Vincent's Word Studies
Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;
But the correct reading is γάρ for, introducing an illustration of rejection by God, and thus connecting what follows with the close of the last chapter. It is possible that I may be rejected, for the Israelites were.
Strongly emphasized in contrast with most of them (A.V., many) in 1 Corinthians 10:5. All enjoyed the privileges, but few improved them. The word is repeated five times.
Under the cloud
And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
Baptized unto Moses (εἰς)
Cloud - sea
The two together forming the type of the water of baptism. Bengel says: "The cloud and the sea are in their nature water." The cloud was diffused and suspended water.
And did all eat the same spiritual meat;
And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.
Drink - spiritual drink
Spiritual, like the meat, in being supernaturally given. The aorist tense denotes something past, yet without limiting it to a particular occasion. They drank at Rephidim (Exodus 17:6), but they continued to drink spiritual drink, for -
They drank (ἔπινον)
The imperfect tense denoting continued action - throughout their journey.
That spiritual rock
For that read a. Paul appears to recall a rabbinic tradition that there was a well formed out of the spring in Horeb, which gathered itself up into a rock like a swarm of bees, and followed the people for forty years; sometimes rolling itself, sometimes carried by Miriam, and always addressed by the elders, when they encamped, with the words, "Spring up, O well!" Numbers 21:17. Stanley says: "In accordance with this notion, the Rock of Moses, as pointed out by the local tradition of Mt. Sinai, is not a cleft in the mountain, but a detached fragment of rock about fifteen feet high, with twelve or more fissures in its surface, from which the water is said to have gushed out for the twelve tribes. This local tradition is as old as the Koran, which mentions this very stone."
Showing that he does not believe the legend, but only uses it allegorically. The important point is that Christ the Word was with His people under the old covenant. "In each case we recognize the mystery of a 'real presence"' (Ellicott). "God was in Christ" here, as from the beginning. The mosaic and the christian economies are only different sides of one dispensation, which is a gospel dispensation throughout. The Jewish sacraments are not mere types of ours. They are identical.
But with many of them God was not well pleased: for they were overthrown in the wilderness.
Many (τοῖς πλείοσιν)
The A.V. misses the force of the article, the many. Hence Rev., correctly, most of them. All perished save Caleb and Joshua.
Only here in the New Testament. Lit., were strewn down along (the ground). The word belongs mostly to later Greek, though found in Herodotos in the general sense of slaying. So Euripides: "He laid low his wife and child with one dart" ("Hercules Furens," 1000). It is used of spreading a couch.
Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.
We should not lust (μὴ εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἐπιθυμητὰς)
Lit., should not be desirers. Ἑπιθυμητής desirer, lover, only here in the New Testament. Frequent in the classics. The sins of the Israelites are connected with those of the Corinthians.
Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.
Referring to the danger of partaking of the idol feasts.
To play (παίζειν)
The merrymaking generally which followed the feast, not specially referring to the dancing at the worship of the golden calf. See Exodus 32:19.
Lasciviousness was habitually associated with idol-worship. The two are combined, Acts 15:29. A thousand priests ministered at the licentious rites of the temple of Venus at Corinth.
Three and twenty thousand
A plain discrepancy between this statement and Numbers 25:9, where the number is twenty-four thousand. It may have been a lapse of memory.
Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed, and fell in one day three and twenty thousand.
Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.
Let us tempt Christ (ἐκπειράζωμεν τὸν Χριστόν)
The compound word is very significant, "to tempt out" (ἐκ); tempt thoroughly; try to the utmost. It occurs in three other places: Matthew 4:7; Luke 4:12; Luke 10:25; and, in every case, is used of tempting or testing Christ. Compare Psalm 77:18 (Sept.). For Christ read Κύριον the Lord.
Neither murmur ye, as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer.
See on John 6:41.
The destroyer (τοῦ ὀλοθρευτοῦ)
The destroying angel, who is called ὁ ὀλοθρεύων, Exodus 12:23.
Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come.
The imperfect tense marks the successive unfolding of the events.
For ensamples (τύποι)
The best texts read τυπικῶς by way of figure.
See on the kindred verb to warn, Acts 20:31.
Ends of the world (τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων)
Lit., ends of the ages. So Rev. Synonymous with ἡ συντέλεια τῶν αἰώνων the consummation of the ages, Hebrews 9:26. The phrase assumes that Christ's second coming is close at hand, and therefore the end of the world. Ellicott acutely remarks that the plural, ends, marks a little more distinctly the idea of each age of preparation having passed into the age that succeeded it, so that now all the ends of the ages have come down to them.
Are come (κατήντηκεν)
Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall.
There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.
See on Matthew 6:13.
Common to man (ἀνθρώπινος)
The word means what belongs to men, human. It occurs mostly in this epistle; once in Romans 6:19, meaning after the manner of men, popularly (see note). See James 3:7; 1 Peter 2:13; 1 Corinthians 2:4, 1 Corinthians 2:13; 1 Corinthians 4:3. It may mean here a temptation which is human, i.e., incident or common to man, as A.V., or, inferentially, a temptation adapted to human strength; such as man can bear, Rev. The words are added as an encouragement, to offset the warning "let him that thinketh," etc. They are in danger and must watch, but the temptation will not be beyond their strength.
A way to escape (τὴν ἔκβασιν)
Rev., better, the way of escape. The word means an egress, a way out. In classical Greek, especially, of a way out of the sea. Hence, in later Greek, of a landing-place. Compare Xenophon: "The ford that was over against the outlet leading to the mountains" ("Anabasis," iv. 3, 20). For the sense of issue or end, see on Hebrews 13:7. The words with the temptation and the way of escape imply an adjustment of the deliverance to each particular case.
Not the same as escape. Temptation which cannot be fed must be endured. Often the only escape is through endurance. See James 1:12.
Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry.
Notice the article: the idolatry, the temptation of which is constantly present in the idol-feasts.
I speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say.
See on wisdom, Luke 1:17; see on wisely, Luke 16:8. The warning against the sacrificial feasts and the allusion in 1 Corinthians 10:3 suggest the eucharistic feast. An act of worship is sacramental, as bringing the worshipper into communion with the unseen. Hence he who practices idolatry is in communion with demons (1 Corinthians 10:20), as he who truly partakes of the Eucharist is in communion with Christ. But the two things are incompatible (1 Corinthians 10:21). In citing the Eucharist he appeals to them as intelligent (wise) men, concerning a familiar practice.
The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?
The cup of blessing (τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας)
Lit., the blessing: the cup over which the familiar formula of blessing is pronounced. Hence the Holy Supper was often styled Eulogia (Blessing). For blessing, see on blessed, 1 Peter 1:3. It is the same as eucharistia (thanksgiving), applied as the designation of the Lord's Supper: Eucharist. See 1 Corinthians 14:16; 1 Timothy 4:4, 1 Timothy 4:5. The cup is first mentioned, perhaps, because Paul wishes to dwell more at length on the bread; or possibly, because drinking rather than eating characterized the idol-feasts.
Or participation. See on fellowship, 1 John 1:3; see on Acts 2:42; see on partners, Luke 5:10. The Passover was celebrated by families, typifying an unbroken fellowship of those who formed one body, with the God who had passed by the blood-sprinkled doors.
For we being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread.
Better, seeing that. It begins a new sentence which is dependent on the following proposition: Seeing that there is one bread, we who are many are one body. Paul is deducing the mutual communion of believers from the fact of their communion with their common Lord. By each and all receiving a piece of the one loaf, which represents Christ's body, they signify that they are all bound in one spiritual body, united to Christ and therefore to each other. So Rev., in margin. Ignatius says: "Take care to keep one eucharistic feast only; for there is one flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ, and one cup unto unity of His blood;" i.e., that all may be one by partaking of His blood (Philadelphia, 4).
Passing from the literal sense, the Lord's body (1 Corinthians 10:16), to the figurative sense, the body of believers, the Church.
Partake of (ἐκ μετέχομεν)
Or partake from. That which all eat is taken from (ἐκ) the one loaf, and they eat of it mutually, in common, sharing it among them (μετά). So Ignatius: "That ye come together ἕνα ἄρτον κλῶντες breaking one loaf" (Ephesians, 20).
Behold Israel after the flesh: are not they which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar?
Showing that partaking of the idol-feasts is idolatry, by the analogy of the Israelite who, by partaking of the sacrifices puts himself in communion with Jehovah's altar.
Partakers of the altar (κοινωνοὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου)
An awkward phrase. Rev., better, bringing out the force of κοινωνοὶ communers: have not they - communion with the altar? The Israelite who partook of the sacrifices (Leviticus 8:31) united himself with the altar of God. Paul says with the altar rather than with God, in order to emphasize the communion through the specific act of worship or sacrifice; since, in a larger sense, Israel after the flesh, Israel regarded as a nation, was, in virtue of that fact, in fellowship with God, apart from his partaking of the sacrifices. Possibly, also, to suggest the external character of the Jewish worship in contrast with the spiritual worship of Christians. Philo calls the Jewish priest κοινωνὸς τοῦ βώμου partaker of the altar.
What say I then? that the idol is any thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is any thing?
But I say, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not that ye should have fellowship with devils.
See on Mark 1:34. Used here, as always in the New Testament, of diabolic spirits. Δαιμόνιον the neuter of the adjective δαιμόνιος divine, occurs in Paul's writings only here and 1 Timothy 4:1. It is used in the Septuagint, Deuteronomy 32:17, to translate the Hebrew word which seems, originally, to have meant a supernatural being inferior to the gods proper, applied among the Assyrians to the bulldeities which guarded the entrances to temples and palaces. Among the Israelites it came to signify all gods but the God of Israel. Compare Isaiah 65:11, where Gad (good fortune, probably the star-God Jupiter) is rendered in the Septuagint τῷ δαιμονίῳ the demon. See Rev, O.T. Also Psalm 96:5 (Sept. 95), where elilim things of nought, A.V. idols, is rendered by δαιμόνια demons.
Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils.
The cup of devils
Representing the heathen feast. The special reference may be either to the drinking-cup, or to that used for pouring libations.
The Lord's table
Representing the Lord's Supper. See 1 Corinthians 11:20 sqq. The Greeks and Romans, on extraordinary occasions, placed images of the gods reclining on couches, with tables and food beside them, as if really partakers of the things offered in sacrifice. Diodorus, describing the temple of Bel at Babylon, mentions a large table of beaten gold, forty feet by fifteen, standing before the colossal statues of three deities. Upon it were two drinking-cups. See, also, the story of "Bel and the Dragon," vv. 10-15. The sacredness of the table in heathen worship is apparent from the manner in which it is combined with the altar in solemn formulae; as ara et mensa. Allusions to the table or to food and drink-offerings in honor of heathen deities occur in the Old Testament: Isaiah 65:11; Jeremiah 7:18; Ezekiel 16:18, Ezekiel 16:19; Ezekiel 23:41. In Malachi 1:7, the altar of burnt-offering is called "the table of the Lord."
Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? are we stronger than he?
Do we provoke - to jealousy (ἢ παραζηλοῦμεν)
The A.V. does not translate ἢ or, and thus breaks the connection with what precedes. You cannot be at the same time in communion with the Lord and with demons, or will you ignore this inconsistency and provoke God? For the verb, see on Romans 10:19.
Are we stronger
The force of the interrogative particle is, surely we are not stronger.
All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but all things edify not.
Let no man seek his own, but every man another's wealth.
Another's wealth (τὸ τοῦ ἑτέρου)
Lit., that which is the other's. Wealth, inserted by A.V. is used in the older English sense of well-being. See on Acts 19:25. The A.V. also ignores the force of the article, the other. Rev., much better, his neighbor's good.
Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat, asking no question for conscience sake:
The shambles (μακέλλω)
Only here in the New Testament. It is a Latin word, which is not strange in a Roman colony like Corinth. In sacrifices usually only a part of the victim was consumed. The rest was given to the priests or to the poor, or sold again in the market. Any buyer might therefore unknowingly purchase meat offered to idols.
Asking no question
As to whether the meat had been used in idol sacrifice. See on 1 Corinthians 2:14.
For the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof.
The earth is the Lord's, etc.
The common form of Jewish thanksgiving before the meal. For fullness, see on Romans 11:12.
If any of them that believe not bid you to a feast, and ye be disposed to go; whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking no question for conscience sake.
But if any man say unto you, This is offered in sacrifice unto idols, eat not for his sake that shewed it, and for conscience sake: for the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof:
Some fellow-guest, probably a gentile convert, but, at all events, with a weak conscience.
See on Luke 20:37 It implies the disclosure of a secret which the brother reveals because he thinks his companion in danger
Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the other: for why is my liberty judged of another man's conscience?
For if I by grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks?
By grace (χάριτι)
Am I-evil-spoken of (βλασφημοῦμαι)
In the gospels this word, of which blaspheme is a transcript, has, as in the Septuagint, the special sense of treating the name of God with scorn. So Matthew 9:3; Matthew 26:65; John 10:36. In the epistles frequently as here, with the classical meaning of slandering or defaming.
Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.
Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God:
Even as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved.