Titus 2:7
In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity,
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(7) In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works.—Here St. Paul shows Titus that his especial work is the instruction of no one peculiar class or order, or age or sex, but that he is so to fashion his whole life that it may afford a “pattern” to all—men and women, bond as well as free; in all things a ceaseless activity was prescribed to the superintending presbyter in Crete. In everything that was earnest and true, Titus ought to be the one showing an example to the rest; in peaceful, quiet days, as in times of danger and threatening, he must set the pattern—now of useful labour and toil—now of brave, patient endurance for the Lord’s sake.

In doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity.—The older authorities omit “sincerity.” Neither of the terms “uncorruptness” and “gravity” refers to the subject-matter of the “doctrine” or “teaching,” but to the bearing and behaviour of the “teacher.” While he occupies the place of a teacher, Titus must show in his life and conversation “uncorruptness”—apthoria, the word found in the older authorities, the meaning of which differs very slightly from the word adiapthoria, found in the received text. He must, in all those points of his life which are connected with his teaching, show a purity (chastity) and freedom from all interested motives; he must be above seeking for popular applause; but besides this “uncorruptness,” in everything touching public instruction he must aim at a certain “gravity,” not only in his public delivery of sermons and lectures, but also in his general private intercourse with his flock. He must, in a word, never forget he is the chief teacher in the Church of Crete of his Master’s religion.

Titus 2:7-8. In all things — In all these and other respects not here mentioned; showing thyself a pattern of good works — Of every thing amiable and excellent; of every disposition and practice which thou enjoinest to others. Titus himself was then young. In doctrine — Or in thy teaching, namely, in public; uncorruptness — As to the matter of it; or without any mixture of error; gravity — Or seriousness, as to the manner of delivering it; weightiness, solemnity; sound — Or wholesome; speech — Even in private conversation; that cannot be condemned — Or found fault with on any principles of reason or religion: or, as some render it, that cannot be confuted; that he who is of the contrary part — An unbeliever, or an opposer of the truth; may be ashamed — Of his unbelief of, and opposition to it; having no evil thing to say of you — Of thee, of the elders thy assistants, or of any, whether old or young, who are under thy care, but may be obliged, with all his prejudices, to acknowledge that thou art a worthy president of a worthy and useful society of people.

2:1-8 Old disciples of Christ must behave in every thing agreeably to the Christian doctrine. That the aged men be sober; not thinking that the decays of nature will justify any excess; but seeking comfort from nearer communion with God, not from any undue indulgence. Faith works by, and must be seen in love, of God for himself, and of men for God's sake. Aged persons are apt to be peevish and fretful; therefore need to be on their guard. Though there is not express Scripture for every word, or look, yet there are general rules, according to which all must be ordered. Young women must be sober and discreet; for many expose themselves to fatal temptations by what at first might be only want of discretion. The reason is added, that the word of God may not be blasphemed. Failures in duties greatly reproach Christianity. Young men are apt to be eager and thoughtless, therefore must be earnestly called upon to be sober-minded: there are more young people ruined by pride than by any other sin. Every godly man's endeavour must be to stop the mouths of adversaries. Let thine own conscience answer for thine uprightness. What a glory is it for a Christian, when that mouth which would fain open itself against him, cannot find any evil in him to speak of!In all things showing thyself a pattern of good works - Not merely teaching others, but showing them by example how they ought to live. On the word rendered "pattern" (τύπον tupon, type), see the Hebrews 9:5 note; 1 Corinthians 10:6 note; Philippians 3:17 note.

In doctrine - In your manner of teaching; notes, 1 Timothy 4:16.

Showing uncorruptness - The word here used does not occur elsewhere in the New Testament. It means, here, the same as purity - that which is not erroneous, and which does not tend to corrupt or vitiate the morals of others, or to endanger their salvation. Everything in his teaching was to be such as to make men purer and better.

Gravity - See this word explained in the notes at 1 Timothy 2:2, where it is rendered "honesty;" compare the notes at 1 Timothy 3:4, where it is rendered "gravity." It does not elsewhere occur; see the use of the adjective, however, in Philippians 4:8; 1 Timothy 3:8, 1 Timothy 3:11; Titus 2:9. The word properly means "venerableness;" then, whatever will insure respect, in character, opinions, deportment. The sense here is, that the manner in which a preacher delivers his message, should be such as to command respect. He should evince good sense, undoubted piety, an acquaintance with his subject, simplicity, seriousness, and earnestness, in his manner.

Sincerity - See this word (ἀφθαρσία aphtharsia) explained in the notes at Ephesians 6:24. It is rendered immortality in Romans 2:7; 2 Timothy 1:10; incorruption, in 1 Corinthians 15:42, 1 Corinthians 15:50, 1 Corinthians 15:53-54; and sincerity, Ephesians 6:24, and in the place before us. It does not elsewhere occur in the New Testament. It means incorruption, incapacity of decay; and, therefore, would be here synonymous with purity. It should be said, however, that it is wanting in many msS, and is rejected in the later editions of the New Testament by Wetstein, Tittman, and Hahn.

7. In—with respect to all things.

thyself a pattern—though but a young man thyself. All teaching is useless unless the teacher's example confirm his word.

in doctrine—in thy ministerial teaching (showing) uncorruptness, that is, untainted purity of motive on thy part (compare 2Co 11:3), so as to be "a pattern" to all. As "gravity," &c., refers to Titus himself, so "uncorruptness"; though, doubtless, uncorruptness of the doctrine will be sure to follow as a consequence of the Christian minister being of simple, uncorrupt integrity himself.

gravity—dignified seriousness in setting forth the truth.

sincerity—omitted in the oldest manuscripts.

In all things showing thyself a pattern of good works: he is an ill teacher of others who teacheth them not by his own example, as well as by his doctrine; for that physician proves ordinarily little valued in his prescriptions to his patients, whom they know to be in the same danger, and sick of the same disease, and yet refuseth himself to use what he prescribeth others: the patients will surely say to him:

Physician, heal thyself. The apostle therefore requires of Titus that he should be himself a pattern of holiness; and those ministers who are not so, vainly persuade others to be such. People (let ministers say what they will) will believe little danger to be in those courses in which their leader himself walks.

In doctrine showing uncorruptness; preaching not rotten, but sound doctrine; and doing it with authority, and

gravity, and

sincerity; the word is afyarsian, incorruptibility. It is not read in many copies, nor translated by many interpreters; and is much of the same sense with adiafyorian, which is the first word, by our translation interpreted uncorruptness.

In all things showing thyself a pattern of good works,.... It was not enough for Titus, and so neither for any other Gospel minister, to deliver out sound doctrine, and to exhort persons of different ages and sexes to the things which become it, but he should through the whole of his conversation be a pattern of every good work unto them; for they that are the shepherds of the flock, are not only to feed them with knowledge, and with understanding, but to be ensamples to them, as well as they who are under their care ought to walk, as they have them for an example; see 1 Timothy 4:12.

In doctrine, showing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity; the apostle here either returns again to his advice about doctrine, that it should be delivered out pure and incorrupt, free from error and heresy, and every mixture and invention of man's; and with all gravity of speech and countenance, without levity in expression, and airiness of gesture; and that it be the sincere milk of the word that is given forth, and that with all integrity and uprightness of soul: or else this refers to the life and conversation of the teacher, as answering to his doctrine, and going along with it; and the sense is, in, or with doctrine, along with the doctrine preached, let the conversation be pure and incorrupt, free from the pollutions of the world, and from any governing vice; and let it be attended with gravity in word, gesture, look, and dress; and with all sincerity, faithfulness, and simplicity, in all our dealings, either with the saints, or with the men of the world.

{3} In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, {b} gravity, sincerity,

(3) The sixth admonition: that both the pastor's life and doctrine must be sound.

(b) Not such a gravity as may drive men from coming to the minister, but such as may cause them to come in a most reverent and honest way.

Titus 2:7-8. The exhortation by word is to be accompanied by the exhortation of example.

περὶ πάντα does not belong to what precedes, but begins a new sentence, and is put first for emphasis. ΙΙάντα is not masculine: “towards every one,” but neuter: “in regard to all things, in all points.”

σεαυτὸν παρεχόμενος τύπον καλῶν ἔργων] On the use of the middle παρέχεσθαι with the pronoun ἑαυτόν, “show himself,” see Winer, p. 242 [E. T. p. 322] (comp. Xenophon, Cyrop. viii. 1.39: παράδειγματοίονδε ἑαυτὸν παρείχετο).

τύπον, “type,” is in the N. T. only found here with the genitive of the thing.

καλὰ ἔργα] 1 Timothy 5:10; an expression often occurring in the Pastoral Epistles.

ἐν τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ ἀφθορίαν] This and the following accusatives are dependent on παρεχόμενος; see Colossians 4:1. Luther inaccurately: “with unadulterated doctrine, with sobriety,” etc.; Jerome: in doctrina, in integritate et castitate.

ἀφθορία, only in later Greek, is from ἄφθορος (in Artemidorus, ver. 2:95: de virginibus puerisque intactis et illibatis legitur; Reiche; Esther 2:2 : κοράσια ἄφθορα καλὰ τῷ εἴδει), which is equivalent to “chaste,” and therefore means “unstained chastity.” Ἀδιαφθορία (Rec.) is of more general signification; it is also used of virgin chastity (Artac. 26, Diodorus Siculus, i. 59), but denotes in general soundness, also especially incorruptibility. Older as well as more recent expositors (Heydenreich, Mack, Wiesinger) refer the word here to the disposition: “purity of disposition;”[1] but it is more in accordance with the context to understand by it something immediately connected with the ΔΙΔΑΣΚΑΛΊΑ, to which ΣΕΜΝΌΤΗΤΑ also refers. Matthies, de Wette, and others refer it (as does Luther also) to the subject-matter of the doctrine; de Wette: “incorruptness in doctrine, i.e. unadulterated doctrine.” But in that case it would mean the same thing as the following λόγον ὑγιῆ; there is no justification for Bengel’s interpreting ἘΝ ΔΙΔΑΣΚΑΛΊᾼ to mean public addresses, and λόγον the talk of daily intercourse. According to its original meaning, ἈΦΘΟΡΊΑ is most suitably taken to mean chastity in doctrine, which avoids everything not in harmony with its true subject and aim, and it has a special reference to the form (comp. 1 Corinthians 2:1; 1 Corinthians 2:3). So, too, van Oosterzee: “the form of the doctrine which Titus preaches is to be pure, chaste, free from everything that conflicts with the nature of the gospel”

ΣΕΜΝΌΤΗΤΑ, on the other hand, denotes dignity in the style of delivery. Both these things, the ἈΦΘΟΡΊΑ and the ΣΕΜΝΌΤΗς, were injured by the heretics in their ΛΟΓΟΜΑΧΊΑΙς.[2]

λόγον ὑγιῆ ἀκατάγνωστου (ἄπ. λεγ.) refers to the subject-matter of the doctrine: “sound, unblameable word,” in opposition to the corruptions made by the heretics.

The purpose is thus given: ἵνα ὁ ἐξ ἐναντίας ἐντραπῇ] ὁ ἐξ ἐναντίας (ἅπ. λεγ.), qui ex adverso est; according to Chrysostom: ὁ διάβολος καὶ πᾶς ὁ ἐκείνῳ διακονούμενος; but the next words are against this interpretation. According to Titus 2:5 and 1 Timothy 6:1, it means the non-Christian opponent of the gospel, and not the Christian heretic (Heydenreich, Wiesinger).

ἐντραπῇ, “be ashamed, take shame to oneself;” 1 Corinthians 4:14; 2 Thessalonians 3:14. The reason for the shame is contained in the words: μηδὲν ἔχων περὶ ἡμῶν (or ὑμῶν) λέγειν φαῦλον] “having nothing wicked to say of us.”

If περὶ ἡμῶν be the correct reading, it is not to be limited to Titus and Paul, but should be taken more generally. With the reading ὑμῶν, on the other hand, the apostle’s words refer to Titus and the churches that follow his example.

[1] Reiche, who prefers the reading ἀδιαφθορίαν, agrees with the exposition of Erasmus: integritas animi nullis cupiditatibus corrupti, non ira non ambitione non avaritia.

[2] Hofmann wishes to refer both words to the subject-matter and form alike, and so, also, with λόγον ὑγιῆ; but we cannot see why in that case Paul does not specially name the latter.

Titus 2:7. περὶ πάντα is joined with the preceding words by Jerome and Lucifer (ut pudici [sobrii] sint in omnibus), followed by Tischendorf and von Soden. For this use of περί, See on 1 Timothy 1:19. St. Paul’s usual phrase is ἐν παντί (fifteen times in all; ten times in 2 Cor.; not in Pastorals), or ἐν πᾶσιν (ten times, five of which are in the Pastorals: 1 Timothy 3:11; 2 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 4:5; Titus 2:9-10); also εἰς πάντα, 2 Corinthians 2:9; κατὰ πάντα, Colossians 3:20; Colossians 3:22.

σεαυτὸν παρεχόμενος τύπον: The middle is appropriate with σεαυτὸν; see reff. given by Deissmann, Bible Studies, trans. p. 254; but with ἀφθορίαν, etc., the active would seem more natural, as in reff. For τύπον, see 1 Timothy 4:12, and for καλὰ ἔργα, see 1 Timothy 3:1. This exhortation, following νεωτέρους κ.τ.λ., and also Titus 2:15, suggest that Titus was comparatively young.

διδασκαλία here is not doctrine (A.V.), but teaching; thy doctrine (R.V.), including the person of the teacher as well as what he says. See note on 1 Timothy 1:10.

ἀφθορίαν, σεμνότητα, sincerity … impressiveness, integritatem … gravitatem. See on 1 Timothy 2:2. These refer respectively to the principles and the manner of the teacher, while λόγον, κ.τ.λ., describes the matter of his teaching.

7. shewing thyself] The middle participle and the reflex pron. for emphasis; Winer, iii. 38, 6.

a pattern of good works] The simple word—our ‘type’—here with the thing, as in 1 Timothy 4:12 with the person. So the compound with the thing, 2 Timothy 1:13, with the person, 1 Timothy 1:16. The latter is the first rough model of the sculptor; the former, the model when worked over afterwards with care. So in the sister art, the compound (1 Peter 2:21) and the simple word (whence our ‘graphic’) are the ‘pencil drawing’ and the ‘painting.’ See Bp Lightfoot on Clem. Rom. ad Cor. 1. 5, ‘the greatest example of patience.’

The phrase ‘good works’ is perhaps the most striking of the characteristic phrases of the Epistle. See note on Titus 2:3 and on 1 Timothy 6:18. Its exact force in St Paul’s mind seems to be an echo of Matthew 5:16, ‘let your light shine … that they may see your good works (kalos) and glorify your Father.’ The word kalos is ‘good to view as well as good within,’ agathos, ‘good in itself.’ Hence the two are joined to describe ‘a gentleman.’ The Christian religion was felt to be by this time on its trial before the world, and its works must be ‘fair and white’ in the fierce light of ill-wishing scrutiny, which ‘blackens every blot.’

in doctrine shewing uncorruptness] ‘Shewing’ is to be supplied from ‘shewing thyself’ as a second clause; again, the doctrine, as 1 Timothy 1:10, &c.

‘Uncorruptness’ joined with ‘gravity’ points to the absence of corruption ‘from the intrusion of a lower motive’ in the teacher; ‘with no doubtful motive and no doubtful manner.’ For this sense of ‘uncorruptness’ compare 1 Timothy 6:5, ‘men corrupted in mind and bereft of the truth, whose motive in religion is gain.’ For ‘gravity’ as before compare 1 Timothy 2:2. The word rendered ‘sincerity’ in A.V. should be omitted from lack of ms. authority.

Titus 2:7. [5] ΠΕΡῚ ΠΆΝΤΑ) in all things.—σεαυτὸν, thyself) Even thou, Titus, though rather young thyself.—ἐν τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ, in doctrine) Public doctrine or teaching is intended, to which λόγος, the word, in daily practice is presently opposed. In the case of the former, ἀφθορία and ΣΕΜΝΌΤΗς are required, to which the epithets ὙΓΙῆ and ἈΚΑΤΆΓΝΩΣΤΟΝ correspond in the case of the latter, so that the subject-matter and the form may be rightly framed in the case of both.—ἈΦΘΟΡΊΑΝ) viz. ΠΑΡΕΧΌΜΕΝΟς: here we must not repeat ΣΕΑΥΤΌΝ.

[5] οἰκουροὺς) ver. 5, properly, those who keep the house, Proverbs 7:11.—V.g.

Verse 7. - An ensample for a pattern, A.V.; thy doctrine for doctrine, A.V.; R.T. omits sincerity (ἀφθαρσίαν), which is in the T.R. In all things (περὶ πάντα); as 1 Timothy 1:19 (περὶ τὴν πίστιν); "concerning, in the matter of" (Ellicott on 1 Timothy 1:19). St. Jerome and others connect these words with the preceding clause, "to be sober-minded in all things." But it is usually taken as in the text, "in all things showing thyself," etc. Showing thyself, etc. With regard to the somewhat unusual addition of the reflexive pronoun to the verb in the middle voice, Bishop Ellicott remarks, "Emphasis and perspicuity are gained" by it. An ensample (τύπον). Huther remarks that this is the only passage in the New Testament where τύπος is followed by a genitive of the thing. In 1 Timothy 4:12 the genitive is of the person to whom the example is given, in word, in conversation, etc., and in 1 Peter 5:3, τύπος τοῦ πομνίου. Of good works (comp. Titus 3:8). Note the stress laid by St. Paul upon Christian practice as the result of sound doctrine. Mere talk is absolutely worthless. Uncorruptness (ἀφθορίαν, or, as T.R., ἀδιαφθορίαν); only here in the New Testament, and not in the LXX. or in classical Greek. Ἀφθορία has the best manuscript authority; but the sense of ἀδιαφθορία as deduced from the good classical word ἀδιάφθορος, which means among other things "incorruptible" - not to be influenced by entreaties or bribes - seems to make it preferable. The word describes the quality of the teacher rather than of his doctrine. He is to preach the truth without fear or favor. Gravity (σεμνότητα); as 1 Timothy 2:2; 1 Timothy 3:4. This, again, is a quality of the teacher. These accusatives depend upon παρεχόμενος. But the construction of the sentence is somewhat irregular for brevity's sake. Titus 2:7In all things (περὶ πάντα)

Lit. concerning all things. The exact phrase, N.T.o. For analogous use of περὶ comp. Luke 10:40, Luke 10:41; Acts 19:25; 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 6:4, 1 Timothy 6:21; 2 Timothy 3:8.

Shewing thyself (σεαυτὸν παρεχόμενος)

See on 1 Timothy 1:4. The phrase N.T.o. but occurs in Class., as, to show one's self holy or righteous; wise or skillful; παρέχειν to make himself scarce.

Incorruptness (ἀφθορίαν)

Const. with shewing. N.T.o. oClass. lxx once, Haggai 2:18. Omit sincerity.

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