Zechariah 1:14
So the angel that communed with me said to me, Cry you, saying, Thus said the LORD of hosts; I am jealous for Jerusalem and for Zion with a great jealousy.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
1:7-17 The prophet saw a dark, shady grove, hidden by hills. This represented the low, melancholy condition of the Jewish church. A man like a warrior sat on a red horse, in the midst of this shady myrtle-grove. Though the church was in a low condition, Christ was present in the midst, ready to appear for the relief of his people. Behind him were angels ready to be employed by him, some in acts of judgment, others of mercy, others in mixed events. Would we know something of the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, we must apply, not to angels, for they are themselves learners, but to Christ himself. He is ready to teach those humbly desirous to learn the things of God. The nations near Judea enjoyed peace at that time, but the state of the Jews was unsettled, which gave rise to the pleading that followed; but mercy must only be hoped for through Christ. His intercession for his church prevails. The Lord answered the Angel, this Angel of the covenant, with promises of mercy and deliverance. All the good words and comfortable words of the gospel we receive from Jesus Christ, as he received them from the Father, in answer to the prayer of his blood; and his ministers are to preach them to all the world. The earth sat still, and was at rest. It is not uncommon for the enemies of God to be at rest in sin, while his people are enduring correction, harassed by temptation, disquieted by fears of wrath, or groaning under oppression and persecution. Here are predictions which had reference to the revival of the Jews after the captivity, but those events were shadows of what shall take place in the church, after the oppression of the New Testament Babylon is ended.Cry thou - The vision was not for the prophet alone. What he saw and heard, that he was to proclaim to others. The vision, which he now saw alone, was to be the basis and substance of his subsequent preaching Jonah 1:2; Isaiah 40:2, Isaiah 40:6, whereby he was to encourage his people to persevere.

I am jealous for Jerusalem - Literally, "I have been," not now only but in time past even when I did not show it, "and am jealous", with the tender love which allows not what it loves to be injured . The love of God, until finally shut out, is unchangeable, He pursues the sinner with chastisements and scourges in His love, that he may yet be converted and live . But for God's love to him and the solicitations of His grace, while yet impenitent and displeasing Him, he could not turn and please Him.

And for Zion - Which especially He had chosen to put His Name there, and there to receive the worship of His people; "the hill which God desired to dwell in" Psalm 68:16, "which He loved" (Psalm 78:68; add Psalm 132:13-14). Dionysius: "With great and special love have I loved the people of the Jews and what pertained to them, and out of that love have I so diligently and severely corrected her excesses, that she may be more careful for the time to come, as a husband corrects most sharply a wife most dear to him, if she be unfaithful. Whence in the book of Maccabees it is written, "It is a token of His great goodness, when wicked doers are not suffered any long time, but are immediately punished. For not as with other nations, whom the Lord patiently forbeareth to punish, till they be come to the fullness of their sins, so dealeth He with us; lest, being come to the height of sin, afterward He should take vengeance of us. And therefore He never withdraweth His mercy from us, and though He punisheth with adversity, yet doth He never forsake His people" (2 Macc. 6:13-16).

14. Cry—Proclaim so as to be heard clearly by all (Isa 40:6; 58:1).

I am jealous for Jerusalem—As a husband jealous for his wife, wronged by others, so Jehovah is for Judah, who has been injured wantonly by the heathen (Zec 8:2; Nu 25:11, 13; 1Ki 19:10; Joe 2:18).

So, i.e. when the Father had heard the Son and answered him; this is spoken to our apprehension, and so must be understood.

The angel of the covenant, the Lord Christ. That communed with me: see Zechariah 1:13.

Cry thou; now publish what thou hearest, preach by commission from me, and assure my poor captive, impoverished church, that God, my God and her God, will do good for her.

Saying, Thus saith the Lord of hosts; publish what God, Lord of hosts, and Father of his people, promised to do for them.

I am jealous; I have been jealous against, but now am jealous for Jerusalem; my love is now heightened to a very high degree of compassion for my people, and of indignation against her enemies and oppressors.

For Jerusalem; the city called by my name.

For Zion; where my temple stood; those gates of Zion, which I loved more than all the dwellings of Jacob.

With a great jealousy; that zeal I bear, and now will, show for them, is great to a wonder; it is the zeal of a God who infinitely loves and pitieth his people.

So, i.e. when the Father had heard the Son and answered him; this is spoken to our apprehension, and so must be understood.

The angel of the covenant, the Lord Christ. That communed with me: see Zechariah 1:13.

Cry thou; now publish what thou hearest, preach by commission from me, and assure my poor captive, impoverished church, that God, my God and her God, will do good for her.

Saying, Thus saith the Lord of hosts; publish what God, Lord of hosts, and Father of his people, promised to do for them.

I am jealous; I have been jealous against, but now am jealous for Jerusalem; my love is now heightened to a very high degree of compassion for my people, and of indignation against her enemies and oppressors.

For Jerusalem; the city called by my name.

For Zion; where my temple stood; those gates of Zion, which I loved more than all the dwellings of Jacob.

With a great jealousy; that zeal I bear, and now will, show for them, is great to a wonder; it is the zeal of a God who infinitely loves and pitieth his people.

So, i.e. when the Father had heard the Son and answered him; this is spoken to our apprehension, and so must be understood.

The angel of the covenant, the Lord Christ. That communed with me: see Zechariah 1:13.

Cry thou; now publish what thou hearest, preach by commission from me, and assure my poor captive, impoverished church, that God, my God and her God, will do good for her.

Saying, Thus saith the Lord of hosts; publish what God, Lord of hosts, and Father of his people, promised to do for them.

I am jealous; I have been jealous against, but now am jealous for Jerusalem; my love is now heightened to a very high degree of compassion for my people, and of indignation against her enemies and oppressors.

For Jerusalem; the city called by my name.

For Zion; where my temple stood; those gates of Zion, which I loved more than all the dwellings of Jacob.

With a great jealousy; that zeal I bear, and now will, show for them, is great to a wonder; it is the zeal of a God who infinitely loves and pitieth his people. So the angel that communed with me,.... Having an order from the other Angel, or the Lord of hosts:

said unto me, Cry thou; proclaim, publish, declare in the hearing of the people, for their comfort and encouragement. The Targum renders it, "prophesy":

saying, Thus saith the Lord of hosts, I am jealous for Jerusalem, and for Zion, with a great jealousy; which is expressive of his conjugal affection for his church and people, his zeal for their good, and his indignation at their enemies, and of the vengeance he would execute on them.

So the angel that talked with me said to me, Cry thou, saying, Thus saith the LORD of hosts; I am {n} jealous for Jerusalem and for Zion with a great jealousy.

(n) Though for a time God defers his help and comfort from his Church, yet this declares that he still loves them most dearly, as a most merciful father his children, or a husband his wife, and when it is expedient for them, his help is ever ready.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
14. I am jealous] “I have been, not now only, but in time past even when I did not shew it, and am jealous, with the tender love which allows not what it loves to be injured.” Pusey. Comp. chap. Zechariah 8:2.Verse 14. - Cry thou (Isaiah 40:6). The prophet has to publish two things:

(1) God's love for his people, however humiliated and miserable their present position might be; and

(2) the promise of coming prosperity. I am jealous. The term implies ardent love, which cannot bear itself to be slighted, or the object of its affection to be injured (comp. Zechariah 8:2, and note there; Numbers 25:11, 13; Joel 2:18). For Jerusalem, as the capital of the kingdom; and for Zion, as the seat of worship. On this threatening announcement of the judgment by God, the prophet turns to the Lord in the name of believing Israel, and expresses the confident hope that He as the Holy One will not suffer His people to perish. Habakkuk 1:12. "Art Thou not from olden time, O Jehovah, my God, my Holy One? We shall not die. Jehovah, for judgment hast Thou appointed it; and, O Rock, founded it for chastisement." However terrible and prostrating the divine threatening may sound, the prophet draws consolation and hope from the holiness of the faithful covenant God, that Israel will not perish, but that the judgment will be only a severe chastisement.

(Note: "Therefore," says Calvin, "whoever desires to fight bravely with the ungodly, let him first settle the matter with God Himself, and, as it were, confirm and ratify that treaty which God has set before us, namely, that we are His people, and He will be a God to us in return. And because God makes a covenant with us in this manner, it is necessary that our faith should be well established, that we may go forth to the conflict with all the ungodly.")

The supplicatory question with which he soars to this hope of faith is closely connected with the divine and threatening prophecy in Habakkuk 1:11. The Chaldaean's god is his own strength; but Israel's God is Jehovah, the Holy One. On the interrogative form of the words ("art Thou not?"), which requires an affirmative reply, Luther has aptly observed that "he speaks to God interrogatively, asking whether He will do this and only punish; not that he has any doubt on the subject, but that he shows how faith is sustained in the midst of conflicts, - namely, that it appears as weak as if it did not believe, and would sink at once, and fall into despair on account of the great calamity which crushes it. For although faith stands firm, yet it cracks, and speaks in a very different tone when in the midst of the conflict from what it does when the victory is gained." But as the question is sure to receive an affirmative reply, the prophet draws this inference from it: "we shall not die," we Thy people shall not perish. This hope rests upon two foundations: viz., (1) from time immemorial Jehovah is Israel's God; and (2) He is the Holy One of Israel, who cannot leave wickedness unpunished either in Israel or in the foe. This leads to the further conclusion, that Jehovah has simply appointed the Chaldaean nation to execute the judgment, to chastise Israel, and not to destroy His people. The three predicates applied to God have equal weight in the question. The God to whom the prophet prays is Jehovah, the absolutely constant One, who is always the same in word and work (see at Genesis 2:4); He is also Elohai, my, i.e., Israel's, God, who from time immemorial has proved to the people whom He had chosen as His possession that He is their God; and קדשׁי, the Holy One of Israel, the absolutely Pure One, who cannot look upon evil, and therefore cannot endure that the wicked should devour the righteous (Habakkuk 1:13). לא נמוּת is not a supplicatory wish: Let us not die therefore; but a confident assertion: "We shall not die."

(Note: According to the Masora, לא נמוּת stands as תקון סופרים, i.e., correctio scribarum for לא תמוּת, thou wilt not die. These tikkune sophrim, however, of which the Masora reckons eighteen, are not alterations of original readings proposed by the sophrim, but simply traditional definitions of what the sacred writers originally intended to write, though they afterwards avoided it or gave a different turn. Thus the prophet intended to write here: "Thou (God) wilt not die;" but in the consciousness that this was at variance with the divine decorum, he gave it this turn, "We shall not die." But this rabbinical conjecture rests upon the erroneous assumption that מקּדם is a predicate, and the thought of the question is this: "Thou art from of old, Thou Jehovah my God, my Holy One," according to which לא תמוּת would be an exegesis of מקּדם, which is evidently false. For further remarks on the tikkune sophrim, see Delitzsch's Commentary on Hab. l.c., and the Appendix. p. 206ff.)

In the second half of the verse, Yehōvâh and tsūr (rock) are vocatives. Tsūr, as an epithet applied to God, is taken from Deuteronomy 32:4, Deuteronomy 32:15, Deuteronomy 32:18, and Deuteronomy 32:37, where God is first called the Rock of Israel, as the unchangeable refuge of His people's trust. Lammishpât, i.e., to accomplish the judgment: comp. Isaiah 10:5-6, where Asshur is called the rod of Jehovah's wrath. In the parallel clause we have להוכיח instead: "to chastise," namely Israel, not the Chaldaeans, as Ewald supposes.

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