Romans 2:5
But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(5) The one condition upon which the goodness of God will come into operation, you directly contravene. Instead of being penitent, you are impenitent, and therefore the load of wrath which you have been accumulating against yourself remains unremoved. It is only waiting for the day of judgment to discharge itself upon you.

Treasurest.—The treasuring up of wrath is opposed to that heavenly treasure spoken of in Matthew 6:20. The guilt of man is accumulated little by little. I The punishment will be discharged upon him all at once, in one overwhelming tide.

Against the day of wrath.—Strictly, in the day of wrathi.e., wrath to be outpoured upon the day of wrath. “The great and terrible day of the Lord” is a conception running through all the prophetic writings. (Comp. also, in the New Testament, Luke 17:30; Acts 2:20; 1Corinthians 1:8; 1Corinthians 5:5; 2Corinthians 1:14; 1Thessalonians 5:2; 1Thessalonians 5:4; 2Thessalonians 2:2; 2Peter 3:10; 2Peter 3:12; Revelation 6:17; Revelation 16:14.)

Revelation.—There is a double revelation of God’s wrath, the one inchoate, the other final. The former revelation, that described in the last chapter, is seen in the depraved condition of the heathen world; the latter revelation is represented as a judgment or trial reserved for the consummation of all things.

Romans 2:5-7. But after thy hardness — Greek, κατα τηυ σκληροτητα, according to thy obduracy, or insensibility of mind; and impenitent Αμετανοητον, inconsiderate, unreflecting, and unrelenting heart, by reason of that stubbornness and obstinacy in sin which thou hast contracted; treasurest up wrath — Although thou thinkest thou art treasuring up all good things; unto thyself — Not to him whom thou judgest: that is, Thou provokest God more and more to aggravate thy punishment. In our language, a treasure signifies a collection of things useful or precious. But the Hebrews gave that appellation to a heap, or an abundance of any thing, whether good or bad. Hence, Proverbs 10:2, we read of treasures of wickedness. Reader! think what a treasure of good or evil, of felicity or misery, a man may lay up for himself in this short day of life! Against the day of wrath — The day of retribution, when God will fully execute wrath on impenitent sinners. Wrath is here, as often elsewhere, put for punishment, the effect of wrath. The apostle calls the day of retribution the day of wrath, to make the wicked sensible that as men greatly enraged do not suffer their enemies to escape, so God, highly displeased with the wicked, will assuredly punish them in the severest manner at length. Probably the apostle had in view, 1st, The awful vengeance which the divine wrath was about to bring on the Jews in the destruction of their city and temple, the depopulation of their country, and the dissolution of their commonwealth, which, 1 Thessalonians 2:16, he calls, wrath coming upon them to the uttermost. 2d, It appears, however, by what follows, that he spoke principally of the day of final judgment; and revelation of the righteous judgment of God — When God will make manifest to all the world the justice of his proceedings, both toward the righteous and the wicked. Bengelius reads, wrath, and revelation, and righteous judgment: just opposite to the three gracious attributes above mentioned; wrath opposed to goodness; revelation, when God will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, opposed to his present forbearance; and righteous judgment, when he will no longer defer to punish, opposed to his present longsuffering. Who will render to every man — Both good and bad, both Jew and Gentile; according to his deeds — Not according to his external privileges, or his pretences and presumptuous expectations, but according to the real nature and quality of his works. To them who by patient continuance in well-doing — By persevering in a constant course of holiness and righteousness, notwithstanding all the oppositions and difficulties they meet with; (see Matthew 24:13; Revelation 2:10;) seek for glory — That state of splendour and brightness in which the righteous shall shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father, Matthew 13:43. Honour — Approbation, commendation, and praise from God and Christ, and all the heavenly host, mentioned 1 Peter 1:7. And immortality Αφθαρσιαν, incorruptibility, everlasting life, health, and vigour of both body and mind. The words include the consummation and perfection of all those glorious qualifications and enjoyments which are bestowed on the saints in heaven. This the saints seek for; that is, desire and labour after; for, though love to God and Christ is the principal spring of their obedience, yet that love does not exclude the faith which is the evidence of things not seen, or that hope of heavenly glory and felicity which is as an anchor of the soul, sure and steadfast; and which, partly at least, influenced Christ himself amidst all his labours and sufferings, who, for the joy that was set before him, endured the cross, and despised the shame. Eternal life — Which God will render to such.

2:1-16 The Jews thought themselves a holy people, entitled to their privileges by right, while they were unthankful, rebellious, and unrighteous. But all who act thus, of every nation, age, and description, must be reminded that the judgment of God will be according to their real character. The case is so plain, that we may appeal to the sinner's own thoughts. In every wilful sin, there is contempt of the goodness of God. And though the branches of man's disobedience are very various, all spring from the same root. But in true repentance, there must be hatred of former sinfulness, from a change wrought in the state of the mind, which disposes it to choose the good and to refuse the evil. It shows also a sense of inward wretchedness. Such is the great change wrought in repentance, it is conversion, and is needed by every human being. The ruin of sinners is their walking after a hard and impenitent heart. Their sinful doings are expressed by the strong words, treasuring up wrath. In the description of the just man, notice the full demand of the law. It demands that the motives shall be pure, and rejects all actions from earthly ambition or ends. In the description of the unrighteous, contention is held forth as the principle of all evil. The human will is in a state of enmity against God. Even Gentiles, who had not the written law, had that within, which directed them what to do by the light of nature. Conscience is a witness, and first or last will bear witness. As they nature. Conscience is a witness, and first or last will bear witness. As they kept or broke these natural laws and dictates, their consciences either acquitted or condemned them. Nothing speaks more terror to sinners, and more comfort to saints, than that Christ shall be the Judge. Secret services shall be rewarded, secret sins shall be then punished, and brought to light.But after thy hardness - The word "after" here κατά kata means in respect to, or you act according to the direct tendency of a hard heart in treasuring up wrath. The word "hardness" is used to denote insensibility of mind. It properly means what is insensible to the touch, or on which no impression is made by contact, as a stone, etc. Hence, it is applied to the mind, to denote a state where no motives make an impression; which is insensible to all the appeals made to it; see Matthew 25:24; Matthew 19:8; Acts 19:9. And here it expresses a state of mind where the goodness and forbearance of God have no effect. The man still remains obdurate, to use a word which has precisely the meaning of the Greek in this place. It is implied in this expression that the direct tendency, or the inevitable result, of that state of mind was to treasure up wrath, etc.

Impenitent heart - A heart which is not affected with sorrow for sin, in view of the mercy and goodness of God. This is an explanation of what he meant by hardness.

Treasurest up - To treasure up, or to lay up treasure, commonly denotes a laying by in a place of security of property that may be of use to us at some future period. In this place it is used, however, in a more general sense, to accumulate, to increase. It still has the idea of hoarding up, carries the thought beautifully and impressively onward to future times. Wrath, like wealth treasured up, is not exhausted at present, and hence, the sinner becomes bolder in sin. But it exists, for future use; it is kept in store (compare 2 Peter 3:7) against future times; and the man who commits sin is only increasing this by every act of transgression. The same sentiment is taught in a most solemn manner in Deuteronomy 32:34-35. It may be remarked here, that most people have an immense treasure of this kind in store, which eternal ages of pain will not exhaust or diminish! Stores of wrath are thus reserved for a guilty world, and in due time it "will come upon man to the uttermost," 1 Thessalonians 2:16.

Unto thyself - For thyself, and not for another; to be exhausted on thee, and not on your fellow-man. This is the case with every sinner, as really and as certainly as though he were the only solitary mortal in existence.

Wrath - Note, Romans 1:18.

Day of wrath - The day when God shall show or execute his wrath against sinners; compare Revelation 6:17; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; John 3:36; Ephesians 5:6.

And revelation - On the day when the righteous judgment of God will be revealed, or made known. Here we learn:

(1) That the punishment of the wicked will be just. It will not he a judgment of caprice or tyranny, but a righteous judgment, that is, such a judgment as it will be right to render, or as ought to be rendered, and therefore such as God will render, for he will do right; 2 Thessalonians 1:6.

(2) the punishment of the wicked is future. It is not exhausted in this life. It is treasured up for a future day, and that day is a day of wrath. How contrary to this text are the pretences of those who maintain that all punishment is executed in this life.

(3) how foolish as well as wicked is it to lay up such a treasure for the future; to have the only inheritance in the eternal world, an inheritance of wrath and wo!

5. treasurest up unto thyself wrath against—rather "in."

the day of wrath—that is wrath to come on thee in the day of wrath. What an awful idea is here expressed—that the sinner himself is amassing, like hoarded treasure, an ever accumulating stock of divine wrath, to burst upon him in "the day of the revelation of the righteous judgment of God!" And this is said not of the reckless, but of those who boasted of their purity of faith and life.

Treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath; this passage seems to respect Deu 32:34,35, or Job 36:13. You have a parallel place, Jam 5:3. The meaning is, Thou provokest more and more the wrath of God against thee; by heaping up sins, thou heapest up judgments of God upon thyself: just as men add to their treasure of wealth, so dost thou add to thy treasure of punishment.

Revelation of the righteous judgment of God; this is a periphrasis of the day of judgment, or of the last day: then will God visit for those sins that here escape punishment; then the justice and equity of his proceedings shall appear, and all shall have reason to approve thereof.

But after thy hardness and impenitent heart,.... The apostle goes on to show, that such persons who promise themselves impunity on the score of prosperity, shall not always go unobserved and unpunished; for there is a day of wrath and righteous judgment hastening on, and will take place after they have filled up the measure of their iniquity. There is a natural "hardness" of the heart in every son and daughter of Adam; and there is an acquired habitual hardness, which is increased by sinning; and a judicial one, which God, for sin, sometimes gives persons up unto. An "impenitent heart" is not only an heart which does not repent, but such an one as cannot repent, being harder than the nether millstone. Now men, by such hardness and impenitence,

treasure up unto themselves wrath: they are the authors of their own destruction; by which is meant the wrath of God, in opposition to the riches of his goodness, despised by them; and is in reserve for wicked men: and is laid up

against, and will be brought forth in

the day of wrath; which the Scriptures call "the evil day", Amos 6:3 Ephesians 6:13; the day fixed by God, when he will call men to an account for their sins, and stir up all his wrath against them:

and revelation; that is, the day of revelation, when Christ shall be revealed from heaven in flames of fire, the sins of men shall be revealed, and the wrath of God against them:

of the righteous judgment of God; so some copies read; that is, the day of the righteous judgment; so the Arabic version reads, "and of the appearance of God, and of his righteous judgment"; for the judgment will be at the appearance of Christ, who is God, and at his kingdom, 2 Timothy 4:1. The Alexandrian copy reads, "and of the retribution of the righteous judgment of God"; and so the Ethiopic version seems to have read, rendering the words, "if so", or "seeing thy retribution may come upon thee", and "if the judgment of God may befall thee"; for when the judgment of God shall come, as there will be a revelation of men's sins, and of the wrath of God against them, there will be a just retribution according to their works. Or "the revelation of the righteous judgment of God"; that is, when the judgment of God, which is now hid, shall appear; and which is said to be "righteous", because it will be carried on in a righteous manner, and proceed upon, and be executed according to the strictest rules of justice and equity.

But after thy hardness and impenitent heart {c} treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;

(c) While you are giving yourself to pleasures, thinking to increase your goods, you will find God's wrath.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Romans 2:5. A vividly introduced contrast to the preceding proposition ὄτι τὸ χρηστὸν.… ἄγει; not a continuation of the question (Lachmann, following Koppe and others; also Baumgarten-Crusius, Ewald), but affirmative (by which the discourse becomes far more impressive and striking) as a setting forth of the actual position of things, which is brought about by man through his impenitence, in opposition to the drawing of the divine kindness; for the words can only, in pursuance of the correct interrogative rendering of Romans 2:3, be connected with Romans 2:4, and not also (as Hofmann holds) with Romans 2:3.

κατά] in accordance with; in a causal sense. Comp on Php 4:11. On σκληρ. κ. ἀμεταν. καρδ. comp Acts 7:31. It is correlative with the previous εἰς μετάνοιαν.

θησαυρίζεις σεαυτῷ ὀργὴν] Wolf aptly says: “innuitur.… irae divinae judicia paulatim coacervari, ut tandem universa promantur.” Comp Calovius; and see Deuteronomy 32:33-35; Proverbs 1:18; Proverbs 2:7; Sir 3:4. For passages of profane writers, where θησαυρός and θησαυρίζειν are used to express the accumulation of evils, punishments, and the like, see Alberti, Obss. p. 297; Münthe in loc[604], from Philo: Loesner, p. 246. The purposely chosen word glances back to the previous τοῦ πλούτου κ.τ.λ[605] and ΣΕΑΥΤῷ, to thyself, heightens the tragic nature of the foolish conduct that redounds to one’s own destruction; comp Romans 13:2.

ἘΝ ἩΜΈΡᾼ ὈΡΓ.] not to be taken with Luther, Beza, Castalio, Piscator, Calvin, Estius, and many others as in diem irae (Php 1:10; Judges 1:6; Tob 4:9), belongs to ὀργήν: which breaks out on the day of wrath. Comp 1 Thessalonians 3:13. Regarding the repetition of ὈΡΓῆς after ὈΡΓΉΝ Bengel correctly remarks: “ΔΕΙΝΌΤΗς sermonis magna vi.” Whose wrath, is self-evident, without its being necessary to connect ὀργής with ΘΕΟῦ (Hofmann), which is forbidden by the intervening ἈΠΟΚΑΛ. and by the previous absolutely put ὈΡΓΉΝ. The article was not required by ἡμέρᾳ on account of the genitive definitions; 1 Corinthians 6:2; Ephesians 4:30; Php 1:6, al[608]; Winer, p. 118 f. [E. T. 155 f.]; Kühner, II. 1, p. 524.

Paul characterises the day of judgment, and with what powerful emphasis! by an accumulation of genitives and weighty expressions, with reference to the fate of the bad as ἡμέρα ὁργῆς, but with reference to its general destination (afterwards Romans 2:6 ff. to be further carried out in detail) for good and bad as a day ἀποκαλ. δικαιοκρισ. τ. Θεοῦ, i.e. on which God’s righteous judgment (which until then remains hidden) is revealed, publicly exhibited. With the exception of passages of the Fathers, such as Justin, de resurr. p. 223, δικαιοκρισία occurs only in an unknown translation of Hosea 6:5 (where the LXX. read ΚΡῖΜΑ) and the the Test. XII. Patr. p. 547 and 581.

[604] n loc. refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[605] .τ.λ. καὶ τὰ λοιπά.

[608] l. and others; and other passages; and other editions.

Romans 2:5. The δὲ contrasts what happens with what God designs. θησαυρίζεις σεαυτῷ ὀργήν: contrast our Lord’s many sayings about “treasure in heaven” (Matthew 6:19 ff; Matthew 19:21). ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ὀργῆς = in the day of wrath. The conception was quite definite: there was only one day in view, what is elsewhere called “the day of the Lord” (2 Corinthians 1:14), “the day of judgment” (Matthew 11:22), “the last day” (John 6:39), “the day of God” (2 Peter 3:12), “that day” (2 Timothy 1:12), even simply “the day” (1 Corinthians 3:13, Hebrews 10:25). This great day is so defined in the Apostle’s imagination that the article can be dispensed with. But see Psalm 110:5. (109:5. LXX.) It is a day when God is revealed as a righteous judge, in the sense of Psalm 61:13 (LXX).

5. after] according to, in a way traceable to.

hardness] insensibility, whether to love or reason.

treasurest up] Possibly this word alludes to the “riches” of Romans 2:4; q. d., “the Divine store of loving-kindness is exchanged by the sinner for the Divine store of holy wrath”.

unto thyself] Emphatic; more than merely “for thee.” The wrath is pure retribution, the result of sin. The sinner is the cause of his own doom.

against the day of wrath] Lit. in the day of wrath; a pregnant phrase; “which will take effect in the day.” On “wrath,” see note on Romans 1:18 : “The day:”—i.e. the definite time of the Lord’s Appearing, to raise the dead (John 6:39-40; John 6:44; John 6:54; John 11:24); to judge the world (John 12:48; Acts 17:31); and to receive the saints to final glory (2 Timothy 4:8). In one remarkable passage (1 Corinthians 4:3) the Greek of the word “judgment” (in E. V.) is lit. “day;” and a probable account of this use of the word is the inseparable connexion of thought, in the early church, between the day and the judgment of the Lord.

revelation of the righteous judgment of God] The “wrath” is as pure, just, and Divine as the mercy. Its “revelation” will be only the revelation of the absolute equity of “the Judge of all the earth.” This deep righteousness of the Divine anger is its most awful element.

Romans 2:5. Δὲ, but) The antithesis is between the despising of the riches of His goodness, and the treasuring up of wrath.—σκληρότητα, hardness) Its antithesis is χρηστόν.—ἀμετανόητον καρδίαν) The antithesis is μετάνοιαν. He meant to say ἀμετανοησίαν: to which word, later writers show no aversion; but Paul avoided an unusual term.—θησαυρίζεις, thou treasurest up), although thou, O man, thinkest, that thou art treasuring up all kinds of blessedness. O what a treasure may a man lay up, during so many hours of his life, on either side! [either for heaven, or else hell], Matthew 18:24; 1 Timothy 6:18.—σεαυτῷ) for thyself, not for the other, whom thou judgest.—ὀργὴνὀργῆς, wrath—of wrath) The idea of Δεινότης [vehemence] of language is here conveyed with great force. Why is it, that many have no sense of wrath? [Because] The day of wrath is not yet; but it shall be.—ἐν ἡμέρᾳ).[22] When ἐν refers to time, it denotes the present; εἰς, the future.[23] That day is present to God [therefore ἐν ἡμέρᾳ, present, is used]. But this expression may also be construed with ὈΡΓΉΝ. [Beng. seems to have construed ἘΝ ἩΜΈΡᾼ with ΘΗΣΑΥΡΊΖΕΙς].—ἈΠΟΚΑΛΎΨΕΩς, of the revelation) When God shall be revealed, the secrets of man shall be revealed, Romans 2:16.—καὶ δικαιοκρίσιας). By far the greatest weight of testimony, and the unquestionable antithesis between ἈΝΟΧῆς and ἈΠΟΚΑΛΎΨΕΩς, which is most worthy of the apostle (such as there is also between ἈΝΟΧῊΝ and ἜΝΔΕΙΞΙΝ, ch. Romans 3:26; Psalm 50:21), confirm the reading of the particle ΚΑἸ, Romans 2:4, Τῆς ΧΡΗΣΤΌΤΗΤΟς, ΚΑῚ Τῆς ἈΝΟΧῆς, ΚΑῚ Τῆς ΜΑΚΡΟΘΥΜΊΑς· Romans 2:5, ὈΡΓῆς ΚΑῚ ἈΠΟΚΑΛΎΨΕΩς, ΚΑῚ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΚΡΙΣΊΑς.[24] ἈΝΟΧῊ and ἈΠΟΚΆΛΥΨΙς have respect to God, and are compared together, as ἈΝΟΧῊ and ἜΝΔΕΙΞΙς are at ch. Romans 3:25; ΜΑΚΡΟΘΥΜΊΑ and ΔΙΚΑΙΟΚΡΙΣΊΑ refer to the sinner, ΧΡΗΣΤΌΤΗς and ὈΡΓῊ are put generally. Wherefore the particle ΚΑῚ should not have been admitted, as it is by some; it is supported also by Orige[25], in his work against Celsus, in the MS. at Bâle, as Sam. Battier informs us in his Biblioth. Brem., Class vi., p. 98. Instead of ἈΠΟΚΑΛΎΨΕΩς the Alex. MS. has ἈΝΤΑΠΟΔΌΣΕΩς. I formerly omitted to notice this various reading, which arose from its having the same letters at the beginning as the verb ἈΠΟΔΏΣΕΙ, and is quite out of place here; nor do I use it now to defend that ΚΑῚ which follows immediately after. Erasmus observes, that ΔΙΚΑΙΟΚΡΙΣΊΑς, was a word newly coined to express a thing not formerly known among [acknowledged on the part of] men.

[22] Wrath to be revealed in the day of wrath.—ED.

[23] ἐις τὴν ἡμέραν would be against the coming day.—ED.

[24] The later Syr. Version, and Origen in three passages, also the Λ MS., read the καί before δικαιοκρ. But ABG Vulg. Syr. Memph. fg. Origen in three other passages, and Lucifer, agree with Rec. Text, in omitting καί.—ED.

[25] rigen (born about 186 A.D., died 253 A.D., a Greek father: two-thirds of the N. Test. are quoted in his writings). Ed. Vinc. Delarue, Paris. 1733, 1740, 1759.

Verse 5. - But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God. The "day of wrath" is the day of judgment, the final display of eternal righteousness, when the "forbearance" will be over; ever represented, notwithstanding the world's redemption, under a terrible aspect for the persistently impenitent (cf. 2 Thessalonians 1:9). It may be here observed again that it is ὁ κρίνων against whom these indignant denunciations are hurled, and this on the very ground of his thus setting himself up to judge while being himself guilty. Of him it is implied, not only that he shares the guilt of mankind, but also that he especially will not escape the final judgment. Of others who, conscious of their own failings, seek sincerely alter good, this is not said, however liable to condemnation on their own mere merits they may be. Indeed, the contrary is emphatically asserted in the verses that follow; nay, even eternal life is assured to such, whoever they may be, and under whatever dispensation, though it does not fall within the scope of the argument to explain in this place why or how. It is important for us to see this clearly for an understanding of the drift of the chapter, and of St. Paul's whole doctrine with respect to human sin and its consequences. Romans 2:5Treasurest up (θησαυρίζεις)

Accumulatest. Glancing back to riches.

For thyself

Possibly a tinge of irony.

Wrath against the day of wrath (ὀργὴν ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ὀργῆς)

A very striking image - treasuring up wrath for one's self. Rev., better, in the day, etc. The sinner stores it away. Its forthcoming is withheld by the forbearance of God. It will break out in the day when God's righteous judgment shall be revealed.

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