Genesis 36:31
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
These were the kings who reigned in Edom before any Israelite king reigned:

New Living Translation
These are the kings who ruled in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:

English Standard Version
These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the Israelites.

Berean Study Bible
These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:

New American Standard Bible
Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the sons of Israel.

King James Bible
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

Christian Standard Bible
These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Israelites:

Holman Christian Standard Bible
These are the kings who ruled in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:

International Standard Version
This is a list of the kings who ruled the territory of Edom before any king reigned over the Israelis.

NET Bible
These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:

New Heart English Bible
These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the children of Israel.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
These were the kings who ruled Edom before any king ruled the people of Israel:

JPS Tanakh 1917
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

New American Standard 1977
Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the sons of Israel.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the sons of Israel.

King James 2000 Bible
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

American King James Version
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

American Standard Version
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the kings that ruled in the land of Edom, before the children of Israel had a king were these:

Darby Bible Translation
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before there reigned a king over the children of Israel.

English Revised Version
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

Webster's Bible Translation
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

World English Bible
These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the children of Israel.

Young's Literal Translation
And these are the kings who have reigned in the land of Edom before the reigning of a king over the sons of Israel.
Study Bible
The Kings of Edom
31These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites: 32Bela son of Beor ruled in Edom; the name of his city was Dinhabah.…
Cross References
Genesis 17:6
I will make you exceedingly fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will descend from you.

Genesis 17:16
And I will bless her and will surely give you a son by her. I will bless her, and she will be the mother of nations; kings of peoples will descend from her."

Genesis 35:11
And God told him, "I am God Almighty. Be fruitful and multiply. A nation--even a company of nations--shall come from you, and kings shall descend from you.

Genesis 36:30
Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan; they are the chiefs of the Horites, according to their divisions in the land of Seir.

Numbers 20:14
From Kadesh Moses sent messengers to tell the king of Edom, "This is what your brother Israel says: You know all the hardship that has befallen us,

1 Chronicles 1:43
These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Israelites: Bela son of Beor. His city was named Dinhabah.

Treasury of Scripture

And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

the kings.

Genesis 17:6,16 And I will make you exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of …

Genesis 25:23 And the LORD said to her, Two nations are in your womb, and two manner …

Numbers 20:14 And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, Thus said …

Numbers 24:17,18 I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not near: there …

Deuteronomy 17:14-20 When you are come to the land which the LORD your God gives you, …

Deuteronomy 33:5,29 And he was king in Jeshurun, when the heads of the people and the …

1 Chronicles 1:43-50 Now these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before any …

before there. Moses may here allude to the promise which God made to Jacob (ch.

Genesis 35:11 And God said to him, I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; …







(31) The kings.--In the triumphal song of Moses on the Red Sea we still read of "dukes of Edom" (Exodus 15:15; but when Israel had reached the borders of their land, we find that Edom had then a king (Numbers 20:14). But in the list given here, no king succeeds his father, and probably these were petty monarchs, who sprang up in various parts of the country during a long period of civil war, in which the Horites were finally as completely conquered as were the Canaanites in Palestine under the heavy hands of Saul and Solomon. In the time of the dukes, there were also Horite dukes of the race of Seir, ruling districts mixed up apparently with those governed by the descendants of Esau. But all these now disappear.

Verse 31. - And these (which follow) are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any (literally, before the reigning of a) king over (or, to) the children of Israel.

1. The reference to Israelitish kings in this place has been explained as an evidence of post-Mosaic authorship (Le Clerc, Bleek, Ewald, Bohlen, et alii), or at least as a later interpolation from 1 Chronicles 1:43 (Kennicott, A. Clarke, Lange), but is sufficiently accounted for by remembering that in Genesis 35:11 kings had been promised to Jacob, while the blessing pronounced on Esau (Genesis 27:40) implied that in his line also should arise governors, the historian being understood to say that though the promised kings had not yet arisen in the line of Jacob, the house of Esau had attained at a somewhat early period to political importance (Calvin, Michaelis, Rosenmüller, Keil, Kalisch, Gerlach, Havernick, and others).

2. The difficulty of finding room for the dukes (seven, four and three, all grandsons of Esau, vers. 15-19), the kings (eight in number, vers. 32-39), and again the dukes (in all eleven, vers. 40-43), that intervened between Esau and Moses disappears if the kings and dukes existed contemporaneously, of which Exodus 15:15, as compared with Numbers 20:14, affords probable evidence.

3. As to the character of the Edomitish kings, it is apparent that it was not a hereditary monarchy, since in no case does the son succeed the father, but an elective sovereignty, the kings being chosen by the dukes, alluphim, or phylarchs (Keil, Hengstenberg, Kalisch, Gerlach), though the idea of successive usurpations (Lange) is not without a measure of probability. And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom,.... In the land that was afterwards called the land of Edom; for this laud was not so called when these kings began to reign: for, according to Bishop Cumberland (f), and those that follow him (g), these were Horite kings, who, after their defeat by Chedorlaomer, Genesis 14:5; in order to secure themselves the better from such a calamity for the future, set up a kingdom, and which appears, by the following account, to be elective; and so Maimonides (h) observes, that not one of these kings were of Edom: and these were:

before there reigned any king over the children of Israel; and there being no kings over Israel until many years after the times of Moses, hence some have thought these words are inserted by some other writer after him; but there is no need to suppose that; for Moses knew, from foregoing prophecies and promises, that kings would arise out of them and reign over them, Genesis 17:6; and this he was so certain of, that he himself, by divine direction, gave laws and rules to the children of Israel respecting their future kings, Deuteronomy 17:14; besides Moses himself was king in Jeshurun or Israel, Deuteronomy 33:5, so that it is the same as if he had said, these are the kings that reigned in Edom, before this time.

(f) Orig. Gent. Antiq. p. 1-24. (g) Bedford in his Scripture Chronology, and the Authors of the Universal History. (h) Morch Nevochim, par. 3. c. 50. p. 510. 31-39. kings of Edom—The royal power was not built on the ruins of the dukedoms, but existed at the same time.36:1-43 Esau and his descendants. - The registers in this chapter show the faithfulness of God to his promise to Abraham. Esau is here called Edom, that name which kept up the remembrance of his selling his birth-right for a mess of pottage. Esau continued the same profane despiser of heavenly things. In outward prosperity and honour, the children of the covenant are often behind, and those that are out of the covenant get the start. We may suppose it a trial to the faith of God's Israel, to hear of the pomp and power of the kings of Edom, while they were bond-slaves in Egypt; but those that look for great things from God, must be content to wait for them; God's time is the best time. Mount Seir is called the land of their possession. Canaan was at this time only the land of promise. Seir was in the possession of the Edomites. The children of this world have their all in hand, and nothing in hope, Lu 16:25; while the children of God have their all in hope, and next to nothing in hand. But, all things considered, it is beyond compare better to have Canaan in promise, than mount Seir in possession.
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