Amos 1:9
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
This is what the LORD says: "For three sins of Tyre, even for four, I will not relent. Because she sold whole communities of captives to Edom, disregarding a treaty of brotherhood,

New Living Translation
This is what the LORD says: "The people of Tyre have sinned again and again, and I will not let them go unpunished! They broke their treaty of brotherhood with Israel, selling whole villages as slaves to Edom.

English Standard Version
Thus says the LORD: “For three transgressions of Tyre, and for four, I will not revoke the punishment, because they delivered up a whole people to Edom, and did not remember the covenant of brotherhood.

New American Standard Bible
Thus says the LORD, "For three transgressions of Tyre and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they delivered up an entire population to Edom And did not remember the covenant of brotherhood.

King James Bible
Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Tyrus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant:

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The LORD says: I will not relent from punishing Tyre for three crimes, even four, because they handed over a whole community of exiles to Edom and broke a treaty of brotherhood.

International Standard Version
This is what the LORD says: "For three transgressions of Tyre —and now for a fourth— I will not turn away; because they delivered the entire population to Edom, and did not remember their covenant with their relatives.

NET Bible
This is what the LORD says: "Because Tyre has committed three crimes--make that four!--I will not revoke my decree of judgment. They sold a whole community to Edom; they failed to observe a treaty of brotherhood.

New Heart English Bible
Thus says the LORD: "For three transgressions of Tyre, yes, for four, I will not turn away its punishment; because they delivered up the whole community to Edom, and did not remember the brotherly covenant;

GOD'S WORD® Translation
This is what the LORD says: Because Tyre has committed three crimes, and now a fourth crime, I will not change my plans. The Tyrians have handed all the people over to the Edomites. The Tyrians didn't remember their treaty with their relatives.

JPS Tanakh 1917
Thus saith the LORD: For three transgressions of Tyre, yea, for four, I will not reverse it: because they delivered up a whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant.

New American Standard 1977
Thus says the LORD,
            “For three transgressions of Tyre and for four
            I will not revoke its punishment,
            Because they delivered up an entire population to Edom
            And did not remember the covenant of brotherhood.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Thus hath the LORD said: For three transgressions of Tyre and for the fourth, I will not convert her because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom and did not remember the brotherly covenant;

King James 2000 Bible
Thus says the LORD; For three transgressions of Tyre, and for four, I will not turn away its punishment; because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant:

American King James Version
Thus said the LORD; For three transgressions of Tyrus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant:

American Standard Version
Thus saith Jehovah: For three transgressions of Tyre, yea, for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they delivered up the whole people to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant:

Douay-Rheims Bible
Thus saith the Lord: For three crimes of Tyre, and for four I will not convert it: because they have shut up an entire captivity in Edom, and have not remembered the covenant of brethren.

Darby Bible Translation
Thus saith Jehovah: For three transgressions of Tyre, and for four, I will not revoke its sentence; because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant.

English Revised Version
Thus saith the LORD: For three transgressions of Tyre, yea, for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they delivered up the whole people to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant:

Webster's Bible Translation
Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Tyre, and for four, I will not turn away its punishment: because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant:

World English Bible
Thus says Yahweh: "For three transgressions of Tyre, yes, for four, I will not turn away its punishment; because they delivered up the whole community to Edom, and didn't remember the brotherly covenant;

Young's Literal Translation
Thus said Jehovah: For three transgressions of Tyre, And for four, I do not reverse it, Because of their delivering up a complete captivity to Edom, And they remembered not the brotherly covenant,
Study Bible
Judgment on Israel's Neighbors
8"I will also cut off the inhabitant from Ashdod, And him who holds the scepter, from Ashkelon; I will even unleash My power upon Ekron, And the remnant of the Philistines will perish," Says the Lord GOD. 9Thus says the LORD, "For three transgressions of Tyre and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they delivered up an entire population to Edom And did not remember the covenant of brotherhood. 10"So I will send fire upon the wall of Tyre And it will consume her citadels."…
Cross References
Matthew 11:21
"Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the miracles that were performed in you had happened in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.

Matthew 11:22
But I tell you, it will be more bearable for Tyre and Sidon on the day of judgment than for you.

Luke 10:13
Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the miracles that were performed in you had happened in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.

Luke 10:14
But it will be more bearable at the judgment for Tyre and Sidon than for you.

1 Kings 9:11
(Hiram king of Tyre had supplied Solomon with cedar and cypress timber and gold according to all his desire), then King Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee.

Psalm 83:7
Gebal and Ammon and Amalek, Philistia with the inhabitants of Tyre;

Isaiah 23:1
The oracle concerning Tyre. Wail, O ships of Tarshish, For Tyre is destroyed, without house or harbor; It is reported to them from the land of Cyprus.

Jeremiah 25:22
and all the kings of Tyre, all the kings of Sidon and the kings of the coastlands which are beyond the sea;

Jeremiah 47:4
On account of the day that is coming To destroy all the Philistines, To cut off from Tyre and Sidon Every ally that is left; For the LORD is going to destroy the Philistines, The remnant of the coastland of Caphtor.

Ezekiel 26:2
"Son of man, because Tyre has said concerning Jerusalem, 'Aha, the gateway of the peoples is broken; it has opened to me. I shall be filled, now that she is laid waste,'
Treasury of Scripture

Thus said the LORD; For three transgressions of Tyrus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant:

Tyrus.

Isaiah 23:1-18 The burden of Tyre. Howl, you ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, …

Jeremiah 47:4 Because of the day that comes to spoil all the Philistines, and to …

Ezekiel 26:1-28:26 And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the first day of the …

Joel 3:4-8 Yes, and what have you to do with me, O Tyre, and Zidon, and all …

Zechariah 9:2-4 And Hamath also shall border thereby; Tyrus, and Zidon, though it …

because.

Amos 1:6,11 Thus said the LORD; For three transgressions of Gaza, and for four, …

brotherly covenant. Heb. covenant of brethren.

2 Samuel 5:11 And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, …

1 Kings 5:1-11 And Hiram king of Tyre sent his servants to Solomon; for he had heard …

1 Kings 9:11-14 (Now Hiram the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with cedar trees …

2 Chronicles 2:8-16 Send me also cedar trees, fir trees, and algum trees, out of Lebanon: …

CURSE ON TYRUS.

(9) The brotherly covenant.--The "covenant of brethren" (margin) was the league made between Hiram and David, and afterwards between Hiram and Solomon (2Samuel 5:11; 1Kings 5:1; 1Kings 5:12). This ancient covenant was forgotten in Phnicia's mercantile cupidity, and Tyre was tempted to sell Hebrew captives to Greeks and Idumeans. (Comp. Isaiah 23; Ezekiel 26, and the special excursus in the Speaker's Commentary.)

Verses 9, 10. - The judgment on Tyre. Verse 9. - They delivered up the whole captivity (see note on ver. 6). The sin of Tyre, the great Phoenician merchant city, was committed in concert with the Philistines (comp. Psalm 83:7), and was of the same character, except that she is not accused of carrying away the captives, but only of handing them over to the Edomites. It is probable that the Phoenicians had gotten into their hands, by purchase or some other means, Israelitish prisoners, whom they delivered over to the Edomites, forgetting the brotherly covenant made by their forefathers with David and Solomon (2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Kings 5:1, 7-11; 1 Kings 9:11-14; 2 Chronicles 2:11). The cruel conduct of Tyre was quits unprovoked, as no Jewish king had made war against Phoenicia or its capital. Thus saith the Lord, for three transgressions of Tyrus,.... Or Tyre, a very ancient city in Palestine; of which See Gill on Isaiah 23:1;

and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; See Gill on Amos 1:3;

because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom: such of the Israelites that fell into their hands, or fled to them for shelter, they delivered up to the Edomites, their implacable adversaries, or sold them to them, as they did to the Grecians, Joel 3:6;

and remembered not the brotherly covenant; either the covenant and agreement that should be among brethren, as the Jews and Edomites were which the Tyrians should have remembered, and persuaded them to live peaceably; and not have delivered the one into the hands of the other, to be used in a cruel manner as slaves: or else the covenant made between Hiram king of Tyre, and David king of Israel, and which was renewed between Hiram and Solomon, on account of which they called each other brethren, 2 Samuel 5:11. The Phoenicians, of whom, the Tyrians were the principal, are noted for being faithless and treacherous (f). "Punica fides" (g) was the same as "French faith" now; the perfidy of Hannibal is well known (h). Cicero (i) says the Carthaginians, which were a colony of the Tyrians, were a deceitful and lying people; and Virgil (k) calls the Tyrians themselves "Tyrios bilingues", "double tongued Tyrians", which, Servius interprets deceitful, as referring more to the mind than to the tongue; and observes from Livy the perfidy of the Phoenicians in general, that they have nothing true nor sacred among them; no fear of God, no regard to an oath, nor any religion; and which are the three or four transgressions for which they are said here they should be punished; for, besides their ill usage of the Jews, their idolatry no doubt came into the account: the god that was worshipped at Tyre was Hercules, by whom was meant the sun, as Macrobius (l) observes; and as there were several Heathen gods of this name, he whom the Tyrians worshipped is the fourth of the name with Cicero (m); the same is the Melicarthus of Sanchoniatho (n), which signifies the king of the city, by which Bochart (o) thinks Tyre is intended. To be a priest of Hercules was the second honour to that of king, as Justin (p) observes; and so careful were the Tyrians of this deity, that they used to chain him, that he might not depart from them; see Jeremiah 10:4; and a most magnificent temple they had in honour of him, and which, they pretended, was exceeding ancient, as old as the city itself, the antiquity of which they speak extravagantly of Herodotus (q) says he saw this temple, and which was greatly ornamented, and particularly had two pillars, one of gold, and another of emerald; and inquiring of the priests, they told; him it was built when their city was, ten thousand three hundred years before that time; but according to their own historians (r), Hiram, who lived in the days of Solomon, built the temple of Hercules, as well as that of Astarte; for though she is called the goddess of the Sidonians, she was also worshipped by the Tyrians; as he also ornamented the temple of Jupiter Olympius, and annexed it to the city, which deity also it seems had worship paid it in this place.

(f) Alex. ab Alex. Genial Dier. l. 5. c. 10. (g) Vid. Reinesiura de Ling. Punic. c. 2. sect. 12. (h) Vid. Valer. Maxim. l. 9. c. 6. (i) Contra Rullum, Orat. 16. (k) Aeneid. l. 1.((l) Saturnal. l. 1. c. 20. (m) De Naturn Deorum, l. 3.((n) Apud Euseb. Praepar. Evangel. l. 2. p. 38. (o) Canaan, l. 2. col. 709. (p) E Trogo, l. 18. c. 4. (q) Euterp, sive l. 2. c. 44. (r) Meander & Dius apud Joseph. Antiqu. l. 8. c. 5. sect. 3.9. Tyrus … delivered up the … captivity to Edom—the same charge as against the Philistines (Am 1:6).

remembered not the brotherly covenant—the league of Hiram of Tyre with David and Solomon, the former supplying cedars for the building of the temple and king's house in return for oil and corn (2Sa 5:11; 1Ki 5:2-6; 9:11-14, 27; 10-22; 1Ch 14:1; 2Ch 8:18; 9:10).1:18-21 There shall be abundant Divine influences, and the gospel will spread speedily into the remotest corners of the earth. These events are predicted under significant emblems; there is a day coming, when every thing amiss shall be amended. The fountain of this plenty is in the house of God, whence the streams take rise. Christ is this Fountain; his sufferings, merit, and grace, cleanse, refresh, and make fruitful. Gospel grace, flowing from Christ, shall reach to the Gentile world, to the most remote regions, and make them abound in fruits of righteousness; and from the house of the Lord above, from his heavenly temple, flows all the good we daily taste, and hope to enjoy eternally.
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