And David smote Hadarezer king of Zobah to Hamath, as he went to establish his dominion by the river Euphrates.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Hadarezer.—Samuel, “Hadadezer” (Hadad is help), which is correct. Hadad was a Syrian god, identical with Dadda (Rimmon), worshipped from the Euphrates to Edom and North Arabia. Comp. the royal names Benhadad and Abdadad (i.e., servant of Hadad, like Obadiah, servant of Iahu), which last occurs on Syrian coins, and the Notes on 2Kings 5:18; 1Chronicles 1:46. Samuel adds. “son of Rehob.”
Zobah unto Hamath.—Rather, Zobah towards Hamath. The word (Hămáthāh; not in Samuel) defines the position of Zobah. (Comp. 2Samuel 8:8; Ezekiel 47:16.) The town of Zobah lay somewhere near Emesa (Horns), and not far from the present Yabrûd, north-east of Damascus. (The Assyrian monarch Assurbanipal mentions the towns of Yabrudu and Cubiti—i.e., Zobah—in his Annals.) Its kings are spoken of in 1Samuel 14:47. Hadadezer appears to have brought the whole country under a single sceptre.
As he (Hadadezer) went.—The occasion intended appears to be that whereof the particulars are given at 1Chronicles 19:16-19.
To stablish his dominion.—Heb., to set up his hand—i.e., “his power.” Samuel has a different word, to recover his power, or repeat his attack.
The river Euphrates.—The Hebrew text of Samuel has “the river.” Our text explains.1 Chronicles 18:3. David smote Hadarezer, as he went to establish his dominion — Such is the uncertainty of this world, that many times men lose their wealth and power, then when they think to confirm them. The meaning of the words, however, may be, that as David went to establish his own dominion, this king of Zobah came out to oppose him, and therefore David smote him. See on 2 Samuel 8:3.
3. Hadarezer—or, "Hadadezer" (2Sa 8:3), which was probably the original form of the name, was derived from Hadad, a Syrian deity. It seems to have become the official and hereditary title of the rulers of that kingdom.
Zobah—Its situation is determined by the words "unto" or "towards Hamath," a little to the northeast of Damascus, and is supposed by some to be the same place as in earlier times was called Hobah (Ge 14:15). Previous to the rise of Damascus, Zobah was the capital of the kingdom which held supremacy among the petty states of Syria.
as he went to stablish his dominion by the river Euphrates—Some refer this to David, who was seeking to extend his possessions in one direction towards a point bordering on the Euphrates, in accordance with the promise (Ge 15:18; Nu 24:17). But others are of opinion that, as David's name is mentioned (1Ch 18:4), this reference is most applicable to Hadadezer.And David smote Hadarezer king of Zobah unto Hamath, as he went to stablish his dominion by the river Euphrates.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)3. Hadarezer] So spelt in 2 Samuel 10:16-19, but in 2 Samuel 8:3-12, Hadadezer, the right form (as inscriptions shew).
Zobah unto Hamath] Render as R.V. mg. Zobah by Hamath, the position of Zobah being fixed by the note that it was near Hamath.
Hamath] The modern Hama on the Orontes, midway between Antioch and Damascus, but somewhat further to the E. than either. Bädeker, p. 396; Kirkpatrick on 2 Samuel 8:9.
as he went to stablish his dominion] He refers to David. 2 Samuel 8:3 reads, to recover his dominion (R.V.). Saul had probably gained some dominion on the Euphrates in his war with Zobah (1 Samuel 14:47), which was lost in the confusion which followed his death. David now recovers it.Verse 3. - Hadarezer; in the parallel places, Hadadezer; though our present form is found both in Samuel (e.g. 2 Samuel 10:16) and in other places in Chronicles, yet in all these places some manuscripts show Hadadezer (see Gesenius, 'Lexicon,' sub voce). Zobah. Part of Syria, east of Hamath, and for the most part of Coelo-Syria, north of Damascus, and stretching in the direction of the Euphrates. Possibly it is one with Ptolemy's Zake (1 Samuel 14:47; 2 Samuel 8:3-10; 2 Samuel 10:9; 1 Kings 11:23-25). Hamath. In the valley of the Orontes, the northern boundary of the Holy Land. It is traceable from the time of the Exodus (Genesis 10:18; Numbers 13:21; Numbers 34:8) to that of the Prophet Amos (Amos 6:12). Though in Zobah, it is probably not the Hamath-Zobah of 2 Samuel 8:3. To stablish his dominion. In the parallel place, "to restore," i.e., no doubt, to endeavour to do so, and that against the growing force of David. He had already suffered at the hand of Saul (1 Samuel 14:47, 48).
All the remaining divergences of one text from the other are only variations of the expression, such as involuntarily arise in the endeavour to give a clear and intelligible narrative, without making a literal copy of the authority made use of. Among these we include even להתפּלּל עבדּך מצא, "Thy servant hath found to pray" (1 Chr. , as compared with להתפּלּל את־לבּו עבדּך מצא, "Thy servant hath found his heart," i.e., found courage, to pray (2 Samuel 7:28); where it is impossible to decide whether the author of the books of Samuel has added את־לבּו as an explanation, or the author of the Chronicle has omitted it because the phrase "to find his heart" occurs only in this single passage of the Old Testament. להת עבדּך מצא signifies, Thy servant has reached the point of directing this prayer to Thee.
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