1 Corinthians 10:1
Moreover, brothers, I would not that you should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
X.

(1) Moreover, brethren,. . . .—Better, For I would not, brethren, that you should be ignorant. From the strong statement of personal self-distrust with which the previous chapter concludes, the Apostle now passes on to show that Jewish history contains solemn examples of the falling-away of those who seemed to stand strong in divine favour and privilege. The same kind of dangers still beset God’s people, but they will never be greater than the strength which God will give to bear them. These thoughts are then applied to the immediate subject in hand, viz., the partaking of meat which had been used in the heathen temples. The subject is, as it were, taken up from 1Corinthians 8:13, where an expression of personal willingness to forego a right, led the writer aside to the subject which occupies 1 Corinthians 9. Uniting 1Corinthians 11:1, with the last verse of this chapter, the general outline of the argument is as follows:—

1Corinthians 10:1-11. The history of the Jewish Church contains examples which ought to be warnings against self-confidence.

1Corinthians 10:12-14. These thoughts should make the Christians distrustful of themselves, but not hopeless.

1Corinthians 10:15-17. The unity of the Christian body with Christ, as expressed and realised in the Holy Communion, renders impossible a communion of the same body with the objects of idolatrous worship.

1Corinthians 10:18-22. Any partaking of idolatrous feasts would involve union to such extent as would compromise, just as Israel’s partaking of sacrifical offerings involved union with the altar of Jehovah.

1Co 10:23 -1Co_11:1. An enunciation of the principles deduced from the foregoing considerations which should guide the Corinthian Christians in their partaking of meat which might have been offered to idols.

That ye should be ignorant.—The thought here is not that his readers were at all likely to be ignorant of the mere historical fact which he now recalls, and with which they were doubtless quite familiar, but that they were probably unmindful of the spiritual lessons which are to be learnt from such a grouping of the facts as the Apostle now gives, and of the striking contrast between the enjoyment of great privileges by all (five times emphatically repeated) and the apostacy of the greater part of them. The Apostle assumes their familiarity with the facts referred to, and does not feel it needful to mention that of the “all,” literally only two (Joshua and Caleb) gained the ultimate approval of Jehovah.

Our fathers.—These words need not limit the reference of this teaching to the Jewish Christians only. It would include all Christians by right of spiritual descent.

1 Corinthians 10:1-3. Moreover — Or now; brethren — That you may be induced to attend to the exhortation which I have been giving you, and may run your Christian race with resolution, zeal, and diligence, and not become reprobates, consider how highly favoured your fathers were, who were God’s elect and peculiar people, and nevertheless were rejected by him. They were all under the cloud, that eminent token of God’s gracious presence with them, which defended them from the Egyptians; (Exodus 14:20;) being to the latter a cloud of darkness, but giving light by night to the Israelites; the cloud which accompanied them in their journeyings, and was spread over them like a covering, to screen them from the heat of the sun, intense in the deserts of Arabia, Numbers 14:14. And all passed through the sea — God opening a way through the midst of the waters; and were all baptized, as it were, unto Moses — Initiated into the religion which he taught them; in the cloud and in the sea — Perhaps sprinkled here and there with drops of water from the sea, and from the cloud, by which baptism might be more evidently signified. But whether or not, as the Israelites, by being hid from the Egyptians under the cloud, and by passing through the sea, were made to declare their belief in the Lord and in his servant Moses, (Exodus 14:31,) the apostle very properly represents them as being thereby baptised unto Moses. And did all eat the same spiritual meat — That is, the manna, which was an emblem of the bread of life; that came down from heaven — Namely, 1st, Of Christ’s flesh and blood, or his obedience unto death, which is meat indeed, John 6:55. 2d, Of his heavenly doctrine, whereby the souls of the faithful are supported and nourished, John 6:63. And 3d, Of the sacramental bread which we eat at his table. The word spiritual is here used for typical, as it is also Revelation 11:8, where we read, Which great city spiritually, (that is, typically,) is called Sodom and Egypt. That the feeding of the Israelites with manna had a typical meaning, appears from Deuteronomy 8:3; and that it signified true doctrine in particular, appears from its being called angels’ food, Psalm 78:25. And it is termed spiritual meat, because the spiritual blessings which it typified were the same with those typified by the bread in the Lord’s supper, which the Corinthians ate.10:1-5 To dissuade the Corinthians from communion with idolaters, and security in any sinful course, the apostle sets before them the example of the Jewish nation of old. They were, by a miracle, led through the Red Sea, where the pursuing Egyptians were drowned. It was to them a typical baptism. The manna on which they fed was a type of Christ crucified, the Bread which came down from heaven, which whoso eateth shall live for ever. Christ is the Rock on which the Christian church is built; and of the streams that issue therefrom, all believers drink, and are refreshed. It typified the sacred influences of the Holy Spirit, as given to believers through Christ. But let none presume upon their great privileges, or profession of the truth; these will not secure heavenly happiness.Moreover, brethren - But, or now (δε de). This verse, with the following illustrations 1 Corinthians 10:1-4, is properly connected in Paul's argument with the statements which he had made in 1 Corinthians 8:8, etc., and is designed to show the danger which would result from their partaking of the feasts that were celebrated in honor of idols. It is not improbable, as Mr. Locke supposes, that the Corinthians might have urged that they were constantly solicited by their pagan friends to attend those feasts; that in their circumstances it was scarcely possible to avoid it; that there could be no danger of their relapsing into idolatry; and their doing so could not be offensive to God, since they were known to be Christians; since they had been baptized, and purified from sin; since they were devoted to his service; since they knew that an idol was nothing in the world; and since they had been so highly favored, as the people of God, with so many extraordinary endowments, and were so strongly guarded against the possibility of becoming idolaters. To meet these considerations, Paul refers them to the example of the ancient Jews. They also were the people of God. They had been solemnly dedicated to Moses and to God. They had been especially favored with spiritual food from heaven, and with drink miraculously, poured from the rock. Yet notwithstanding this, they had forgotten God, had become idolaters, and had been destroyed. By their example, therefore, Paul would warn the Corinthians against a similar danger.

I would not that ye should be ignorant - A large part of the church at Corinth were Gentiles. It could hardly be supposed that they were well informed respecting the ancient history of the Jews. Probably they had read these things in the Old Testament; but they might not have them distinctly in their recollection. Paul brings them distinctly before their minds, as an illustration and an admonition. The sense is, "I would not have you unmindful or forgetful of these things; I would have you recollect this case, and suffer their example to influence your conduct. I would not have you suppose that even a solemn consecration to God and the possession of distinguished tokens of divine favor are a security against the danger of sin, and even apostasy; since the example of the favored Jews shows that even in such circumstances there is danger."

How that all our fathers - That is, the fathers of the Jewish community; the fathers of us who are Jews. Paul speaks here as being himself a Jew, and refers to his own ancestors as such. The word "all" here seems to be introduced to give emphasis to the fact that even those who were destroyed 1 Corinthians 10:5 also had this privilege. It could not be pretended that they had not been devoted to God, since all of them had been thus consecrated professedly to his service. The entire Jewish community which Moses led forth from Egypt had thus been devoted to him.

Were under the cloud - The cloud - the "Shechinah" - the visible symbol of the divine presence and protection that attended them out of Egypt. This went before them by day as a cloud to guide them, and by night it became a pillar of fire to give them light; Exodus 13:21-22. In the dangers of the Jews, when closely pressed by the Egyptians, it went beHinD them, and became dark to the Egyptians, but light to the Israelites, thus constituting a defense; Exodus 14:20. In the wilderness, when traveling through the burning desert, it seems to have been expanded over the camp as a covering, and a defense from the intense rays of a burning sun; Numbers 10:34, "And the cloud of Jehovah was upon them by day;" Numbers 14:14, "Thy cloud standeth over them." To this fact the apostle refers here. It was a symbol of the divine favor and protection; comp Isaiah 4:5. It was a guide, a shelter, and a defense. The Jewish Rabbis say that "the cloud encompassed the camp of the Israelites as a wall encompasses a city, nor could the enemy come near them." Pirke Eleazer, chapter 44, as quoted by Gill. The probability is, that the cloud extended over the whole camp of Israel, and that to those at. a distance it appeared as a pillar.

And all passed through the sea - The Red Sea, under the guidance of Moses, and by the miraculous interposition of God; Exodus 14:21-22. This was also a proof of the divine protection and favor, and is so adduced by the apostle. His object is to accumulate the evidences of the divine favor to them, and to show that they had as many securities against apostasy as the Corinthians had, on which they so much relied.

CHAPTER 10

1Co 10:1-33. Danger of Fellowship with Idolatry Illustrated in the History of Israel: Such Fellowship Incompatible with Fellowship in the Lord's Supper. Even Lawful Things Are to Be Forborne, so as Not to Hurt Weak Brethren.

1. Moreover—The oldest manuscripts read "for." Thus the connection with the foregoing chapter is expressed. Ye need to exercise self-denying watchfulness notwithstanding all your privileges, lest ye be castaways. For the Israelites with all their privileges were most of them castaways through want of it.

ignorant—with all your boasted "knowledge."

our fathers—The Jewish Church stands in the relation of parent to the Christian Church.

all—Arrange as the Greek, "Our fathers were all under the cloud"; giving the "all" its proper emphasis. Not so much as one of so great a multitude was detained by force or disease (Ps 105:37) [Bengel]. Five times the "all" is repeated, in the enumeration of the five favors which God bestowed on Israel (1Co 10:1-4). Five times, correspondingly, they sinned (1Co 10:6-10). In contrast to the "all" stands "many (rather, 'the most') of them" (1Co 10:5). All of them had great privileges, yet most of them were castaways through lust. Beware you, having greater privileges, of sharing the same doom through a similar sin. Continuing the reasoning (1Co 9:24), "They which run in a race, run all, but one receiveth the prize."

under the cloud—were continually under the defense of the pillar of cloud, the symbol of the divine presence (Ex 13:21, 22; Ps 105:39; compare Isa 4:5).

passed through the sea—by God's miraculous interposition for them (Ex 14:29).1 Corinthians 10:1-5 The Jews who came out of Egypt had all sacraments

typical of ours, yet many of them perished through sin.

1 Corinthians 10:6-12 Their examples should serve, as they were intended,

for our admonition.

1 Corinthians 10:13 God will not suffer his servants to be tempted

beyond their strength.

1 Corinthians 10:14-22 Christians must flee idolatry, and not by partaking

of idol sacrifices own fellowship with devils.

1 Corinthians 10:23-30 Even in the use of things lawful we should consult

the good of others,

1 Corinthians 10:31 and refer all we do to God’s glory,

1 Corinthians 10:32,33 careful to give none offence, after the apostle’s

own example.

The apostle saw that many in this church of Corinth were puffed up with their knowledge, and other gifts and great privileges with which God had blessed them; as also with the opinion of their being a gospel church, and some of the first-fruits of the Gentiles unto Christ, and might therefore think, that they needed not to be pressed to such degrees of strictness and watchfulness; therefore, to beat them off from this confidence and vain presumption, the apostle here sets before them the example of the church of the Jews: when he tells them, he would not have them ignorant, his meaning is, he would have them know and remember, he would have them well acquainted with and to reflect upon this, that all the Jews in Moses’s time, whom he calls their fathers, not according to the flesh, for the Corinthians were not descended from Jews, but with respect to the covenant, and their relation they stood unto God, as they were the only people God had on earth; these, he saith, were all of them (the whole camp of Israel) under very great privileges, of which he reckoneth divers: they were under the conduct of the cloud, Exodus 13:21; and they all obtained the favour of God so far for them, as to divide the Red Sea, so as they passed through it upon dry ground.

Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant,.... The apostle having suggested his own fears and jealousies, lest, notwithstanding all his gifts and grace, he should be left to do anything that might be a means of laying him aside, and rendering him useless in his ministerial work; and which he hints for the use of these Corinthians, who boasted of their knowledge, and made an imprudent use of their Christian liberty, to the hurt of weak minds; he proceeds to lay before them the case of the Jewish fathers, who, notwithstanding the many favours and privileges they were blessed with, yet falling into lust, fornication, intemperance, and idolatry, their carcasses fell in the wilderness, and entered not into the land of rest; wherefore the apostle would not have them be ignorant, or unmindful, or take no notice of these things, since they were for ensamples to them, and written for their admonition, and were warnings to them to take care lest they should also fall: particularly the apostle's view is to dissuade from the eating of things offered to idols, though a thing indifferent, and from their imprudent use of their Christian liberty with respect unto it; since it was not only doing an injury to weak believers, but it likewise exposed themselves to danger, who, by using such freedom as to sit in an idol's temple, and there publicly eat, might be drawn into idolatry itself; nor should they depend upon their knowledge, and gifts, and attainments, since it is clear, from these instances, that the highest external privileges, favours, and enjoyments, cannot secure men from falling: for which purpose it was proper to call to mind,

how that all our fathers were under the cloud; which was a symbol of the divine presence with the Israelites, as it was on Mount Sinai, and in the tabernacle and temple; was a protection of them, being in the daytime as a pillar of cloud to screen them from the scorching heat of the sun, and in the night time as a pillar of fire to preserve them from beasts of prey, as well as in both to guide and direct them in the way; and was a type of Christ, who is a covert from the heat, as well as the wind and storm; a protection of his people from the vindictive justice and wrath of God, and from the rage and fury of men and devils. This also might express the state and condition of the former dispensation, which was dark and obscure in comparison of the present one, in which saints, with open face, behold the glory of the Lord; and likewise the state of the people of God in this world, even under the present dispensation, who, in comparison of the heavenly glory, and the beatific vision the saints enjoy there see but through a glass darkly. This cloud, which is sometimes represented as a pillar, was not an erect solid body, which was at some distance before the Israelites, and merely as a guide, but was all around them; it was before them, and behind them, and on each side, and was over them; see Numbers 14:14 so that the apostle rightly says they were under it. And to distant beholders in the daytime it looked like a pillar of cloud; and in the nighttime, the sun being down, it looked like a pillar of fire; for one and the same thing is meant by both and so the Jews say (z), that

"the pillar of cloud, encompassed the camp of Israel, as a wall encompasses a city, nor could the enemy come at them.''

Hence those allusions to it in Isaiah 4:5. The Jews indeed speak of several clouds of glory; nor are they agreed about the number of them:

"when the people of Israel were travelling in the wilderness, they say (a), they had clouds of glory, "that surrounded them", four at the four winds of the world, that the evil eye might not rule over them, "and one above them", that the heat and sun, as also the hail and rain, might not have power over them; and one below them, which carried them as a nurse carrieth her sucking child in her bosom; and another ran before them at the distance of three days' journey, to level the mountains, and elevate the plains, and it slew all the fiery serpents and scorpions in the wilderness.''

And elsewhere (b) it is said,

"how many were the clouds of glory, "that encompassed Israel" in the wilderness? R. Hoshea and R. Josiah are divided. R. Josiah says five, four at the four winds, and one went before them. R. Hoshea says seven, four at the four winds of the heavens, and one "above them", and one below them, and one ran before them;''

to which he ascribes the above effects: but the Scripture speaks but of one cloud, which departed at the death of Moses:

and all passed through the sea; the Red sea, in a very miraculous manner; Moses by a divine order lift up his rod, and stretched out his hand over it, and the Lord by a strong east wind caused it to go back, and made it dry land; the waters were divided, and rose up as a wall, on the right hand, and on the left, so that the children of Israel passed through it on dry ground, and all came safe to shore, and not one perished; and yet but two of these entered into the land of Canaan. Origen (c) says,

"he had heard it as a tradition from the ancients, that in the passage through the sea, to every tribe of Israel were made separate divisions of water, and that every tribe had its own way open in the sea.''

And indeed this is a tradition of the Jews, whom he means by the ancients, or at least such who had received it from them; by which it appears to be a very ancient one.

"R. Eliezer says (d), that in the day in which the waters flowed, and were congealed together, there were twelve paths made, according to the twelve tribes, and the waters became a wall.''

The same is related, by others (e): Mahomet has it in his Alcoran (f), in which he was assisted by a Jew, and from whom he doubtless had it. He observes, it was said to Moses,

"smite the sea with thy rod, and when he had smitten it, it became divided into twelve parts, between which were as many paths, and every part was like a vast mountain.''

continued...

Moreover, {1} brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our {a} fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;

(1) He sets out that which he said, laying before them an example of the horrible judgment of God against those who had in effect the very same pledges of the same adoption and salvation that we have. And yet nonetheless when they gave themselves to idol's feasts, they perished in the wilderness, being horribly and manifoldly punished. Now, moreover and besides that these things are fitly spoken against those who frequented idol's feasts, the same also seems to be alleged to this end and purpose, because many men think that those things are not of such great weight that God will be angry with them if they use them. And so they frequent Christian assemblies and are baptized, and receive the communion, and confess Christ.

(a) Paul says this in respect of the covenant, and not in respect of the persons, except generally.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
1 Corinthians 10:1. Γάρ] Paul had already, in 1 Corinthians 9:26 f., set himself before his leaders as an example of self-conquest; he now justifies his special enforcement of this duty by the warning example of the fathers. Πλεῖον αὐτοὺς δεδίξασθαι βουληθεὶς τῶν κατὰ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ ἀναμιμνήσκει, καὶ ὅσων ἀπήλαυσαυ ἀγαθῶν καὶ ὅσαις περιέπεσαν τιμωρίαις. καὶ καλεῖ τύπους τούτων ἐκεῖνα, διδάσκων ὡς τὰ ὅμοια πείσονται τὴν ὅμοιαν ἀπιστίαν κτησάμενοι, Theodoret.

οὐ θέλω ὑμ. ἀγν.] indicating something of importance. see on Romans 11:25.

οἱ πατέρες ἡμ.] i.e. our forefathers at the time of the exodus from Egypt. The apostle says ἡμῶν, speaking, as in Romans 4:1, from his national consciousness, which was shared in by his Jewish readers, and well understood by his Gentile ones. The idea of the spiritual fatherhood of all believers (Romans 4:11 ff., de Wette, al[1573]), or that of the O. T. ancestry of the N. T. church (Hofmann), would suit only with holy ancestors as being the true Israel (comp Romans 9:5 ff.; Galatians 6:16), but does not harmonize with the fact of the fathers here referred to being cited as warnings.

πάντες] has strong emphasis,[1575] and is four times repeated, the coming contrast of οὐκ ἐν τοῖς πλείοσιν, 1 Corinthians 10:5, being already before the apostle’s mind. All had the blessing of the divine presence (ὑπὸ τ. νεφ. ἦσαν), all that of the passage through the sea; all received the analogue of baptism, all that of eating, all that of drinking at the Lord’s Supper; but with the majority God was not well pleased.

ὑπὸ τ. νεφ.] The well-known (τήν) pillar of cloud (Exodus 13:21 f.), in which God’s presence was, is conceived as spreading its canopy over (ὑπό) the march of the people that followed it. Comp Psalm 105:39; Wis 10:17; Wis 19:7.

διὰ τῆς θαλ.] See Exodus 14.

[1573] l. and others; and other passages; and other editions.

[1575] Grotius: “tam qui sospites fuere, quam qui perierunt.”1 Corinthians 10:1-5. § 31. THE BACKSLIDING OF ANCIENT ISRAEL. The Apostle has just confessed, in warning others, his own fear of reprobation. That this is no idle fear the history of the O.T. Church plainly proves. All the Israelite fathers were rescued from Egypt, and sealed with the ancient sacraments, and virtually partook of Christ in the wilderness; but, alas, how few of those first redeemed entered the Promised Land!1. I would not that ye should be ignorant] A characteristic expression of St Paul. Cf. ch. 1 Corinthians 12:1, and Romans 1:13; Romans 11:25; 2 Corinthians 1:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:13.

all our fathers] The emphasis on ‘all’ here—it is repeated five times—serves to point out the moral that though all without exception received the privileges, the greater number were very far from using them aright. The lesson is still more closely driven home in 1 Corinthians 10:11-12. The Israelites were as much the people of God as we, yet most of them fell. Why should we think, then, that we have less need for watchfulness than they? Some have thought that the expression ‘our fathers’ implies that St Paul was here speaking to Jews only. But this is not necessary. For (1) he might have used the expression as being himself a Jew, and (2) the Israelites were the spiritual progenitors of tie Christian Church. See Romans 4:16; Romans 9:5.

were under the cloud] Cf. Exodus 13:20-22; Exodus 14:19; Exodus 40:34-38; Numbers 9:16-23; Numbers 14:14; Deuteronomy 1:33; Psalm 78:14; Psalm 105:39.

passed through the sea] Exodus 14.; Numbers 33:8; Joshua 4:23; Psalm 78:13.

Ch. 1 Corinthians 10:1-14. The Example of Israel a Warning to Christians

In this chapter the direct argument concerning meats offered to idols is resumed in 1 Corinthians 10:14. The first fourteen verses of this chapter, like chapter 9., are parenthetical. But if we read ‘for’ with the best MSS. and versions, instead of the ‘moreover’ of our English version, we are to understand that there is a very close connection between this and the last verse of the preceding chapter. See 1 Corinthians 10:12. We are taught in 1 Corinthians 10:1-14, (1) that the possession of great privileges does not secure us from danger. But this is not the only link of connection. We learn, (2) that the worst sins of Israel were the direct result of idolatry, and hence a strong argument is derived against regarding idolatry as a light matter (1 Corinthians 10:14). And perhaps, with De Wette, we may also regard the actions of the Israelites as awful examples, (3) of the abuse of freedom, the danger which was just now most likely to befall the infant Church. “They were tempted to think that all things were safe to do, because all things were lawful.” Robertson.1 Corinthians 10:1. Οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, Moreover, I would not that you should be ignorant) The phrase refers to the whole passage; for the Corinthians were acquainted with the history; comp. 1 Corinthians 9:13. [84]The particle moreover transfers the discourse from the singular, 1 Corinthians 9:26, to the plural.—οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν, our fathers) even the fathers of the Corinthians; of the Gentiles succeeded to the place of the Jews. [Our ancestors, he says, in respect of communion with God.—V. g.]—πάντες, all) had gone out of Egypt—there was not so much as one of so great a multitude detained either by force or on account of disease, Psalm 105:37. Five divine benefits are mentioned, 1–4, and as many sins committed by our fathers, 6–10.—ὑπὸ τὴν νεφέλην ἦσαν, were under the cloud) Exodus 13:21-22.—διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης διῆλθον, passed through the sea) Exodus 14:29.

[84] Preference, however, is given to the particle γὰρ, both in the margin of the first and second Ed., and in the Germ. Vers.—E. B.

ABCD(Λ)Gfg Vulg. Orig. 4,143e; 144a, Iren. 264 Cypr. 157,277 have γαρ. Rec. Text δὲ with Orig. 1,541e, some MSS. of Vulg. and both Syr. Versions.—ED.Verses 1-14. - Warnings against over confidence in relation to idolatry and other temptations. Verse 1. - Moreover; rather, for. He has just shown them, by his own example, the necessity for strenuous watchfulness and effort. In continuance of the same lesson, he teaches them historically that the possession of great privileges is no safeguard, and that the seductions, even of idolatry, must not be carelessly despised. Although the connection of the various paragraphs is not stated with logical precision, we see that they all bear on the one truth which he wants to inculcate, namely, that it is both wise and kind to limit our personal freedom out of sympathy with others. The reading "but" (δὲ, morever) is probably a correction of the true reading (γὰρ, for), due to the failure to understand the whole train of thought. I would not that ye should be ignorant. This is a favourite phrase of St. Paul's (1 Corinthians 12:1; 2 Corinthians 1:8; Romans 1:13; Romans 11:25; 1 Thessalonians 4:13). The ignorance to which he refers is not ignorance of the facts, but of the meaning of the facts. All our fathers. He repeats the "all" five times, because he wishes to show that, though "all" partook of spiritual blessings, most (ver. 5) fell in spite of them. He says, "our fathers," not only because he was himself a Jew, but also because the patriarchs and the Israelites were spiritually the fathers of the Christian Church. Were under the cloud. The compressed Greek phrase implies that they went under it, and remained under its shadow. The "cloud" is the "pillar of cloud" (Exodus 13:21), of which David says, "He spread a cloud for a covering" (Psalm 105:39). The Book of Wisdom (10:17) calls it "a cover unto them by day," and (19:7) "a cloud shadowing the camp." All passed through the sea (Exodus 14:22). Moreover (δέ)

But the correct reading is γάρ for, introducing an illustration of rejection by God, and thus connecting what follows with the close of the last chapter. It is possible that I may be rejected, for the Israelites were.

All

Strongly emphasized in contrast with most of them (A.V., many) in 1 Corinthians 10:5. All enjoyed the privileges, but few improved them. The word is repeated five times.

Under the cloud

The cloudy pillar which guided the Israelites. It is sometimes spoken of as covering the host. See Psalm 105:39; Wis. 10:17; 19:7; Numbers 14:14.

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