Titus 2
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine:
Titus 2:1. Λάλει, speak) with unrestrained lips; carefully, vigorously, freely.

That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience.
Titus 2:2. Πρεσβύτας, aged men) Supply exhort from Titus 2:6.—νηφαλίους, watchful) in feeling.—σεμνούς, grave) in actions.—σώφρονας, sober) in their mode of living.—τῇ ὑπομονῇ, in patience) A virtue chiefly becoming old men.

The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things;
Titus 2:3. Ἐν καταστήματι [3]ἱεροπρεπεῖ) ἱεροπρεπὴς, observant of sacred decorum.—κατάστημα, behaviour, dress [‘habitus’ exterior], is used here of the ornament of the virtues, which are presently enumerated.—κατάστημα is used in a large sense, as we find in the Greek Lexicon formerly printed at Basle in fol.—δεδουλωμένας, enslaved, under slavery to) It is indeed slavery not to overcome the appetite; 2 Peter 2:19.—καλοδιδασκάλους) teachers of good things, as follows.

[3] The larger Ed. had preferred the plural ἱεροπρεπεῖς, but the marg. of

That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children,
Titus 2:4. Σωφρονίζωσι τὰς νέας, that they may teach the young women to be sober) Titus is enjoined to treat the Cretan women with somewhat greater severity than Timothy was to treat the women of Ephesus, 1 Timothy 5:2. He himself was to admonish the latter; Titus is to admonish the former, by means of the women who were more advanced in age.

To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.
Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded.
In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity,
Titus 2:7. [5] ΠΕΡῚ ΠΆΝΤΑ) in all things.—σεαυτὸν, thyself) Even thou, Titus, though rather young thyself.—ἐν τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ, in doctrine) Public doctrine or teaching is intended, to which λόγος, the word, in daily practice is presently opposed. In the case of the former, ἀφθορία and ΣΕΜΝΌΤΗς are required, to which the epithets ὙΓΙῆ and ἈΚΑΤΆΓΝΩΣΤΟΝ correspond in the case of the latter, so that the subject-matter and the form may be rightly framed in the case of both.—ἈΦΘΟΡΊΑΝ) viz. ΠΑΡΕΧΌΜΕΝΟς: here we must not repeat ΣΕΑΥΤΌΝ.

[5] οἰκουροὺς) ver. 5, properly, those who keep the house, Proverbs 7:11.—V.g.

Sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you.
Titus 2:8. Ἐντραπῇ, may be confounded) The great force of truth and innocence.

Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things; not answering again;
Titus 2:9. Δούλους, servants) namely, exhort, Titus 2:6.

Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.
Titus 2:10. Ἀγαθὴν, good) in things not evil.—κοσμῶσιν, may adorn) The lower the condition of servants, the more beautifully is their piety described. [Even such as they should not cast themselves away, as if it were of no importance what sort of persons they were.—V. g.]

For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,
Titus 2:11. Ἐπεφάνη γὰρ ἡ χάρις, for the grace has appeared) There is a double appearance, viz. that of grace and that of glory, Titus 2:13.—σωτήριος, that bringeth salvation) as the very name, Jesus, indicates [comp. Titus 2:10].—πᾶσιν, to all) [of whom so many the 2d Ed. refers ἱεροπρεπεῖ to the more certain readings, which the Germ. Vers., corresponding to the Gnomon, imitates.—E. B.[6][7] [8] [9]

[10] Rec. Text read ἱεροπρεπεῖς. But Cfg Vulg. read ἱεροπρεπεῖ.—ED.

[6] the Alexandrine MS.: in Brit. Museum: fifth century: publ. by Woide, 1786–1819: O. and N. Test. defective.

[7] Bezæ, or Cantabrig.: Univ. libr., Cambridge: fifth cent.: publ. by Kipling, 1793: Gospels, Acts, and some Epp. def.

[8] Claromontanus of Paul’s Epp.: Roy. libr., Paris: eighth cent.: marked D by Tischend.: Δ by Lachm.

[9] Boernerianus: Elect. libr., Dresden: ninth cent.: publ. by Matthæi, 1791: Paul’s Epp. except Hebrews.

[10] Coisliniana fragmenta: Roy. libr., Paris: Paul’s Epp. def.: sixth cent.: publ. by Montfaucon.

different classes are mentioned, Titus 2:2-9.—V. g.] even to servants, even to the Gentiles; comp. ch. Titus 3:2.

Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;
Titus 2:12. Τὴν ἀσέβειαν, ungodliness) In antithesis to εὐσεβῶς, godly.—τὰς κοσμικὰς, worldly) which prevent men from living soberly and righteously.—σωφρόνως καὶ δικαίως καὶ εὐσεβῶς, soberly and righteously and godly) The three cardinal virtues, from which, either single or united, all the others spring.

Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;
Titus 2:13. Προσδεχόμενοι, looking for) with joy.—ἐλπίδαΘεοῦ, hope—of God) This may be referred to Christ.[11]—σωτῆρος, Saviour) ch. Titus 3:4; Titus 3:6, where the mention of the Father and of the Son is made in very close connection, as here, ch. Titus 2:11; Titus 2:13. [Hope corresponds to the name of Saviour; the appearance of the glory, to that of God.—V. g.]

[11] See my note on 1 Timothy 5:21. This must refer to Christ; for ἐπιφάνεια, is never applied to God the Father, but always to the Son. And when two compatible attributives joined by a copula are thus preceded by but one article, they must refer to the one and the same person: of Him who is at once the great God and our Saviour: τοῦ, viz. ὄντος μεγ, Θεοῦ καὶ ωτ.—ED.

Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.
Titus 2:14. Ἵνα λυτρώσηται, that He might redeem) An allusion to redemption from slavery.[12]—λαὸν περιούσιον, a peculiar people) The adjective would be translated into Latin by superfactum. Columella writes, villica debet separare, quœ consumenda sunt, et quœ superfieri possunt, custodire, “a farmer’s wife should separate what is to be consumed, and keep what may be left over and above.” Comp. περιποίησις, 1 Peter 2:9, note. [The περὶ in composition often expresses something remaining over and above. So περιποίησις, in Peter, something which God reserves to Himself out of all. And περιούσιος, a people peculiarly God’s own above all nations, Exodus 19:5-6; LXX.]

[12] He had been speaking of slaves or servants, ver. 9.—ED.

These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.
Titus 2:15. Μηδεὶς, let no one) 1 Timothy 4:12, note.—περιφρονείτω, despise) The minister of the Divine word, defenceless, unwarlike, is certainly despised by those who do not submit themselves to the word of God, but think that it is only political defences that are of any avail. But perverse hearers much more despise him who teaches somewhat slowly: they ought to be made to feel ἐπιταγὴν, i.e. what is inculcated, as coming from authority; not to draw it to themselves [to wrest the authority from the minister and draw it to themselves].

Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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