|New International Version (©2011)|
a land with wheat and barley, vines and fig trees, pomegranates, olive oil and honey;
New Living Translation (©2007)
It is a land of wheat and barley; of grapevines, fig trees, and pomegranates; of olive oil and honey.
English Standard Version (©2001)
a land of wheat and barley, of vines and fig trees and pomegranates, a land of olive trees and honey,
New American Standard Bible (©1995)
a land of wheat and barley, of vines and fig trees and pomegranates, a land of olive oil and honey;
King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey;
Holman Christian Standard Bible (©2009)
a land of wheat, barley, vines, figs, and pomegranates; a land of olive oil and honey;
International Standard Version (©2012)
It's a land filled with wheat, barley, vines, fig trees, and pomegranates. It's a land filled with olive oil and honey—
NET Bible (©2006)
a land of wheat, barley, vines, fig trees, and pomegranates, of olive trees and honey,
GOD'S WORD® Translation (©1995)
The land has wheat and barley, grapevines, fig trees, and pomegranates. The land has honey and olive trees for olive oil.
King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of olive oil, and honey;
American King James Version
A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey;
American Standard Version
a land of wheat and barley, and vines and fig-trees and pomegranates; a land of olive-trees and honey;
A land of wheat, and barley, and vineyards, wherein fig trees and pomegranates, and oliveyards grow: a land of oil and honey.
Darby Bible Translation
a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig-trees, and pomegranates; a land of olive-trees and honey;
English Revised Version
a land of wheat and barley, and vines and fig trees and pomegranates; a land of oil olives and honey;
Webster's Bible Translation
A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig-trees, and pomegranates, a land of olive-oil, and honey;
World English Bible
a land of wheat and barley, and vines and fig trees and pomegranates; a land of olive trees and honey;
Young's Literal Translation
a land of wheat, and barley, and vine, and fig, and pomegranate; a land of oil olive and honey;
|Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary|
8:1-9 Obedience must be, 1. Careful, observe to do; 2. Universal, to do all the commandments; and 3. From a good principle, with a regard to God as the Lord, and their God, and with a holy fear of him. To engage them to this obedience. Moses directs them to look back. It is good to remember all the ways, both of God's providence and grace, by which he has led us through this wilderness, that we may cheerfully serve him and trust in him. They must remember the straits they were sometimes brought into, for mortifying their pride, and manifesting their perverseness; to prove them, that they and others might know all that was in their heart, and that all might see that God chose them, not for any thing in them which might recommend them to his favour. They must remember the miraculous supplies of food and raiment granted them. Let none of God's children distrust their Father, nor take any sinful course for the supply of their necessities. Some way or other, God will provide for them in the way of duty and honest diligence, and verily they shall be fed. It may be applied spiritually; the word of God is the food of the soul. Christ is the word of God; by him we live. They must also remember the rebukes they had been under, and not without need. This use we should make of all our afflictions; by them let us be quickened to our duty. Moses also directs them to look forward to Canaan. Look which way we will, both to look back and to look forward, to Canaan. Look which way we will, both to look back and to look forward will furnish us with arguments for obedience. Moses saw in that land a type of the better country. The gospel church is the New Testament Canaan, watered with the Spirit in his gifts and graces, planted with trees of righteousness, bearing fruits of righteousness. Heaven is the good land, in which nothing is wanting, and where is fulness of joy.
Verse 8. - "Palestine has been celebrated in all ages for three products: corn, wine, and oil, which still continue to be its most valuable crops" (Ibid., p. 189). The principal corn crops were wheat and barley. The vine was largely and carefully cultivated; the olive required little cultivation, being almost a spontaneous growth, and forming one of the most valuable productions of the country; the fig was also indigenous in Palestine, and still grows there, both wild and cultivated, in abundance; that the pomegranate (firemen) also was very abundant may be inferred from the number of places named from this (cf. Joshua 15:32; Joshua 19:7, 13; Judges 20:45, 47; Judges 21:13; 1 Chronicles 4:32, etc.). Honey. The word so rendered (d'bash) is used both of the honey of bees (Leviticus 2:11; Deuteronomy 32:11; 1 Samuel 14:26, etc.; Psalm 81:17; Proverbs 16:24, etc.), and of the honey of grapes, a syrup obtained by boiling down the newly expressed juice of the grape to a half or third part of its bulk, and still known among the Arabs by the name of dibs (Robinson, 'Bib. Res.,' it. p. 442; Smith, Bib. Dict.,' s.v. 'Honey'). In the wilderness, the people had murmured that they had been brought into an evil place, no place of figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates; and where there was no water to drink (Numbers 20:5). Moses here tells them that the land they were about to occupy was not such a place, but one abounding in all those things of which they had found the wilderness so destitute.
Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible
A land of wheat and barley,.... There were two harvests in it, one a barley harvest, which began at the passover, and the other a wheat harvest, which began at Pentecost: instances of the great plenty of these might be observed in the vast quantities consumed in the times of Solomon, in his household, and in the yearly distribution he made to Hiram, 1 Kings 4:22, yea, there was such plenty of wheat in this land, that it not only supplied the inhabitants of it, but even furnished other countries with it; with this the merchants of Israel and Judah traded at the market of Tyre, Ezekiel 27:17. According to the Jewish writers, the best fine wheat flour was at Mechumas and Mezonichah, and the next to them was Chephraim, or Ephraim, in the valley (h):
and vines; with which this land abounded everywhere; the places most noted were Lebanon, Eshcol, Engedi, Ashkelon, Gaza, and Sarepta; according to the above writers (i), Cerotim and Hatolim were the first for wine, and the second to them were Beth Rimah and Beth Laban in the mountain, and Caphat Sigmah in the valley; the wine of Sharon is also highly commended by them (k).
and fig trees and pomegranates: according to Josephus (l), the country of Gennesaret furnished with the best grapes and figs for ten months without intermission, and the rest of fruits throughout the whole year. Figs and pomegranates, the spies brought with them when they returned from searching the land, as well as grapes, are a specimen of the fruits of it, Numbers 13:23.
a land of oil olive; the mount of Olives was famous for olive trees, and had its name from thence; the whole land abounded with them, and though oil was so much in common use with the Jews, they supplied their neighbours with it: see 1 Kings 5:11. It was usual also, as we are told, for the ten tribes to send oil into Egypt (m); according to the Jewish doctors, Tekoah was the first place for oil, and the second, Ragab, beyond Jordan (n); very probably the same with Argob, Deuteronomy 3:4.
and honey; besides the great quantities of honey produced by bees in this country, there was much of another sort that dropped from trees, called wild honey, the food of John the Baptist in the wilderness, Matthew 3:4. Pliny (o) speaks of a sort of honey which he calls "eloeomeli", or oil honey, which is said to flow from the olive trees in Syria; but this honey here is generally thought by the Jewish writers to be an honey which was made of the fruit of palm trees, frequent in this country, and especially about Jericho; of which Josephus (p) says, that the palm trees about Jericho, the fatter of them (i.e. of the fruit of them) being pressed, emit a large quantity of honey, scarce exceeded by any; and Maimonides (q) says, that the honey spoken of in the law, particularly in this place, is honey of palm trees, so Ben Melech; and it was not unusual for people of other nations to make honey of the fruit of them. Herodotus (r) reports, that the Babylonians made honey out of palm trees; so the Arabs call honey of palm trees "dibs, dibis, dipso" (s), the same with the word here used; agreeably to which both the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem paraphrase the words,"out of whose palm trees honey is made.''
(h) Misn. Menachot, c. 8. sect. 1.((i) lbid. sect. 6. (k) T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 77. 1.((l) De Bello Jud. l. 3. c. 9. sect. 8. (m) Echa Rabbati, fol. 59. 3.((n) Misn. Menachot, c. 8. sect. 3.((o) Nat. Hist. l. 23. c. 4. Tikkune Zohar, correct. 16. fol. 27. 1.((p) De Bello Jud. l. 4. c. 8. sect. 3.((q) In Misn. Menachot, c. 5. sect. 1. so Bartenora in Misn. Biccurim, c. 1. sect. 3.((r) Clio, sive, l. 1. c. 193. (s) See Shaw's Travels, p. 143.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
8. A land of wheat, and barley—These cereal fruits were specially promised to the Israelites in the event of their faithful allegiance to the covenant of God (Ps 81:16; 147:14). The wheat and barley were so abundant as to yield sixty and often an hundredfold (Ge 26:12; Mt 13:8).
vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates—The limestone rocks and abrupt valleys were entirely covered, as traces of them still show, with plantations of figs, vines, and olive trees. Though in a southern latitude, its mountainous formations tempered the excessive heat, and hence, figs, pomegranates, &c., were produced in Palestine equally with wheat and barley, the produce of northern regions.
honey—The word "honey" is used often in a loose, indeterminate sense, very frequently to signify a syrup of dates or of grapes, which under the name of dibs is much used by all classes, wherever vineyards are found, as a condiment to their food. It resembles thin molasses, but is more pleasant to the taste [Robinson]. This is esteemed a great delicacy in the East, and it was produced abundantly in Palestine.
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