Master, the multitude throng thee and press thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me?
And Jesus said, Somebody hath touched me: for I perceive that virtue is gone out of me.
And when the woman saw that she was not hid, she came trembling, and falling down before him, she declared unto him before all the people for what cause she had touched him, and how she was healed immediately.Luke 8:47. Οὐκ ἔλαθε, that she had not escaped notice [was not hid]) She had wished to escape Jesus’ notice.—ἐνώπιον, in the presence of) Faith drives away all unseasonable modesty.
And he said unto her, Daughter, be of good comfort: thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace.
While he yet spake, there cometh one from the ruler of the synagogue's house, saying to him, Thy daughter is dead; trouble not the Master.
But when Jesus heard it, he answered him, saying, Fear not: believe only, and she shall be made whole.Luke 8:50. Καὶ σωθήσεται, and she shall be saved [made whole]) from death. The word was one suited to give hope.
And when he came into the house, he suffered no man to go in, save Peter, and James, and John, and the father and the mother of the maiden.Luke 8:51. Ἰωάννην καὶ Ἰάκωβον, John and James) That John should be at times put first is the less wonderful, as even John alone is sometimes added to Peter: ch. Luke 22:8.
And all wept, and bewailed her: but he said, Weep not; she is not dead, but sleepeth.
And they laughed him to scorn, knowing that she was dead.Luke 8:53. Εἰδότες knowing) Therefore all of these persons must have recognised the reality of the miracle.
And he put them all out, and took her by the hand, and called, saying, Maid, arise.Luke 8:54. Ἡ παῖς, maid) Luke has least of all employed Hebrew idioms.
And her spirit came again, and she arose straightway: and he commanded to give her meat.
And her parents were astonished: but he charged them that they should tell no man what was done.
Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel
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