People's New Testament
Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;
10:1 Warnings Against Idolatry
SUMMARY OF I CORINTHIANS 10:
Lights from Jewish History. Beware of a Fall. Will Not Be Trials Greater Than We Can Stand. Beware of the Fellowship of Idols. The Analogy of the Lord's Supper. As No Questions at a Feast for Conscience Sake. But Avoid Anything Pointed Out As from an Idol Sacrifice.
Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant. In the preceding chapter Paul warned the Corinthian Christians to avoid all that might cause weaker brethren to fall, pointed to his own example, and showed that he spared no effort to win the crown for himself. He now enforces the lesson of his own example by pointing to the warnings furnished in the journey of Israel from Egypt to Canaan, the type of the Christian's journey to heaven. Schaff says:
It is worthy of note that he selects his examples from that part of Israelitish history which has an analogy in the baptismal commencement, and the eucharistic nourishment of the Christian life.''
How that all our fathers. The ancient members of the Jewish race; the fleshly fathers of Jewish Christians, and, in a kind of spiritual sense, the fathers of Gentile Christians. See Ga 3:29 Eph 2:19.
Were all under the cloud. With the walls of the sea on each side, and the cloud over their heads, the Israelites at the Red Sea passage were buried out of sight of the Egyptians. See Ex 13:21 Nu 10:34 14:13 Ps 105:39.
And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
10:2 Were all baptized to Moses. Canon Cook says:
The two phrases, Were under the cloud, and Passed through the sea, seem to prefigure the double process of submersion and emersion in baptism.''
Observe that the Israelites by this event, left Egypt, escaped from Pharaoh, and entered upon their march, with Moses as their leader, even as Christians leave the Egypt of sin behind, and start upon the Christian life, when they are baptized into Christ. One of the church Fathers, Theodoret, says:
The sea of transition represents the laver of regeneration, Moses foreshadows Christ, Israel the baptized disciples, the pursuing Egyptians are the sins left behind, and Pharaoh is a type of the devil.''
And did all eat the same spiritual meat;
10:3 And did all eat the same spiritual meat. The manna (Ex 16:15), called spiritual, because supernaturally supplied, and because a type of the spiritual bread of the Christian.
And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.
10:4 And did all drink the same spiritual drink. The water supernaturally supplied (Ex 17:6 Nu 20:11) called spiritual, for the same reason.
That spiritual Rock that followed them. The waters at Rephidim (Ex 17:1-6) and Kadesh (Nu 20:1-12) gushed from a rock. The rock did not itself supply them, but the power behind, the spiritual Rock, even Christ. The rock of Rephidim did not follow them, but the spiritual Rock did, and supplied their necessities whenever they were in need. As the rock of Rephidim became a fountain, so Christ is the fountain of living waters to the world.
But with many of them God was not well pleased: for they were overthrown in the wilderness.
10:5 But with many of them God was not well pleased. All were baptized, all were fed, all did drink, but notwithstanding God had done so much for them all without exception, many
were overthrown in the wilderness. Fell in the wilderness because of their sins (Nu 14:35 26:65); a startling warning to Christians on the journey.
Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.
10:6 Now these things were our examples. Beacon lights to Christians.
To the intent we should not lust after evil things. The Israelites were led astray by lusting after evil things. Let all beware of this source of destruction.
Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.
10:7 Neither be ye idolaters. As many had been idolaters, and idolatry was so prevalent in Corinth, this was a great danger.
As it is written The Israelites fell into idolatry at Sinai during the absence of Moses (Ex 32:6).
The people sat down to eat and drink. At a feast in honor of the golden calf.
Rose up to play. To dance religiously around their idol. Such is the meaning. Of course such an example was a pertinent warning to Corinthian brethren to shun the banquets in idol temples and their accompanying festivities. Three thousand Israelites fell on the occasion referred to (Ex 32:8).
Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed, and fell in one day three and twenty thousand.
10:8 Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed. The fornication with the Midianites (Nu 25:1-10). Fornication was also one of the besetting sins of Corinth (1Co 5:1 16:3,18 7:2).
And fell in one day three and twenty thousand. In Nu 25:9 it is stated that 24,000 lost their lives. Paul names 23,000 as the number who lost their lives by the plague. The number was no doubt between 23,000 and 24,000, and is stated in each place by a round sum, according to Jewish custom, Paul naming the smaller.
Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.
10:9 Neither let us tempt Christ, etc. The event referred to is narrated in Nu 21:4-6. The application is that we should not be discontented over hardships or long for the sinful pleasures of a former life from which we have parted.
Neither murmur ye, as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer.
10:10 Neither murmur ye. See Nu 14:2.
Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come.
10:11 Now all these things happened to them for ensamples. They are historical facts designed to teach great lessons, since God still deals on the same principles.
Upon whom the ends of the world are come. The last of God's dispensations.
Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall.
10:12 Wherefore, let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall. Presumption is the greatest of all dangers. He who realizes his danger will be on his guard. See the case of Peter's fall, for an illustration. The safe way is, conscious of weakness, not to dally with temptation.
There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.
10:13 There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man. Perhaps the Corinthians thought their temptations were usually severe, but these were only what human nature is exposed to.
But God is faithful. Will keep every promise, and hence
will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able. Will give them strength and deliverance in every temptation if they trust in him. None who devoutly follow Christ, who pray constantly for strength, and trust God, will fall.
Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry.
10:14 Flee from idolatry. In idolatry, the greatest temptations at Corinth were combined, lust, drinking, reveling, etc. The way to avoid all these was to flee it. Sin must not be dallied with, but shunned.
I speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say.
The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?
10:16 The cup of blessing which we bless. A name applied to the cup used in the Lord's Supper. Paul shows from the nature of the Lord's Supper, and of the Jewish sacrificial feasts, that to eat in an idol feast is an idol communion.
Is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? Is not the cup the symbol of joint participation or fellowship of the blood of Christ.
Is it not the communion of the body of Christ? Is not the bread the symbol of joint participation of Christ's body?
For we being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread.
10:17 For we being many are one bread. One loaf. There being one loaf implies that we Christians, though many, are all one body, and joint participators of the one body of Christ. Paul had no conception of a divided church.
Behold Israel after the flesh: are not they which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar?
10:18 Behold Israel after the flesh. The natural Israel, in contrast with the spiritual Israel, the church.
Are not they which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar? A part of the sacrifice was eaten by the offerers and their friends, and as a part was burnt on the altar, as an offering to God, they were supposed to be partakers with God in the feast. So, too, those who partook of an idol feast, would be worshipers of the idol.
What say I then? that the idol is any thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is any thing?
10:19 What say I then? He had said an idol was nothing (1Co 8:4). Does he not now imply an idol is something? He affirms nothing of the kind.
But I say, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not that ye should have fellowship with devils.
10:20 The things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils. The idol is nothing, but to the worshiper it is a reality. That reality is not God, but really a demon. The gods were mainly dead kings and heroes who had been defiled. The diamonia, or demons, were the spirits of dead men. The worship was really demon worship.
Fellowship with devils. If the feast of the Lord's Supper is communion with Christ, the feast of the altar sacrifice communion with God, who is worshiped, the feast of the idol is communion with the idol. Yet this idol in the mind of the worshiper is a diamonion, a demon.
Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils.
10:21 Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord. So inconsistent are the two with each other that no man can commune with Christ who partakes of the feast of the demon.
And the cup of devils. The libations offered at the idol sacrifices. A part of the cup was poured on the altar, and a part drunk by the offerers. See Aeneid 8:273.
Table of devils. The table in the idol temple where a feast was spread.
Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? are we stronger than he?
10:22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Such acts in an idol temple would be worship of the idol. Yet Jehovah says that he is a jealous God (Ex 20:5 De 5:9).
All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but all things edify not.
10:23 All things are lawful for me. All meats are especially referred to. See PNT 1Co 6:12.
But all things are not expedient. But things that are lawful, i.e. not sinful in themselves, are often not expedient.
Let no man seek his own, but every man another's wealth.
10:24 Let no man seek his own. In asserting rights, consider the interests of others.
Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat, asking no question for conscience sake:
10:25 Whatsoever is sold in the shambles. In the butcher's stalls. This one might eat without question as to whether it had been part of an idol sacrifice or not.
For the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof.
10:26 For the earth is the Lord's. All that is offered for sale is the Lord's bounty.
If any of them that believe not bid you to a feast, and ye be disposed to go; whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking no question for conscience sake.
10:27 If any of them that believe not bid you to a feast, etc. If invited to an unbeliever's house, go, if you wish, and eat what is set before you without question on account of conscience.
But if any man say unto you, This is offered in sacrifice unto idols, eat not for his sake that shewed it, and for conscience sake: for the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof:
10:28 But if any man shall say unto you, etc. If some one points out that a part is from an idol's sacrifice, then it is not to be eaten; not because the food is sinful, but because the conscience of others might be offended.
Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the other: for why is my liberty judged of another man's conscience?
10:29 Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the other. When one eats what he knows to be simply wholesome food, his own conscience is not offended, but that of another man.
Why is my liberty judged of another man's conscience? His liberty of conscience is not abridged by another man's want of knowledge.
For if I by grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks?
10:30 For if I by grace be a partaker, etc. If by God's gift I partake with thanksgiving to him, there should be no reproach.
Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.
10:31 Whether therefore ye eat, or drink. The rule for eating and drinking is now given. It must be done
all to the glory of God. This implies, (1) thanksgiving to God; (2) not doing what would put a stumbling-block in the way of weak brethren.
Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God:
10:32 Give none offence. The rule just given implies this. Do nothing that would produce a scandal, or arouse prejudice, whether they be Jews, or Gentiles, or brethren.
Even as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved.
10:33 Even as I please all men in all things. See notes on 1Co 9:20-23.