Homilies of Chrysostom
Now there were in the church that was at Antioch certain prophets and teachers; as Barnabas, and Simeon that was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen, which had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul.
As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them.
And when they had fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them, they sent them away.
So they, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia; and from thence they sailed to Cyprus.
"So they, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia; and from thence they sailed to Cyprus. And when they were at Salamis, they preached the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews: and they had also John to their minister."
As soon as they were ordained they went forth, and hasted to Cyprus, that being a place where was no ill-design hatching against them, and where moreover the Word had been sown already. In Antioch there were (teachers) enough, and Phoenice too was near to Palestine; but Cyprus not so. However, you are not to make a question of the why and wherefore, when it is the Spirit that directs their movements: for they were not only ordained by the Spirit, but sent forth by Him likewise. "And when they were come to Salamis, they preached the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews." Do you mark how they make a point of preaching the word to them first, not to make them more contentious?  The persons mentioned before "spake to none but to Jews only" (ch. xi. 19), and so here they betook them to the synagogues. "And when they had gone through the isle unto Paphos, they found a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Bar-jesus: which was with the deputy of the country, Sergius Paulus, a prudent man; who called for Barnabas and Saul, and desired to hear the word of God. But Elymas the sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation) withstood them, seeking to turn away the deputy from the faith." (v. 6-8.) Again a Jew sorcerer, as was Simon. And observe this man, how, while they preached to the others, he did not take it much amiss, but only when they approached the proconsul. And then in respect of the proconsul the wonder is, that although prepossessed by the man's sorcery, he was nevertheless willing to hear the Apostles. So it was with the Samaritans: and from the competition (sunkriseos) the victory appears, the sorcery being worsted. Everywhere, vainglory and love of power are a (fruitful) source of evils! "But Saul, who is also Paul,"--(v. 9) here his name is changed at the same time that he is ordained, as it was in Peter's case,  --"filled with the Holy Ghost, looked upon him, and said, O full of all guile and all villany, thou child of the devil:" (v. 10) and observe, this is not abuse, but accusation: for so ought forward, impudent people to be rebuked "thou enemy of all righteousness;" here he lays bare what was in the thoughts of the man, while under pretext of saving he was ruining the proconsul: "wilt thou not cease," he says, "to pervert the ways of the Lord?" (He says it) both confidently (axiopistos), It is not with us thou art warring, nor art thou fighting (with us), but "the ways of the Lord" thou art perverting, and with praise (of these, he adds) "the right" ways. "And now, behold, the hand of the Lord is upon thee, and thou shalt be blind." (v. 11.) It was the sign by which he was himself converted, and by this he would fain convert this man. As also that expression, "for a season," puts it not as an act of punishing, but as meant for his conversion: had it been for punishment, he would have made him lastingly blind, but now it is not so, but "for a season" (and this), that he may gain the proconsul. For, as he was prepossessed by the sorcery, it was well to teach him a lesson by this infliction (and the sorcerer also), in the same way as the magicians (in Egypt) were taught by the boils.  (Exodus 9:11.) "And immediately there fell on him a mist and a darkness: and he went about seeking some to lead him by the hand. Then the deputy, when he saw what was done, believed, being astonished at the doctrine of the Lord." (v. 12.) But observe, how they do not linger there, as (they might have been tempted to do) now that the proconsul was a believer, nor are enervated by being courted and honored, but immediately keep on with their work, and set out for the country on the opposite coast. "Now when Paul and his company loosed from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia; and John departing from them returned to Jerusalem. But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and sat down." (v. 13, 14.) And here again they entered the synagogues, in the character of Jews, that they might not be treated as enemies, and be driven away: and in this way they carried the whole matter successfully. "And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, Ye men and brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation for the people, say on." (v. 15.) From this point, we learn the history of Paul's doings, as in what was said above we have learned not a little about Peter. But let us review what has been said.
(Recapitulation.) "And when they were come to Salamis," the metropolis of Cyprus, "they preached the word of God." (v. 5.) They had spent a year in Antioch: it behooved that they should go hither also (to Cyprus) and not sit permanently where they were (the converts in Cyprus): needed greater teachers. See too how they remain no time in Seleucia, knowing that (the people there) might have reaped much benefit from the neighboring city (of Antioch): but they hasten on to the more pressing duties. When they came to the metropolis of the island, they were earnest to disabuse (diorthosai) the proconsul. But that it is no flattery that (the writer) says, "he was with the proconsul, a prudent man" (v. 7), you may learn from the facts; for he needed not many discourses, and himself wished to hear them. And  he mentions also the names. * * * Observe, how he said nothing to the sorcerer, until he gave him an occasion: but they only "preached the word of the Lord." Since (though Elymas) saw the rest attending to them, he looked only to this one object, that the proconsul might not be won over. Why did not (Paul) perform some other miracle? Because there was none equal to this, the taking the enemy captive. And observe, he first impeaches, and then punishes, him. He shows how justly the man deserved to suffer, by his saying, "O full of all deceit" (v. 10): ("full of all,") he says: nothing wanting to the full measure: and he well says, of all "deceit," for the man was playing the part of a hypocrite.--"Child of the devil," because he was doing his work: "enemy of all righteousness," since this (which they preached) was the whole of righteousness (though at the same time): I suppose in these words he reproves his manner of life. His words were not prompted by anger, and to show this, the writer premises, "filled with the Holy Ghost," that is, with His operation. "And now behold the hand of the Lord is upon thee." (v. 11.) It was not vengeance then, but healing: for it is as though he said: "It is not I that do it, but the hand of God." Mark how unassuming! No "light,"  as in the case of Paul, "shone round about him." (ch. ix. 3.) "Thou shalt be blind," he says, "not seeing the sun for a season," that he may give him opportunity for repentance: for we nowhere find them wishing to be made conspicuous by the more stern (exercise of their authority), even though it was against enemies that this was put forth: in respect of those of their own body (they used severity), and with good reason, but in dealing with those without, not so; that (the obedience of faith) might not seem to be matter of compulsion and fear. It is a proof of his blindness, his "seeking some to lead him by the hand." (ch. v. 1. ff.) And  the proconsul sees the blindness inflicted, "and when he saw what was done, he believed:" and both alone believed not merely this, but, "being astonished at the doctrine of the Lord" (v. 12): he saw that these things were not mere words, nor trickery. Mark how he loved to receive instruction from his teachers, though he was in a station of so high authority. And (Paul) said not to the sorcerer, "Wilt thou not cease to pervert" the proconsul?  What may be the reason of John's going back from them? For "John," it says, "departing from them returned to Jerusalem" (v. 13): (he does it) because they are undertaking a still longer journey: and yet he was their attendant, and as for the danger, they incurred it (not he).--Again, when they were come to Perga, they hastily passed by the other cities, for they were in haste to the metropolis, Antioch. And observe how concise the historian is. "They sat down in the synagogue," he says, and, "on the sabbath day" (v. 14, 15): that they might prepare the way beforehand for the Word. And they do not speak first, but when invited: since as strangers, they called upon them to do so. Had they not waited, there would have been no discourse. Here for the first time we have Paul preaching. And observe his prudence: where the word was already sown, he passes on: but where there was none (to preach), he makes a stay: as he himself writes: "Yea, so have I strived to preach the Gospel, not where Christ was named." (Romans 15:20.) Great courage this also. Truly, from the very outset, a wonderful man! crucified, ready for all encounters (paratetagmenos), he knew how great grace he had obtained, and he brought to it zeal equivalent. He was not angry with John: for this was not for him:  but he kept to the work, he quailed not, he was unappalled, when shut up in the midst of a host. Observe how wisely it is ordered that Paul should not preach at Jerusalem: the very hearing that he is become a believer, this of itself is enough for them; for him to preach, they never would have endured, such was their hatred of him: so he departs far away, where he was not known. But  it is well done, that "they entered the synagogue on the sabbath day" when all were collected together. "And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, Ye men and brethren, if ye have any word or exhortation for the people, say on." (v. 15.) Behold how they do this without grudging, but no longer after this. If ye did wish this (really), there was more need to exhort.
He first convicted the sorcerer (and showed), what he was; and that he was such, the sign showed: "thou shalt be blind, not seeing the sun" this was a sign of the blindness of his soul: "for a season" (v. 11): he says, to bring him to repentance. But, oh that love of rule! oh, that lust of vainglory! how it does overturn and ruin everything; makes people stand up against their own, against each other's salvation; renders them blind indeed, and dark, insomuch that they have even to seek for some to lead them by the hand! Oh that they did even this, oh that they did seek were it but some to lead them by the hand! But no, they no longer endure this, they take the whole matter into their own hands. (This vice) will let no man see: like a mist and thick darkness it spreads itself over them, not letting any see through it. What pleas shall we have to offer, we who for one evil affection, overcome another evil affection (supra p. 176), but not for the fear of God! For example, many who are both lewd and covetous, have for their niggardliness put a bridle upon their lust, while other such, on the contrary, have for pleasure's sake, despised riches. Again, those who are both the one and the other, have by the lust of vainglory overcome both, lavishing their money unsparingly, and practising temperance to no (good) purpose; others again, who are exceedingly vainglorious, have despised that evil affection, submitting to many vile disgraces for the sake of their amours, or for the sake of their money: others again, that they may satiate their anger, have chosen to suffer losses without end, and care for none of them, provided only they may work their own will. And yet, what passion can do with us, the fear of God is impotent to effect! Why speak I of passion? What shame before men can do with us, the fear of God has not the strength to effect! Many are the things we do right and wrong, from a feeling of shame before men; but God we fear not. How many have been shamed by regard to the opinions of men into flinging away money! How many have mistakenly made it a point of honor to give themselves up to the service of their friends (only), to their hurt! How many from respect for their friendships have been shamed into numberless wrong acts! Since then both passion and regard for the opinion of men are able to put us upon doing wrong things and right, it is idle to say, "we cannot:" we can, if we have the mind: and we ought to have the mind. Why canst not thou overcome the love of glory, when others do overcome it, having the same soul as thou, and the same body; bearing the same form, and living the same life? Think of God, think of the glory that is from above: weigh against that the things present, and thou wilt quickly recoil from this worldly glory. If at all events thou covet glory, covet that which is glory, indeed. What kind of glory is it, when it begets infamy? What kind of glory, when it compels one to desire the honor of those who are inferior, and stands in need of that? Real honor is the gaining the esteem of those who are greater than one's self. If at all events thou art enamoured of glory, be thou rather enamoured of that which comes from God. If enamoured of that glory thou despisest this world's glory, thou shalt see how ignoble this is: but so long as thou seest not that glory, neither wilt thou be able to see this, how foul it is, how ridiculous. For as those who are under the spell of some wicked, hideously ugly woman, so long as they are in love with her, cannot see her ill-favoredness, because their passion spreads a darkness over their judgment: so is it here also: so long as we are possessed with the passion, we cannot perceive what a thing it is. How then might we be rid of it? Think of those who (for the sake of glory) have spent countless sums, and now are none the better for it:  think of the dead, what glory they got, and (now) this glory is nowhere abiding, but all perished and come to naught: bethink thee how it is only a name, and has nothing real in it. For say, what is glory? give me some definition. "The being admired by all," you will say. With justice, or also not with justice? For if it be not with justice, this is not admiration, but crimination (kategoria), and flattery, and misrepresentation (diabole). But if you say, With justice, why that is impossible: for in the populace there are no right judgments; those that minister to their lusts, those are the persons they admire. And if you would (see the proof of this), mark those who give away their substance to the harlots, to the charioteers, to the dancers. But you will say, we do not mean these, but those who are just and upright, and able to do great and noble good acts. Would that they wished it, and they soon would do good: but as things are, they do nothing of the kind. Who, I ask you, now praises the just and upright man? Nay, it is just the contrary. Could anything be more preposterous than for a just man, when doing any such good act, to seek glory of the many--as if an artist of consummate skill, employed upon an Emperor's portrait, should wish to have the praises of the ignorant! Moreover, a man who looks for honor from men, will soon enough desist from the acts which virtue enjoins. If he will needs be gaping for their praises, he will do just what they wish, not what himself wishes. What then would I advise you? You must look only to God, to the praise that is from Him, perform all things which are pleasing to Him, and go after the good things (that are with Him), not be gaping for anything that is of man: for this mars both fasting and prayer and alms-giving, and makes all our good deeds void. Which that it be not our case, let us flee this passion. To one thing alone let us look, to the praise which is from God, to the being accepted of Him, to the commendation from our common Master; that, having passed through our present life virtuously, we may obtain the promised blessings together with them that love Him, through the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, with whom to the Father, together with the Holy Ghost, be glory, might, honor, now and ever, world without end. Amen.
 That Barnabas and Saul preached first to the Jews for the reason mentioned by Chrysostom is wholly improbable. The mission to the Gentiles entrusted to them never cancelled, in their minds, their obligation to the Jews as having in the plan of God an economic precedence. Paul not only maintained throughout his life an ardent love and longing for his people (Romans 9. and a confident hope of their conversion (Romans 11., but regarded them as still the people of privilege, on the principle: "To the Jew first, and also to the Greek." (Romans 1:16.) This view, together with the fact that they were Jews, constitutes a sufficient explanation for their resort to the synagogues. Additional reasons may be found in the fact that in the synagogues might be found those who were religiously inclined--of both Jewish and Gentile nationality--and who were therefore most susceptible to the influence of Christian truth, and in the fact that the freedom of speech in the synagogue-service offered the most favorable opportunity to expound the Gospel.--G.B.S.
 Chrysostom here hints at the most probable explanation of the change of name in the Acts from Saul to Paul, although that change is not strictly simultaneous with his ordination which occurred at Antioch (v. 3), whereas the first use of the name "Paul" is in connection with his labors at Paphos, after he had preached for a time in Salamis. It seems probable that, as in so many cases, Paul, a Hellenist, had two names, in Hebrew Saul, and in Greek Paul, and that now when he enters distinctively upon his mission to the Gentiles, his Gentile name comes into exclusive use. (So, among recent critics, De Wette, Lechler, Alford, Neander, Gloag.) Other opinions are: (1) that he took the name Paul--signifying little--out of modesty (Augustin); (2) that he was named Paul, either by himself (Jerome), by his fellow-Christians (Meyer) or by the proconsul (Ewald), in honor of the conversion of Sergius Paulus.--G.B.S.
 It can hardly be meant that the smiting of Elymas with blindness was not a judicial infliction to himself; but that the proconsul should see it rather on its merciful side as being only achri kairou. The Hebraistic use of Cheir Kuriou clearly implies a divine judgment upon Elymas as does the whole force of the narrative.--G.B.S.
 Kai ta onomata de legei; epeide prosphatos egraphon; & 234;ra k. t. l. A. B. C. N. Cat. It is not clear whether this relates to the two names, Barjesus and Elymas, (if so we might, read egraphen, "since he wrote just before, (whose name was Barjesus, but now Elymas, for so is his name interpreted,") or to the change of the Apostle's name "Then Saul, who is also called Paul," (and then perhaps the sense of the latter clause may be, Since the change of name was recent: epeidhe prosphatos metegraphe or the like.) The mod. text substitutes, "But he also recites the names of the cities: showing that since they had but recently received the word, there was need (for them) to be confirmed, to continue in the faith: for which reason also they frequently visited them."
 Mod. text omits this sentence. The connection is: Paul inflicts this blindness upon him, not in vengeance, but in order to his conversion, remembering how the Lord Himself had dealt with him on the way to Damascus. But it was not here, as then--no "light shown round about him from heaven."
 Kai (Eita mod.) (hora C. N. Cat.) ten perosin (Cat. purosin) ho anth. kai (om. Cat.) monos episteusen (mod. euthus pisteuei). The reading in Cat. is meant for emendation: "And mark the fervor (or kindling, viz. of the proconsul's mind): the proc. alone believed" etc.
 Mod. text adds, "but, the ways of the Lord, which is more: that he may not seem to pay court."
 ou gar toutou en. "Down. renders it non enim ir? deditus erat, he was not the man for this (anger): or perhaps, For he (John) was not his, not associated by him, but by Barnabas." Ben. But the meaning should rather be, "So great a work was not for him (Mark); he was not equal to it." The connection is of this kind: "Paul knew how great grace had been bestowed on him, and on his own part he brought corresponding zeal. When Mark withdrew, Paul was not angry with him, knowing that the like grace was not bestowed on him, therefore neither could there be the like spoude on his part."
 In mss. and Edd. this portion, to the end of the paragraph, is placed after the part relating to Elymas, "He first convicted," etc. and immediately before the Morale, as if the occasion of the invective against philarchia and kenodoxia were furnished by the conduct of the rulers of the synagogue: but see above, p. 178, in the expos. of v. 8, pantachou he kenodoxia kai he philarchia aitiai ton kakon, and below, the allusion to the blindness of Elymas.
 kai ouden ap' autes karpoumenous, i. e. reaping no fruit from it (the glory which they sought here) where they are now. Mod. text ouden ap' auton karposamenous: "reaped no fruit while here, from their money which they squandered"--mistaking the meaning of the passage, which is, "They got what they sought, but where is it now?"
And when they were at Salamis, they preached the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews: and they had also John to their minister.
And when they had gone through the isle unto Paphos, they found a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Barjesus:
Which was with the deputy of the country, Sergius Paulus, a prudent man; who called for Barnabas and Saul, and desired to hear the word of God.
But Elymas the sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation) withstood them, seeking to turn away the deputy from the faith.
Then Saul, (who also is called Paul,) filled with the Holy Ghost, set his eyes on him,
And said, O full of all subtilty and all mischief, thou child of the devil, thou enemy of all righteousness, wilt thou not cease to pervert the right ways of the Lord?
And now, behold, the hand of the Lord is upon thee, and thou shalt be blind, not seeing the sun for a season. And immediately there fell on him a mist and a darkness; and he went about seeking some to lead him by the hand.
Then the deputy, when he saw what was done, believed, being astonished at the doctrine of the Lord.
Now when Paul and his company loosed from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia: and John departing from them returned to Jerusalem.
But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and sat down.
And after the reading of the law and the prophets the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, Ye men and brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation for the people, say on.
Then Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, Men of Israel, and ye that fear God, give audience.
"Then Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, Men of Israel, and ye that fear God, give audience. The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an high arm brought He them out of it."
Behold Barnabas giving place to Paul--how should it be otherwise?--to him whom he brought from Tarsus; just as we find John on all occasions giving way to Peter: and yet Barnabas was more looked up to than Paul: true, but they had an eye only to the common advantage. "Then Paul stood up," it says;--this  was a custom of the Jews--"and beckoned with his hand." And see how he prepares the way beforehand for his discourse: having first praised them, and showed his great regard for them in the words, "ye that fear God," he so begins his discourse. And he says not, Ye proselytes, since it was a term of disadvantage.  "The God of this people chose our fathers: and the people"--See, he calls God Himself their God peculiarly, Who is the common God of men; and shows how great from the first were His benefits, just as Stephen does. This they do to teach them, that now also God has acted after the same custom, in sending His own Son; (Luke 20:13): as (Christ) Himself (does) in the parable of the vineyard--"And the people," he says, "He exalted when it sojourned in the land of Egypt"--and yet the contrary was the case:  true, but they increased in numbers; moreover, the miracles were wrought on their account: "and with an high arm brought He them out of it." Of these things (the wonders) which were done in Egypt, the prophets are continually making mention. And observe, how he passes over the times of their calamities, and nowhere brings forward their faults, but only God's kindness, leaving those for themselves to think over. "And about the time of forty years suffered He their manners in the wilderness." (v. 18.) Then the settlement. "And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, He divided their land to them by lot." (v. 19.) And the time was long; four hundred and fifty years. "And after that He gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet."  (v. 20.) Here he shows that God varied His dispensations towards them (at divers times). "And afterward they desired a king:" and (still) not a word of their ingratitude, but throughout he speaks of the kindness of God. "And God gave unto them Saul the son of Cis, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, by the space of forty years." (v. 21.) "And when he had removed him, He raised up unto them David to be their king: to whom also He gave testimony, and said, I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after Mine own heart, which shall fulfil all My will. Of this man's seed hath God according to His promise raised unto Israel a Saviour, Jesus." (v. 22, 23.) This was no small thing that Christ should be from David. Then John bears witness to this: "When John had first preached before His coming the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. And as John fulfilled his course, he said, Whom think ye that I am? I am not He. But, behold, there cometh one after me, whose shoes of His feet I am not worthy to loose." (v. 24, 25.) And John too not merely bears witness (to the fact), but (does it in such sort that) when men were bringing the glory to him, he declines it: for it is one thing (not to affect) an honor which nobody thinks of offering; and another, to reject it when all men are ready to give it, and not only to reject it, but to do so with such humility. "Men and brethren, children of the stock of Abraham, and whosoever among you feareth God, to you is the word of this salvation sent. For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they knew Him not, nor yet the voices of the prophets which are read every sabbath day, they have fulfilled them in condemning Him. And though they found no cause of death in Him, yet desired they Pilate that He should be slain." (v. 26-28.) On all occasions we find them making a great point of showing this, that the blessing is peculiarly theirs, that they may not flee (from Christ), as thinking they had nothing to do with Him, because they had crucified Him. "Because they knew Him not," he says: so that the sin was one of ignorance. See how he gently makes an apology even on behalf of those (crucifiers). And not only this: but he adds also, that thus it must needs be. And  how so? "By condemning Him, they fulfilled the voices of the prophets." Then again from the Scriptures. "And when they had fulfilled all that was written of Him, they took Him down from the tree, and laid Him in a sepulchre. But God raised Him from the dead. And He was seen many days of them which came up with Him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are His witnesses unto the people--"(v. 29-31) that He rose again. "And we declare unto you glad tidings, how that the promise which was made unto the fathers, God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that He hath raised up Jesus again; as it is also written in the second Psalm, Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee. And as concerning that He raised Him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, He said on this wise, I will give you the sure mercies of David. Wherefore he saith also in another Psalm, Thou shalt not suffer Thine Holy One to see corruption. For David, after he had served his own generation by the will of God, fell on sleep, and was laid unto his fathers, and saw corruption: but He, Whom God raised again, saw no corruption. Be it known unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this Man is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins: and by Him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses." (v. 32-39.) Observe  how Paul here is more vehement in his discourse: we nowhere find Peter saying this. Then too he adds the terrifying words: "Beware therefore, lest that come upon you, which is spoken of in the prophets; Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish: for I work a work in your days, a work which ye shall in no wise believe, though a man declare it unto you." (v. 40, 41.)
(a) Observe  how he twines (the thread of) his discourse (alternately) from things present, from the prophets. Thus, "from  (this man's) seed according to the promise"--(v. 23): (c) the name of David was dear to them; well then, is it not (a thing to be desired) that a son of his, he says, should be their king?--(b) then he adduces John: then again the prophets, where he says, "By condemning they fulfilled," and again, "All that was written:" then the Apostles as witnesses of the Resurrection: then David bearing witness. For neither the Old Testament proofs seemed so cogent when taken by themselves as they are in this way, nor yet the latter testimonies apart from the former: wherefore he makes them mutually confirm each other. "Men and brethren," etc. (v. 26.) For since they were possessed by fear, as having slain Him, and conscience made them aliens (the Apostles), discourse not with them as unto Christicides, neither as putting into their hands a good which was not theirs, but one peculiarly their own. (d) "For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their rulers:" as much as to say, not ye, but they:  and again, apologizing even for those, "Because they knew Him not, and the voices of the Prophets which are read every sabbath day, in condemning Him, they fulfilled them." A great charge it is against them that they continually hearing heeded not. But no marvel: for what was said above concerning Egypt and the wilderness, was enough to show their ingratitude. And observe how this Apostle also, as one moved by the Spirit Himself,  continually preaches the Passion, the Burial. (g) "Having taken Him down from the tree." Observe, what a great point they make of this. He speaks of the manner of His death. Moreover they bring Pilate (conspicuously) forward, that (the fact of) the Passion may be proved by the mention of the tribunal (by which he was condemned), but at the same time, for the greater impeachment of those (His crucifiers), seeing they delivered Him up to an alien. And he does not say, They made a complaint (against Him), (enetuchon, al. entunchanei) but, "They desired, though having found no cause of death" (in Him), "that He should be slain. (e) Who appeared," he says, "for many days to them that came up with Him from Galilee to Jerusalem." (Romans 11:2.) Instead of  ** he says, "Who are His witnesses unto the people," to wit, "The men which came up with Him from Galilee to Jerusalem." Then he produces David and Esaias bearing witness. "The faithful (mercies)," the abiding (mercies), those which never perish. (h) Paul loved them exceedingly. And observe, he does not enlarge on the ingratitude of the fathers, but puts before them what they must fear. For Stephen indeed with good reason does this, seeing he was about to be put to death, not teaching them; and showing them, that the Law is even now on the point of being abolished: (ch. vii.) but not so Paul; he does but threaten and put them in fear. (f) And he does not dwell long on these,  as taking it for granted that the word is of course believed; nor enlarge upon the greatness of their punishment, and assail that which they affectionately love, by showing the Law about to be cast out: but dwells upon that which is for their good (telling them), that great shall be the blessings for them being obedient, and great the evils being disobedient.
But let us look over again what has been said. "Ye men of Israel," etc. (v. 16-21.) The Promise then, he says, the fathers received; ye, the reality. (j) And observe, he nowhere mentions right deeds of theirs, but (only) benefits on God's part: "He chose: Exalted: Suffered their manners:" these are no matters of praise to them: "They asked, He gave." But David he does praise (and him) only, because from him the Christ was to come. "I have found David, the son of Jesse, a man after Mine own heart, which shall fulfil all My will." (v. 22.) (i) Observe also; it is with praise (that he says of him), "David after that he had served the will of God:" just as Peter--seeing it was then the beginning of the Gospel--making mention of him, said, "Let it be permitted me to speak freely of the patriarch David." (ch. ii. 29.) Also, he does not say, Died, but, "was added to his fathers. (k) Of this man's seed," etc. "When John," he says, "had first preached before His entry"--by entry he means the Incarnation--"the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel." (v. 23-25.) Thus also John, writing his Gospel, continually has recourse to him: for his name was much thought of in all parts of the world. And observe, he does not say it "Of this man's seed," etc. from himself, but brings John's testimony.
"Men and brethren, children of the stock of Abraham"--he also calls them after their father--"unto you was the word of this salvation sent." (v. 26.) Here the expression, "Unto you," does not mean, Unto (you) Jews, but it gives them a right to sever themselves from those who dared that murder. And what he adds, shows this plainly. "For," he says, "they that dwell at Jerusalem, because they know Him not." (v. 27.) And how, you will say, could they be ignorant, with John to tell them? What marvel, seeing they were so, with the prophets continually crying aloud to them? Then follows another charge: "And having found no cause of death in Him:" in which ignorance had nothing to do. For let us put the case, that they did not hold Him to be the Christ: why did they also kill Him? And "they desired of Pilate, he says, that He should be slain." (v. 28.) "And when they had fulfilled all that was written of Him." (v. 29.) Observe what a point he makes of showing that the (whole) thing was a (Divine) Dispensation. See,  by saying what did they persuade men? (By telling them) that He was crucified? Why, what could be less persuasive than this? That He was buried--by them to whom it was promised that He should be salvation? that He who was buried forgives sins, yea, more than the Law (has power to do)? And (observe), he does not say, From which ye would not but, "from which ye could not be justified by the Law of Moses." (v. 39.) "Every one," he says: be who he may. For those (ordinances) are of no use, unless there be some benefit (accruing therefrom.) This is why he brings in forgiveness later: and shows it to be greater, when, the thing being (otherwise) impossible, yet this is effected. "Who are His witnesses," he says, "unto the people"--the people that slew Him. Who would never have been so, were they not strengthened by a Divine Power: for they would never have borne such witness to blood-thirsty men, to the very persons that killed Him. But, "He hath raised up Jesus again: This day," he says, "I have begotten thee."  (v. 33.) Aye, upon this the rest follows of course. Why did he not allege some text by which they would be persuaded that forgiveness of sins is by Him? Because the great point with them was to show, in the first place, that He was risen: this being acknowledged, the other was unquestionable. "Through this man," nay more, by Him, "is remission of sins." (v. 38.) And besides, he wished to bring them to a longing desire of this great thing. Well then, His death was not dereliction, but fulfilling of Prophecy.--For the rest, he puts them in mind of historical facts, wherein they through ignorance suffered evils without number. And this he hints in the conclusion, saying, "Look, ye despisers, and behold." And observe how, this being harsh, he cuts it short. Let not that, he says, come upon you, which was spoken for the others, that "I work a work which ye shall in no wise believe, though one declare it unto you." (v. 41.) Marvel not that it seems incredible: this very thing was foretold from the first--(that it would not be believed). "Behold, ye despisers," as regards those who disbelieve in the Resurrection.
This too might with reason be said to us:  "Behold ye despisers." For the Church indeed is in very evil case, although ye think her affairs to be in peace. For the mischief of it is, that while we labor under so many evils, we do not even know that we have any. "What sayest thou? We are in possession of our Churches, our Church property, and all the rest, the services are held, the congregation comes to Church every day."  True, but one is not to judge of the state of a Church from these things. From what then? Whether there be piety, whether we return home with profit each day, whether reaping some fruit, be it much or little, whether we do it not merely of routine and for the formal acquittance of a duty (aphosioumenoi). Who has become a better man by attending (daily) service for a whole month? That is the point: otherwise the very thing which seems to bespeak a flourishing condition (of the Church,) does in fact bespeak an ill condition, when all this is done, and nothing comes of it. Would to God (that were all), that nothing comes of it: but indeed, as things are, it turns out even for the worse. What fruit do ye get from your services? Surely if you were getting any profit by them, ye ought to have been long leading the life of true wisdom (thes philosophias), with so many Prophets twice in every week discoursing to you, so many Apostles, and Evangelists, all setting forth the doctrines of salvation, and placing before you with much exactness that which can form the character aright. The soldier by going to his drill, becomes more perfect in his tactics: the wrestler by frequenting the gymnastic ground becomes more skilful in wrestling: the physician by attending on his teacher becomes more accurate, and knows more, and learns more: and thou--what hast thou gained? I speak not to those who have been members of the Church only a year, but to those who from their earliest age have been attending the services. Think you that to be religious is to be constant in Church-going (paraballein the sunaxei)? This is nothing, unless we reap some fruit for ourselves: if (from the gathering together in Church) we do not gather (sunagomen) something for ourselves, it were better to remain at home. For our forefathers built the Churches for us, not just to bring us together from our private houses and show us one to another: since this could have been done also in a market-place, and in baths, and in a public procession:--but to bring together learners and teachers, and make the one better by means of the other. With us it has all become mere customary routine, and formal discharge of a duty: a thing we are used to; that is all. Easter comes, and then great the stir, great the hubbub, and crowding of--I had rather not call them human beings, for their behavior is not commonly human. Easter goes, the tumult abates, but then the quiet which succeeds is again fruitless of good. "Vigils, and holy hymn-singing."--And what is got by these? Nay, it is all the worse. Many do so merely out of vanity. Think how sick at heart it must make me, to see it all like (so much water) poured into a cask with holes in it! But ye will assuredly say to me, We know the Scriptures. And what of that? If ye exemplify the Scriptures by your works, that is the gain, that the profit. The Church is a dyer's vat: if time after time perpetually ye go hence without receiving any dye, what is the use of coming here continually? Why, the mischief is all the greater. Who (of you) has added ought to the customary practices he received from his fathers? For example: such an one has a custom of observing the memorial of his mother, or his wife, or his child: this he does whether he be told or whether he be not told by us, drawn to it by force of habit and conscience. Does this displease thee, you ask? God forbid: on the contrary, I am glad of it with all my heart: only, I would wish that he had gained some fruit also from our discoursing, and that the effect which habit has, were also the effect as regards us  (your teachers)--the superinducing of another habit. Else why do I weary myself in vain, and talk uselessly, if ye are to remain in the same state, if the Church services work no good in you? Nay, you will say, we pray. And what of that? "Not every one that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the Kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of My Father which is in heaven." (Matthew 7:21.) Many a time have I determined to hold my peace, seeing no benefit accruing to you from my words; or perhaps there does accrue some, but I, through insatiableness and strong desire, am affected in the same way as those that are mad after riches. For just as they, however much they may get, think they have nothing; so I, because I ardently desire your salvation, until I see you to have made good progress, think nothing done, because of my exceeding eager desire that you should arrive at the very summit. I would that this were the case, and that my eagerness were in fault, not your sloth: but I fear I conjecture but too rightly. For ye must needs be persuaded, that if any benefit had arisen in all this length of time, we ought ere now to have done speaking. In such case, there were no need to you of words, since both in those already spoken there had been enough said for you,  and you would be yourselves able to correct others. But the fact, that there is still a necessity of our discoursing to you, only shows, that matters with you are not in a state of high perfection. Then what would we have to be brought about? for one must not merely find fault. I beseech and entreat you not to think it enough to have invaded  the Church, but that ye also withdraw hence, having taken somewhat, some medicine, for the curing of your own maladies: and, if not from us, at any rate from the Scriptures, ye have the remedies suitable for each. For instance, is any passionate? Let him attend to the Scripture-readings, and he will of a surety find such either in history or exhortation. In exhortation, when it is said, "The sway of his fury is his destruction" (Ecclus. i. 22); and, "A passionate man is not seemly" (Proverbs 11:25); and such like: and again, "A man full of words shall not prosper" (Psalm 140.11); and Christ again, "He that is angry with his brother without a cause" (Matthew 5:22); and again the Prophet, "Be ye angry, and sin not" (Psalm 4:4); and, "Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce." (Genesis 49:7.) And in histories, as when thou hearest of Pharaoh filled with much wrath, and the Assyrian. Again, is any one taken captive by love of money? let him hear, that "There is not a more wicked thing than a covetous man: for this man setteth even his own soul for sale" (Ecclus. ix. 9); and how Christ saith, "Ye cannot serve God and mammon" (Matthew 6:24); and the Apostle, that "the love of money is a root of all evils" (1 Timothy 6:10); and the Prophet, "If riches flow in, set not your heart upon them" (Psalm 62:10); and many other like sayings. And from the histories thou hearest of Gehazi, Judas, the chief scribes, and that "gifts blind the eyes of the wise." (Exodus 23:8 and Deuteronomy 16:19.) Is another proud? Let him hear that "God resisteth the proud" (James 4:6); and, "Pride is the beginning of sin" (Ecclus. x. 14) and, "Every one that hath a high heart, is impure before the Lord." (Proverbs 16:5.) And in the histories, the devil, and all the rest. In a word, since it is impossible to recount all, let each choose out from the Divine Scriptures the remedies for his own hurts.
So wash out, if not the whole at once, a part at any rate, part today, and part tomorrow, and then the whole. And with regard to repentance too, and confession, and almsgiving, and justice also, and temperance, and all other things, thou wilt find many examples. "For all these things," says the Apostle, "were written for our admonition." (1 Corinthians 10:11.) If then Scripture in all its discoursing is for our admonition, let us attend to it as we ought. Why do we deceive ourselves in vain? I fear it may be said of us also, that "our days have fallen short in vanity, and our years with haste." (Psalm 77:33.) Who from hearing us has given up the theatres? Who has given up his covetousness? Who has become more ready for almsgiving? I would wish to know this, not for the sake of vainglory, but that I may be inspirited to more zeal, seeing the fruit of my labors to be clearly evident. But as things now are, how shall I put my hand to the work, when I see that for all the rain of doctrine pouring down upon you shower after shower, still our crops remain at the same measure, and the plants have waxed none the higher? Anon the time of threshing is at hand (and) He with the fan. I fear me, lest it be all stubble: I fear, lest we be all cast into the furnace. The summer is past, the winter is come: we sit, both young and old, taken captive by our own evil passions. Tell not me, I do not commit fornication: for what art thou the better, if though thou be no fornicator thou art covetous? It matters not to the sparrow caught in the snare that he is not held tight in every part, but only by the foot: he is a lost bird for all that; in the snare he is, and it profits him not that he has his wings free, so long as his foot is held tight. Just so, thou art caught, not by fornication, but by love of money: but caught thou art nevertheless; and the point is, not how thou art caught, but that thou art caught. Let not the young man say, I am no money-lover: well, but perchance thou art a fornicator: and then again what art thou the better? For the fact is, it is not possible for all the passions to set upon us at one and the same time of life: they are divided and marked off, and that, through the mercy of God, that they may not by assailing us all at once become insuperable, and so our wrestling with them be made more difficult. What wretched inertness it shows, not to be able to conquer our passions even when taken one by one, but to be defeated at each several period of our life, and to take credit to ourselves for those which (let us alone) not in consequence of our own hearty endeavors, but merely because, by reason of the time of life, they are dormant? Look at the chariot-drivers, do you not see how exceedingly careful and strict they are with themselves in their training-practice, their labors, their diet, and all the rest, that they may not be thrown down from their chariots, and dragged along (by the reins)?--See what a thing art is. Often even a strong man cannot master a single horse: but a mere boy who has learnt the art shall often take the pair in hand, and with ease lead them and drive them where he will. Nay, in India it is said that a huge monster of an elephant shall yield to a stripling of fifteen, who manages him with the utmost ease. To what purpose have I said all this? To show that, if by dint of study and practice we can throttle into submission (anchomen) even elephants and wild horses, much more the passions within us. Whence is it that throughout life we continually fail (in every encounter)? We have never practised this art: never in a time of leisure when there is no contest, talked over with ourselves what shall be useful for us. We are never to be seen in our place on the chariot, until the time for the contest is actually come. Hence the ridiculous figure we make there. Have I not often said, Let us practise ourselves upon those of our own family before the time of trial? With our servants (phaidas) at home we are often exasperated, let us there quell our anger, that in our intercourse with our friends we may come to have it easily under control. And so, in the case of all the other passions, if we practised ourselves beforehand, we should not make a ridiculous figure in the contests themselves. But now we have our implements and our exercises and our trainings for other things, for arts and feats of the pal?stra, but for virtue nothing of the sort. The husbandman would not venture to meddle with a vine, unless he had first been practised in the culture of it: nor the pilot to sit by the helm, unless he had first practised himself well at it: but we, in all respects unpractised, wish for the first prizes! It were good to be silent, good to have no communication with any man in act or word, until we were able to charm (katepadein) the wild beast that is within us. The wild beast, I:say: for indeed is it not worse than the attack of any wild beast, when wrath and lust make war upon us? Beware of invading the market-place (Me embales eis agoran) with these beasts, until thou have got the muzzle well upon their mouths, until thou have tamed and made them tractable. Those who lead about their tame lions in the market-place, do you not see what a gain they make of it, what admiration they get, because in the irrational beast they have succeeded in producing such tameness--but, should the lion suddenly take a savage fit, how he scares all the people out of the market-place, and then both the man that leads him about is himself in danger, and if there be loss of life to others, it is his doing? Well then do thou also first tame thy lion, and so lead him about, not for the purpose of receiving money, but that thou mayest acquire a gain, to which there is none equal. For there is nothing equal to gentleness, which both to those that possess it, and to those who are its objects, is exceeding useful. This then let us follow after, that having kept in the way of virtue, and with all diligence finished our course therein, we may be enabled to attain unto the good things eternal, through the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to the Father and the Holy Ghost together be glory, might, honor, now and ever, world without end. Amen.
 i. e. for one of the congregation to expound or preach: or perhaps rather, to preach standing, not sitting, as Christian bishops did for their sermons. We have transposed the comment to its proper place.--Mod. text adds, "Wherefore he too in accordance with this discourses to them."
 hoper en sumphoras onoma, in regard that a proselyte might be deemed inferior to a Jew of genuine descent, "a Hebrew of the Hebrews."
 kai men tounantion gegonen. Here also we have transposed the comment to the clause to which it belongs. In the Edd. it comes after "And with a high arm," etc. whence Ben. mistaking its reference says, "i. e., if I mistake not, God brought them out of Egypt, that he might bring them into the Land of Promise: but, for their wickedness, the contrary befell: for the greatest part of them perished in the wilderness." It plainly refers to hupsosen--i. e. how is it said, that He exalted them in Egypt, where, on the contrary, they were brought low? This is true--but He did exalt them by increasing them into a great multitude, and by the miracles which He wrought on their behalf.
 Upon the reading of the T. R. (A.V.) the period of the Judges is here stated to have been 450 years. This agrees with the chronology of the book of Judges and of Josephus, but conflicts with 1 Kings 6:1 where we are told that "in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, he began to build the house of the Lord." This would give but 331 years for the period of the Judges. It is the view of many critics that Paul has here followed a different chronology from that of 1 Kings hich was also in use among the Jews and was followed by Josephus (so Meyer.) But if the reading of Tischendorf, Lechler, and Westcott and Hort (R.V.) is adopted--and it is sustained by A. B. C. '--the difficulty, so far as Acts 13:21 is concerned, disappears. This reading places meta tauta after hos etesin sq. and inserts a period after pentekonta. Then the translation would be, "He gave them their land for an inheritance for about four hundred and fifty years. And after these things He gave them judges," etc. On this reading the 450 years is the period of their inheritance, approximately stated, up to the time of the judges. The point from which Paul reckoned is not stated and is uncertain. This is the preferable reading and explanation.--G.B.S.
 Kai pothen hoti aneste phesi kai martures eisin. Eita palin apo ton graphon, followed by v. 29-37. We read, kai pothen; hoti tas phonas ton proph., krinantes touton eplerosan. Eita palin apo t. gr. v. 29-31, ending, kai martures autou eisin pros ton laon hoti aneste. The mod. text "And that no man may say, And whence is this manifest that He rose again? He says that (word), And are His witnesses. Then again He presses them from the Scriptures, v. 29-37."
 This comment, which in the mss. and Edd. is inserted after v. 37, refers to the following verses 38, 39, i. e. to what is there said of the insufficiency of the Law for justification: we have therefore transposed it.
 In the old text the parts lie in the order here shown by the letters a, b, etc. The confusion may be explained by the scribe's copying in the wrong order from the four pages of his tablets: viz. in the first place, in the order 1, 3, 2, 4: then 2, 4, 1, 3: and lastly, 2, 1. In the modern text, a different arrangement is attempted by which all is thrown into worse confusion. Thus it was not perceived that Chrys. having in a cursory way read through v. 24-41, begins his exposition in detail with the remark of the Apostle's passing and repassing from the Old to the New Test. and vice versa, viz. alleging first the Promise, then John, then the Prophets, then the Apostles, then David and Isaiah, v. 24-34; then comments upon the matters contained in these and the following verses, and then as usual goes over the whole again in a second exposition. Now the innovator makes the recapitulation begin immediately after (a), commencing it at v. 26, and collecting the comments in this order: v. 26-32: v. 24-36: v. 17-41.
 The transposition of the part (c), makes this read in the mss. and Edd. as if it were parallel with apo ton paronton (i. e. New Testament facts), apo ton Propheton (Old Testament testimonies).
 It is probable that Chrys. has pointed out the true connection of thought as established by gar (27). "The word of this salvation is sent unto you (of the dispersion) on the ground that the Jews at Jerusalem have rejected it." (So Meyer, Gloag.) The more common explanation is: The word is sent unto you because the Jews have fulfilled the prophecies which spoke of the rejection of the Messiah and have thus proved that He is the Messiah. (De Wette, Hackett, Lechler.)--G.B.S.
 i. e. Though not one of the original witnesses, v. 31, yet, being one who has been moved or raised up, kekinemenon, by the Spirit of Christ Himself, he preaches as they did, insisting much on the Passion, etc.
 'Anti tou, Hoi andres hoi sunanabantes k. t. l. Perhaps the sense may be supplied thus: 'Anti tou, Hou pantes hemeis esmen martures, ii. 32, hou hemeis mart. esmen, iii. 15. Instead of saying as Peter does, "Whereof we are witnesses."
 Kai ouk enchronizei toutois, as in the recapitulation on v. 40, 41. kai hora, trachu on pos hupotemnetai. Hence it is clear that toutois refers not to "the sure mercies of David," as in mss. and Edd. (end of e), but to the threats and terrors (end of h). Below, for all' epiteinei ten kolasin the sense of epiteinei (not as Ben. minatur, but intentat, "makes much of, aggravates, dwells upon the greatness of)", and the whole scope of the passage, require us to read oude. Then, kai meterchetai with the negative extending to the whole clause, "and (like Stephen) assail that which is dear to them, (viz. their pre?minence as Jews,) by showing the Law on the point of being cast out:" then, alla (so we restore for kai) to sumph. endiatr., but dwells, etc.
 Edd. "But let us hear ti kai legontes hoi 'Apost. epeisan, hoti estaurothe, by saying what, by what announcement, the Apostles persuaded (men) that He was crucified." For ti toutou apith. B. has to t. a. "(yea), what is more incredible still." Both clauses must be read interrogatively. The scope of the whole passage (which is obscure in the original) is, the supreme importance of the article of the Resurrection. Leave that out, and see what the preaching of the Apostles would have been; how it would have been received.
 The reading: "In the Second Psalm" is the best attested and is followed by the T. R., R.V. and Wescott and Hort. Proto is found in D. and is supported by the Fathers. It is the more difficult reading and for this reason is preferred by Tischendorf, Lachmann, Meyer, Alford and Gloag. If it is correct, we must suppose that what we now call the first psalm was considered introductory and that our second psalm was counted as the first. In some Heb. mss. this order actually occurs. The reading deutero, however, is better supported. The expression: "this day have I begotten thee" refers evidently to the resurrection of Christ. (Cf. Hebrews 1:5; Romans 1:4.) The resurrection is conceived as the solemn inauguration of Christ into his office as theocratic king represented under the figure of begetting.--G.B.S.
 We have transposed this clause from before, "Behold," etc. preceding.
 Mod. text needlessly adds, Kai kataphronoumen; "And do we make light of these things?"
 Touto kai eph' hemon genesthai, heteran epeisachthenai sunetheian. Morel. Ben. aph' hemon, "By our means," idque unum probandum, Ed. Par. but eph' hemon is not as he renders it, in nobis; the meaning is, "where habit works, this is the effect (in the case of habit): wish it were so in the case of us (where we work)."
 Mod. text "Having been so sufficiently spoken, that ye are able to correct others, eige aponton opheleia tis humin prosegineto, since in their absence some benefit accrued to you."
 hopos eis 'Ekklesian embalete, all' hopos ti kai labontes anachorete. (Above we had the phrase paraballein te sunaxei.) Here the metaphor is taken from an invading army. So below, p. 188, me embales eis agoran.
The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an high arm brought he them out of it.
And about the time of forty years suffered he their manners in the wilderness.
And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Chanaan, he divided their land to them by lot.
And after that he gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.
And afterward they desired a king: and God gave unto them Saul the son of Cis, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, by the space of forty years.
And when he had removed him, he raised up unto them David to be their king; to whom also he gave testimony, and said, I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, which shall fulfil all my will.
Of this man's seed hath God according to his promise raised unto Israel a Saviour, Jesus:
When John had first preached before his coming the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel.
And as John fulfilled his course, he said, Whom think ye that I am? I am not he. But, behold, there cometh one after me, whose shoes of his feet I am not worthy to loose.
Men and brethren, children of the stock of Abraham, and whosoever among you feareth God, to you is the word of this salvation sent.
For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they knew him not, nor yet the voices of the prophets which are read every sabbath day, they have fulfilled them in condemning him.
And though they found no cause of death in him, yet desired they Pilate that he should be slain.
And when they had fulfilled all that was written of him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a sepulchre.
But God raised him from the dead:
And he was seen many days of them which came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses unto the people.
And we declare unto you glad tidings, how that the promise which was made unto the fathers,
God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again; as it is also written in the second psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.
And as concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he said on this wise, I will give you the sure mercies of David.
Wherefore he saith also in another psalm, Thou shalt not suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.
For David, after he had served his own generation by the will of God, fell on sleep, and was laid unto his fathers, and saw corruption:
But he, whom God raised again, saw no corruption.
Be it known unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this man is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins:
And by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses.
Beware therefore, lest that come upon you, which is spoken of in the prophets;
Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish: for I work a work in your days, a work which ye shall in no wise believe, though a man declare it unto you.
And when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles besought that these words might be preached to them the next sabbath.
"And as they were going out (text rec. from the syn. of the Jews,') they besought (the Gentiles) that these words might be spoken unto them on the following sabbath."
Do you mark Paul's wisdom? He not only gained admiration at the time, but put into them a longing desire for a second hearing, while in what he said he dropped some seeds (eipon tina spermata) as it were, and forbore to solve (the questions raised), or to follow out the subject to its conclusion, his plan being to interest them and engage their good-will to himself,  and not make (people) listless and indifferent by casting all at once into the minds of those (who first heard him). He told them the fact, that "through this Man is remission of sins announced unto you," but the how, he did not declare. "And when the congregation was broken up, many of the Jews and worshipping proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas"--after this point he puts Paul first  --"who, speaking unto them, persuaded them to continue in the grace of God." (v. 43.) Do you observe the eagerness, how great it is? They "followed" them, it says. Why did they not baptize them immediately? It was not the proper time: there was need to persuade them in order to their steadfast abiding therein. "And the next sabbath day came almost the whole city together to hear the word of God." (v. 44.) "But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy, and contradicted the things spoken by Paul, contradicting and blaspheming." (v. 45.) See malice wounded in wounding others: this made the Apostles more conspicuous--the contradiction which those offered. In the first instance then they of their own accord besought them to speak (and now they opposed them): "contradicting," it says, "and blaspheming." O recklessness! "Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and said, It was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken to you: but seeing ye put it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles." (v. 46.) Do you mark how by their contentious behavior they the more extended the preaching, and (how the Apostles here) gave themselves the more to the Gentiles, having (by this very thing) pleaded their justification, and made themselves clear of all blame with their own people (at Jerusalem)? (c) See  how by their "envy" they bring about great things, other (than they looked for): they brought it about that the Apostles spake out boldly, and came to the Gentiles! For this is why he says, "And speaking out boldly, Paul and Barnabas said." They were to go out to the Gentiles: but observe the boldness coming with measure:  for if Peter pleaded in his justification, much more these needed a plea, none having called them there. (ch. xi. 4.) But by saying "To you first," he showed that to those also it was their duty (to preach), and in saying "Necessary," he showed that it was necessary to be preached to them also. "But since ye turn away from it"--he does not say, "Woe unto you," and "Ye are punished," but "We turn unto the Gentiles." With great gentleness is the boldness fraught! (a) Also he does not say, "Ye are unworthy," but "Have judged yourselves unworthy. Lo, we turn unto the Gentiles. For so hath the Lord commanded us, saying, I have sent thee to be a light of the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation unto the ends of the earth." (v. 47.) For that the Gentiles might not be hurt at hearing this, as  if the case were so that, had the Jews been in earnest, they themselves would not have obtained the blessings, therefore he brings in the prophecy, saying, "A light of the Gentiles," and, "for salvation unto the ends of the earth. And hearing" (this) "the Gentiles" (v. 48)--this, while it was more cheering to them, seeing the case was this, that whereas those were of right to hear first, they themselves enjoy the blessing, was at the same time more stinging to those--"and the Gentiles," it says, "hearing" (this) "were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord: and believed, as many as were ordained unto eternal life": i. e., set apart for God.  Observe how he shows the speediness of the benefit: "And the word of the Lord was borne through all the region," (v. 49) diephereto,  instead of diekomizeto, "was carried or conveyed through (it)." (d) "But the Jews stirred up the devout and honorable women, and the chief men of the city, and raised persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and expelled them out of their coasts." (v. 50.) "The devout women," (b)  instead of the proselyte-women. They did not stop at "envy," but added deeds also. (e) Do you see what they effected by their opposing the preaching? to what dishonor they brought these ("honorable women")? "But they shook off the dust of their feet against them, and came unto Iconium." (v. 51.) Here now they used that terrible sign which Christ enjoined, "If any receive you not, shake off the dust from your feet" (Matthew 10:14; Mark 6:11); but these did it upon no light ground, but because they were driven away by them. This was no hurt to the disciples; on the contrary, they the more continued in the word: "And the disciples were filled with joy, and with the Holy Ghost" (v. 52) for the suffering of the teacher does not check his boldness, but makes the disciple more courageous.
"And it came to pass in Iconium, that they went both together into the synagogue of the Jews." (ch. xiv. 1.) Again they entered into the synagogues. See how far they were from becoming more timid! Having said, "We turn unto the Gentiles," nevertheless  (by going into the synagogues) they superabundantly fortify their own justification (with their Jewish brethren). "So that," it says, "a great multitude both of Jews and Greeks believed." For it is likely they discoursed as to Greeks also. "But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles, and made their minds evil affected against the brethren." (v. 2.) Together (with themselves) now they took to stirring up the Gentiles too, as not being themselves sufficient. Then why did the Apostles not go forth thence? Why, they were not driven away, only attacked. "Long time therefore abode they speaking boldly in the Lord, which gave testimony unto the word of His grace, and granted signs and wonders to be done by their hands." (v. 3.) This caused their boldness; or rather, of their boldness indeed their own hearty good-will was the cause--therefore it is that for a long while they work no signs--while the conversion of the hearers was (the effect) of the signs,  though their boldness also contributed somewhat. "But the multitude of the city was divided: and part held with the Jews, and part with the Apostles." (v. 4.) No small matter this dividing. And this was what the Lord said, "I am not come to bring peace, but a sword." (Matthew 10:34.) "And when there was an assault made both of the Gentiles, and also of the Jews with their rulers, to use them despitefully, and to stone them, they were ware of it, and fled unto Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia, and unto the region that lieth round about: and there they preached the Gospel." (v. 5-7.) Again, as if they purposely wished to extend the preaching after it was increased, they once more sent them out. See on all occasions the persecutions working great good, and defeating the persecutors, and making the persecuted illustrious. For having come to Lystra, he works a great miracle, by raising the lame man.  "And there sat a certain man at Lystra, impotent in his feet, being a cripple from his mother's womb, who never had walked: the same heard Paul speak: who steadfastly beholding him, and perceiving that he had faith to be healed, said with a loud voice"--why with a loud voice? that the multitude should believe--"Stand upright on thy feet." (v. 8, 9.) But observe, he gave heed, it says, to the things spoken by Paul.  Do you mark the elevation of the man's mind (philosophian)? He was nothing defeated (pareblabe) by his lameness for earnestness of hearing. "Who fixing his eyes upon him, and perceiving," it says, "that he had faith to be made whole." He was already predisposed in purpose of mind.  And yet in the case of the others, it was the reverse: for first receiving healing in their bodies, they were then taken in hand for cure of their souls, but this man not so. It seems to me, that Paul saw into his soul. "And he leaped," it says, "and walked." (v. 10.) It was a proof of his perfect cure, the leaping. "And when the people saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men. And they called Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius, because he was the chief speaker. Then the priest of Jupiter, which was before their city, brought oxen and garlands unto the gates, and would have done sacrifice with the people." (v. 11-13.) But this purpose was not yet manifest, for they spake in their own tongue, saying, "The gods in the likeness of men are come down to us:" therefore the Apostle said nothing to them as yet. But when they saw the garlands, then they went out, and rent their garments, "Which when the Apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out, and saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you." (v. 14, 15.) See how on all occasions they are clean from the lust of glory, not only not coveting, but even repudiating it when offered: just as Peter also said, "Why gaze ye on us, as though by our own power or holiness we had made him to walk" (ch. iii. 12)? so these also say the same. And Joseph also said of the dreams, "Is not their interpretation of God?" (Genesis 60:8.) And Daniel in like manner, "And to me also, not through the wisdom that is in me was it revealed." (Daniel 2:30.) And Paul everywhere says this, as when he says, "And for these things who is sufficient? Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think (aught) as of ourselves, but our sufficiency is of God." (2 Corinthians 2:16; iii. 5.) But let us look over again what has been said.
(Recapitulation.) "And when they were gone out," etc. (v. 42). Not merely were the multitudes drawn to them, but how? they besought to have the same words spoken to them again, and by their actions they showed their earnestness. "Now when the congregation," etc. (v. 43.) See the Apostles on all occasions exhorting, not merely accepting men, nor courting them, but, "speaking unto them," it says, "they persuaded them to continue in the grace of God. But when the Jews," etc. (v. 45.) Why did they not contradict before this? Do you observe who on all occasions they were moved by passion? And they not only contradicted, but blasphemed also. For indeed malice stops at nothing. But see what boldness of speech! "It was necessary," he says, "that the word should have been spoken first to you, but since ye put it from you,"--(v. 46) it  is not put as affronting (though) it is in fact what they did in the case of the prophets: "Talk not to us," said they, "with talk"--(Isaiah 30:10): "but since ye put it from you"--it, he saith, not us: for the affront on your part is not to us. For that none may take it as an expression of their piety (that he says,) "Ye judge not yourselves worthy," therefore he first says, "Ye put it from you," and then, "We turn unto the Gentiles." The expression is full of gentleness. He does not say, We abandon you, but so that it is possible--he would say--that we may also turn hither again: and this too is not the consequence of the affront from you, "for so hath (the Lord) commanded us."--(v. 47.) "Then why have ye not done this?"  It was indeed needful that the Gentiles should hear, and this not before you: it is your own doing, the "before you." "For so hath the Lord commanded us: I have set thee for a light of the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation," i. e. for knowledge which is unto salvation, and not merely of the Gentiles, but of all men, "unto the ends of the earth--As many as were ordained unto eternal life" (v. 48.): this is also a proof, that their having received these Gentiles was agreeable with the mind of God. But "ordained," not in regard of necessity: "whom He foreknew," saith the Apostle, "He did predestinate." (Romans 8:29.) "And the word of the Lord," etc. (v. 49.) No longer in the city (only) were (their doctrines) disseminated, but also in the (whole) region. For when they of the Gentiles had heard it, they also after a little while came over. "But the Jews stirred up the devout women, and raised persecution"--observe even of what is done by the women, they are the authors--"and cast them," it says, "out of their coasts" (v. 50), not from the city merely. Then, what is more terrible, "they shook off the dust of their feet against them, and came unto Iconium. But the disciples, it says, were filled with joy, and with the Holy Ghost." (v. 51, 52.) The teachers were suffering persecution, and the disciples rejoiced.
"And so spake, that a great multitude," etc. (ch. xiv. 1.) Do you mark the nature of the Gospel, the great virtue it has? "Made their minds evil-affected," it says, "against the brethren:" (v. 2.) i. e. slandered the Apostles, raised numberless accusations against them: (these people, being simple,  they "made evil-affected," disposed them to act a malignant part. And see how on all occasions he refers all to God. "Long time," he says, "abode they speaking boldly in the Lord, which gave testimony unto the word of His grace." (v. 3.) Think not this (expression, "Gave testimony,") hath aught derogatory  (to the Lord's Divine Majesty): "Who witnessed," it is said, "before Pontius Pilate." (1 Timothy 6:13.) Then the boldness--"and granted signs and wonders to be done by their hands." Here he speaks it as concerning their own nation. "And the multitude of the city," etc. (v. 4, 5.) Accordingly they did not wait for it, but saw the intention of attacking them,  and fled, on no occasion kindling their wrath,  "to the cities of Lycaonia, Lystra, and Derbe, and the adjacent region." (v. 6.) They went away into the country, not into the cities only.--Observe both the simplicity of the Gentiles, and the malignity of the Jews. By their actions they showed that they were worthy to hear: they so honored them from the miracles only. The one sort honored them as gods, the other persecuted them as pestilent fellows: and (those) not only did not take offence at the preaching, but what say they? "The gods, in the likeness of men, are come down to us;" but the Jews were offended. "And they called Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius." (v. 11, 12.) I suppose Barnabas was a man of dignified appearance also. Here was a new sort of trial, from immoderate zeal, and no small one: but hence also is shown the virtue of the Apostles, (and) how on all occasions they ascribe all to God.
Let us imitate them: let us think nothing our own, seeing even faith itself is not our own, but more God's (than ours).  "For by grace are ye saved through faith; and this," saith he, "not of ourselves; it is the gift of God." (Ephesians 2:8.) Then let us not think great things of ourselves, nor be puffed up, being as we are, men, dust and ashes, smoke and shadow. For say, Why dost thou think great things of thyself? Hast thou given alms, and lavished thy substance? And what of that? Think, what if God had chosen not to make thee rich? think of them that are impoverished, or rather, think how many have given (not their substance only, but) their bodies moreover, and after their numberless sacrifices, have  felt still that they were miserable creatures! Thou gavest for thyself, Christ (not for Himself, but) for thee: thou didst but pay a debt, Christ owed thee not.--See the uncertainty of the future, and "be not high-minded, but fear" (Romans 11:20); do not lessen thy virtue by boastfulness. Wouldest thou do something truly great? Never let a surmise of thy attainments as great enter thy mind. But thou art a virgin? So were those in (the Gospel) virgins, but they got no benefit from their virginity, because of their cruelty and inhumanity.  (Matthew 25:12.) Nothing like humility: this is mother, and root, and nurse,and foundation, and bond of all good things: without this we are abominable, and execrable, and polluted. For say--let there be some man raising the dead, and healing the lame, and cleansing the lepers, but with  proud self-complacency: than this there can be nothing more execrable, nothing more impious, nothing more detestable. Account nothing to be of thyself. Hast thou utterance and grace of teaching? Do not for this account thyself to have aught more than other men. For this cause especially thou oughtest to be humbled, because thou hast been vouchsafed more abundant gifts. For he to whom more was forgiven, will love more (Luke 7:47): if so,  then oughtest thou to be humbled also, for that God having passed by others, took notice of thee. Fear thou because of this: for often this is a cause of destruction to thee, if thou be not watchful. Why thinkest thou great things of thyself? Because thou teachest by words? But this is easy, to philosophize in words: teach me by thy life: that is the best teaching. Sayest thou that it is right to be moderate, and dost thou make a long speech about this thing, and play the orator, pouring forth thy eloquence without a check? But "better than thou is he" shall one say to thee, "who teaches me this by his deeds"--for not so much are those lessons wont to be fixed in the mind which consist in words, as those which teach by things: since if thou hast not the deed, thou not only hast not profited him by thy words, but hast even hurt him the more--"better thou wert silent." Wherefore? "Because the thing thou proposest to me is impossible: for I consider, that if thou who hast so much to say about it, succeedest not in this, much more am I excusable." For this cause the Prophet says, "But unto the sinner said God. Why declarest thou My statutes?" (Psalm 60:16.) For this is a worse mischief, when one who teaches well in words, impugns the teaching by his deeds. This has been the cause of many evils in the Churches. Wherefore pardon me, I beseech you, that my discourse dwells long on this evil affection (pathei). Many take a deal of pains to be able to stand up in public, and make a long speech: and if they get applause from the multitude, it is to them as if they gained the very kingdom (of heaven): but if silence follows the close of their speech, it is worse than hell itself, the dejection that falls upon their spirits from the silence! This has turned the Churches upside down, because both you desire not to hear a discourse calculated to lead you to compunction, but one that may delight you from the sound and composition of the words, as though you were listening to singers and minstrels (kitharodhon kai kitharisthon, supra p. 68): and we too act a preposterous and pitiable part in being led by your lusts, when we ought to root them out. And  so it is just as if the father of a poor cold-blooded child (already, more delicate than it ought to be), should, although it is so feeble, give it cake and cold (drink) and whatever only pleases the child, and take no account of what might do it good; and then, being reproved by the physicians, should excuse himself by saying, "What can I do? I cannot bear to see the child crying." Thou poor, wretched creature, thou betrayer! for I cannot call such a one a father: how much better were it for thee, by paining him for a short time, to restore him to health forever, than to make this short-lived pleasure the foundation of a lasting sorrow? Just such is our case, when we idly busy ourselves about beautiful expressions, and the composition and harmony of our sentences, in order that we may please, not profit: (when) we make it our aim to be admired, not to instruct; to delight, not prick to the heart; to be applauded and depart with praise, not to correct men's manners! Believe me, I speak not other than I-feel--when as I discourse I hear myself applauded, at the moment indeed I feel it as a man (for why should I not own the truth?): I am delighted, and give way to the pleasurable feeling: but when I get home, and bethink me that those who applauded received no benefit from my discourse, but that whatever benefit they ought to have got, they lost it while applauding and praising, I am in pain, and groan, and weep, and feel as if I had spoken all in vain. I say to myself: "What profit comes to me from my labors, while the hearers do not choose to benefit by what they hear from us?" Nay, often have I thought to make a rule which should prevent all applauding, and persuade you to listen with silence and becoming orderliness. But bear with me, I beseech you, and be persuaded by me, and, if it seem good to you, let us even now establish this rule, that no hearer be permitted to applaud in the midst of any person's discourse, but if he will needs admire, let him admire in silence: there is none to prevent him: and let all his study and eager desire be set upon the receiving the things spoken.--What means that noise again?  I am laying down a rule against this very thing, and you have not the forbearance even to hear me!--Many will be the good effects of this regulation: it will be a discipline of philosophy. Even the heathen philosophers--we hear of their discoursing, and nowhere do we find that noisy applause accompanied their words: we hear of the Apostles, making public speeches, and yet nowhere do the accounts add, that in the midst of their speeches the hearers interrupted the speakers with loud expressions of approbation. A great gain will this be to us. But let us establish this rule: in quiet let us all hear, and speak the whole (of what we have to say). For if indeed it were the case that we departed retaining what we had heard, what I insist upon is, that even so the praise is not beneficial  --but not to go too much into particulars (on this point); let none tax me with rudeness --but since nothing is gained by it, nay, it is even mischievous, let us loose the hindrance, let us put a stop to the boundings, let us retrench the gambollings of the soul. Christ spoke publicly on the Mount: yet no one said aught, until He had finished His discourse. I do not rob those who wish to be applauded: on the contrary, I make them to be more admired. It is far better that one's hearer, having listened in silence, should by his memory throughout all time applaud, both at home and abroad, than that having lost all he should return home empty, not possessed of that which was the subject of his applauses. For how shall the hearer be otherwise than ridiculous? Nay, he will be deemed a flatterer, and his praises no better than irony, when he declares that the teacher spoke beautifully, but what he said, this he cannot tell. This has all the appearance of adulation. For when indeed one has been hearing minstrels and players, it is no wonder if such be the case with him, seeing he knows not how to utter the strain in the same manner: but where the matter is not an exhibition of song or of voice, but the drift and purport of thoughts and wise reflection (philosophias), and it is easy for every one to tell and report what was said, how can he but deserve the accusation, who cannot tell what the matter was for which he praised the speaker? Nothing so becomes a Church as silence and good order. Noise belongs to theatres, and baths, and public processions, and market-places: but where doctrines, and such doctrines, are the subject of teaching, there should be stillness, and quiet, and calm reflection, and a haven of much repose (philosophia kai polus ho limen). These things I beseech and entreat: for I go about in quest of ways  by which I shall be enabled to profit your souls. And no small way I take this to be: it will profit not you only, but us also. So shall we not be carried away with pride (ektrachelizesthai), not be tempted to love praises and honor, not be led to speak those things which delight, but those which profit: so shall we lay the whole stress of our time and diligence not upon arts of composition and beauties of expression, but upon the matter and meaning of the thoughts. Go into a painter's study, and you will observe how silent all is there. Then so ought it to be here: for here too we are employed in painting portraits, royal portraits (every one of them), none of any private man, by means  of the colors of virtue--How now? Applauding again? This is a reform not easy, but (only) by reason of long habit, to be effected.--The pencil moreover is the tongue, and the Artist the Holy Spirit. Say, during the celebration of the Mysteries, is there any noise? any disturbance? when we are baptizing (baptizometha), when we are doing all the other acts? Is not all Nature decked (as it were) with stillness and silence?  Over all the face of heaven is scattered this charm (of repose).--On this account are we evil spoken of even among the Gentiles, as though we did all for display and ostentation. But if this be prevented, the love of the chief seats also will be extinguished. It is sufficient, if any one be enamoured of praise, that he should obtain it after having been heard, when all is gathered in.  Yea, I beseech you, let us establish this rule, that doing all things according to God's will, we may be found worthy of the mercy which is from Him, through the grace and compassion of His only begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to the Father together with the Holy Spirit be glory, dominion, honor, now and ever, world without end. Amen.
 mss. and Edd. apartisai kai oikeiosai heauto. The Catena has preserved the true reading anartesai. in the sense, to make them hang upon (him for further communications).--Below, to panta athroon eis tas ekeinon rh& 178;psai psuchas, the ekeinon distinguishes the first hearers from the people generally: if he had spoken all at once to those, the consequence would have been chaunoterous ergasasthai, not that "nearly the whole city" should assemble on the following sabbath.
 Edd. from E .F. autos heautou instead of tou Paulou. We have restored the comments to their proper clauses in the Scripture text.
 The order of the exposition in the mss. and Edd. marked by the letters a, b, etc. is much confused, but not irremediably. The matter falls into suitable connection, when the parts are taken in the order c, a, d, b.
 all' hora ten parresian meta metrou ginomenen. A. meta to metrou. Mod. text metro. If this be not corrupt, it may be explained by the clause at the end of c, polles epieikeias he parr. gemousa, but then the connection with the following ei gar Petros k. t. l. is obscure. Perhaps from A. we may restore meta to Petrou: "the boldness coming to them after the affair of Peter."
 hos ek tes ekeinon spoudes me (om. A. B.) tunchanonta ton agathon.
 The expression: "As many as were ordained to eternal life believed," has been both minimized and exaggerated. Chrys. points the way to its correct interpretation in saying: "set apart for God" and adding later: "not in regard of necessity." The writer is by no means seeking to define a doctrine of the divine plan in its bearing upon human self-determination, but pointing out a historical sequence. Those who became believers were as truly so in God's plan as they are so in fact. The passage says nothing of the relation of God's ordainment to the believer's choice. It is an example of the Pauline type of thought which grounds salvation upon the eternal purpose of God. Whoever are saved in fact, were saved in God's purpose. If as matter of fact they are saved on condition of faith and not through the enforcement of a decretum absolutum, then it is certain that their salvation as foreseen in God's purpose does not exclude their self-determination and personal acceptance.--G.B.S.
 diephereto, was published, E.V. diapherein angelias, "to bear tidings," and diapheretai ho logos, "the saying is bruited," are classical, but perhaps the expression was not familiar to Chrysostom's hearers.
 'Anti tou, ouk estesan mechri tou zelou. As in the mss. this clause follows that at the end of a, anti tou, diekomizeto, the anti tou may be only an accidental repetition. At the end of this clause, the mss. have hora palin pos (om. A. C. Cat.) diokomenoi, and then, pos (C. Cat.) hetera katask. (beginning of c.) The former clause, as the conclusion of b, may be completed with "they extend the preaching," or the like. But probably diokomenoi is due to the scribes, who seem to have understood by zelou here the zeal of the Apostles, not the envy of the Jews, v. 45.
 ek polles periousias homos anairousin auton ten apologian. The sense is evidently as above, but anair. will hardly bear this meaning, and perhaps was substituted for some other word by the copyist, who took it to mean, "They leave the Jews no excuse."--The connection is, It was not because they were less bold than when they said, "We turn unto the Gentiles," that they still went to the Jews first: but ex abundanti they enabled themselves to say to their brethren at Jerusalem, We did not seek the Gentiles, until repulsed by the Jews.
 ton semeion en. A. has semeion en. In the preceding clause, C. mechri pollou semeia poiousi, the rest ou poiousi. The antithesis ten men (om. A.) parresian...to de pisteusai must be rendered as above: not as Ben. immo fiduciam addebat ipsorum alacritas....Quod autem auditores crederent inter signa reputandum.
 Here all the mss. have kai megale te phone (to which mod. text adds kai pos, akoue.) then the text 8, 9, 10, followed by Dia ti, meg. te ph. and so all the Edd. But in fact that clause is only the reporter's abbreviation of the Scripture text, kai [en Lustrois....to] megale te phone, followed by its comment.
 Mod. text adds, touto gar esti to ekousen.--Below pareblabe is an expression taken from the foot-race: this was a race in which his lameness was no hindrance.
 Ede okeioto ten proairesin. Strangely rendered by Erasmus, Jam pr?electione assumptus familiariter erat, and Ben. Jam pr?electionem in familiaritatem assumserat.
 ouden hubristikon, ho de kai epi ton proph. epoioun. The meaning appears from the context to be: he speaks throughout with much epieikeia. When he says apotheisthe, he does not upbraid them with this as hubris, a personal outrage to himself and Barnabas, though in fact he might have done so, being just what their fathers did to the prophets: but he does not say, Ye repulse us, for the affront is not to us. And he says it to show that in what he is going to say, "Ye judge yourselves not worthy of eternal life," he does not mean that they do this of humility. In short, he says it not by way of complaint, but to justify what he adds, "Lo, we turn to the Gentiles."
 Mod. text omits this clause, which we take as an interlocution: q. d. "If the Lord ordered you to go to the Gentiles, why did ye not do this in the first instance." In the next sentence, A. C. kai touto ou par hemon par humon de gegone to, pro humon (B., with accidental omission, kai touto pro humon. Houto gar), meaning, "And this is not our doing, but yours, the before you:' i. e. the Gentiles hearing the word before you. But Cat., kai touto ou pro humon, par humon de k. t. l. (attested by the mutilated reading in B.) which we have expressed in the translation.--The mod. text has plen touto ou par hemon, par humon de gegone to pro humon opheilon: which Ben. takes to be corrupt, but leaves in the text, only adopting in the translation to par hemon opheilon, which interpres legisse videtur. Downe ap. Sav. proposes to pro touton humin opheilomenon vel hopheilon. Sed pr?stare videtur lectio quam propono, quamque secutus est vetus Interpres Latinus, Ben. forgetting that the Latin version is Erasmus's (Veruntamen hoc non ex nobis facimus. A vobis autem factum est, quod a nobis oportebat, Erasm.) and was made from E. which has no such reading here. Ed. Par. Ben. 2. expresses the sense of E. thus, Quod nos oporteat ante vos gentes erudire,' it is your doing that it is become our duty to teach the Gentiles before you.
 aplastous ontas (i. e. the Gentiles who would otherwise have received the Apostles) kakourgos diethekan, evidently the interpretation of ekakosan: not evil-treated the Apostles, etc.
 Me touto elattoseos einai nomises. The innovator (Edd.), mistaking the meaning, connects this and the following clauses thus: "For when they said, hote gar elegon, "Which witnessed," saith it, "before Pontius P., then the (His?) boldness was shown, but here he speaks concerning the people:" what he meant is not easy to see, nor does it much matter. Below, entautha peri tou laou phesin, i. e. the parresia is in reference to their own nation (Israel): they spake boldly to the Gentiles, fearless of the reproaches of the Jews.
 It seems clear from the fact that the apostles are said to have been aware (v. 6) of what the Jews had done against them, that the word horme (v. 5) can hardly mean an "assault" (A.V.) or even "onset" (R.V.) in the sense of any open violence. There would be no propriety in Luke adding that they became aware of an attack upon them. Orme must have here the sense of appetitus animi--a strong movement of mind, an intention to attack them--"Trieb" "Drang." (Meyer.) The word occurs in but one other passage (James 3:4) where the horme of the pilot is spoken of as directing the ship, evidently, meaning the "purpose" or "intention." (So Trench, Gloag, Meyer, Lechler, Alford.)--G.B.S.
 oudamou ton thumon auton ekkaiontes (restored to its fitting-place after katephugon), i. e. as on all occasions we find them forbearing to kindle the wrath of their enemies, so here, seeing the intended assault, they fled. Mod. text entha oudamou and ekkaiein en, "fled to Derbe," etc. where (the enemies) had nowhere power to let their wrath blaze against them: so that they went away into the country-parts, etc.
 So the order must be restored instead of, kai touto phesi dia pisteos ouk ex hemon; alla to pleon tou Theou; Theou gar phesi to doron. The mod. text, "And that it is not ours, but the more (part) God's:" hear Paul saying, "And this not of ourselves, it is the gift of God:" omitting dia pisteos, which is essential to the sense.--Perhaps we may read, kai touto, phesi, to "dia p."
 heautous etalanisan, "not as thou, heautous emakarisan."
 dia ten omoteta kai ten apanthropian. A strong expression, but so in the Homily on the Parable of the Virgins, Matt. p. 751, Am. Ed. p. 470, he interprets that the oil is charity (alms-giving), and that even virgins, lacking this, "are cast out with the harlots:" kai ton apanthropon kai ton aneleemona histesi met' auton (sc. ton pornon).
 meta aponoias, so Hom. xxxi. p. 196, ouk apenoethesan, "they did not bear themselves proudly."
 oukoun kai tapeinousthai chre. "if he to whom most is forgiven, loveth most, so ought he to whom more is given, to humble himself more."
 kai tauton ginetai, hoion an ei tis pater psuchrou (mod. text om.) kai pera tou deontos malthakou paidiou k. t. l. plakounta epido kai psuchron kai hosa terpei monon k. t. l. Erasmus translates loosely, videns puerum, quem supra modum tenere amat, ?grotum, illi frigida et qu?cumque oblectant, porrigat. Ben., si pater nimis molli puero, etsi infirmanti, frigidam placentam et qu? solum oblectant porrigat. If the text be not corrupt, pera tou d. malth. may mean, "brought up more tenderly than need be although ill," and psuchrou, "silly." But the psuchron following may rather imply the physical sense as above expressed: the child is a poor creature, with no warmth or life in it, yet the father instead of warm and nourishing food, gives it cake and cold drink, etc.
 Dia ti ekrotesate; even now while he was protesting against this evil custom, derived from the theatres, some of the hearers could not refrain from expressing their approbation by applause.--Comp. de Sacerdot. lib. v. init. Hom. xv. in Rom. fin, Hom, vii. in Laz. ?I. xvii. in Matt. ?7.
 malista men oude houto chresimos ho epainos. i. e. as appears from the context, "to the preacher:" it does him no good, it is even a harm, both by hindering him (koluma) and by elating his mind (skirtemata kai pedemata tes psuches). In the intermediate clause, all' ouk an ekribologesamen, me me tis agroikias grapheto, the meaning implied seems to be--"as it would be easy to show, were it not ungracious to point out to you how little your praise is worth."
 Perieimi gar toutous zeton. Read tropous. Mod. text adds pantas eidena to the former sentence, and here II. gar kai autos tropous pantoious epizeton.
 dia ton chromaton tes arethes. Erasm. and Ben. ungrammatically, propter (ob) coloris virtutem; as meaning that such is the virtue or value of the colors, that they are fit to be employed only on imperial portraits. But the connection is plainly this: "the colors are the hues of virtue, the pencil is the tongue, the Artist the Holy Spirit." In the next sentence the old text has: ouk eukolon touto alla to me polle sunetheia katorthothenai, which is corrupt, unless indeed it may be construed, "but (it is) the not being, by reason of long habit, successfully achieved: i. e. it only shows that I have not, such is the force of long habit, succeeded in carrying my point." The mod. text Ouk euk. to pragma dokei, kai touto ou phusei alla to sunethei& 139; polle mepo katorthoun auto memathekenai. "It seems to be no easy matter, this: and this, not naturally, but by reason that from long habit you have not yet learnt to effect this reformation."
 ouk hesuchi& 139; kai sige (mss. hesuchia kai sige) ta panta kekosmetai (mod. text katechei). We alter the punctuation, and understand by ta panta not "all the proceedings in Church," but "all nature."
 hotan panta sullege, when all (that he has spoken) is gathered in by diligent attention of the hearers. Mod. text hotan tous karpous sullege, "when he collects the fruits."
Now when the congregation was broken up, many of the Jews and religious proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas: who, speaking to them, persuaded them to continue in the grace of God.
And the next sabbath day came almost the whole city together to hear the word of God.
But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy, and spake against those things which were spoken by Paul, contradicting and blaspheming.
Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and said, It was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken to you: but seeing ye put it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles.
For so hath the Lord commanded us, saying, I have set thee to be a light of the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation unto the ends of the earth.
And when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord: and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed.
And the word of the Lord was published throughout all the region.
But the Jews stirred up the devout and honourable women, and the chief men of the city, and raised persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and expelled them out of their coasts.
But they shook off the dust of their feet against them, and came unto Iconium.
And the disciples were filled with joy, and with the Holy Ghost.