Genesis 36:31
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the Israelites.

King James Bible
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

American Standard Version
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the kings that ruled in the land of Edom, before the children of Israel had a king were these:

English Revised Version
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

Webster's Bible Translation
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

Genesis 36:31 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

(parallel, 1 Chronicles 1:38-42). Descendants of Seir the Horite; - the inhabitants of the land, or pre-Edomitish population of the country. - "The Horite:" ὁ Τρωγλοδύτης, the dweller in caves, which abound in the mountains of Edom (vid., Rob. Pal. ii. p. 424). The Horites, who had previously been an independent people (Genesis 14:6), were partly exterminated and partly subjugated by the descendants of Esau (Deuteronomy 2:12, Deuteronomy 2:22). Seven sons of Seir are given as tribe-princes of the Horites, who are afterwards mentioned as Alluphim (Genesis 36:29, Genesis 36:30), also their sons, as well as two daughters, Timna (Genesis 36:22) and Aholibamah (Genesis 36:25), who obtained notoriety from the face that two of the headquarters of Edomitish tribe-princes bore their names (Genesis 36:40 and Genesis 36:41). Timna was probably the same as the concubine of Eliphaz (Genesis 36:12); but Aholibamah was not the wife of Esau (cf. Genesis 36:2). - There are a few instances in which the names in this list differ from those in the Chronicles. But they are differences which either consist of variation in form, or have arisen from mistakes in copying.

(Note: Knobel also undertakes to explain these names geographically, and to point them out in tribes and places of Arabia, assuming, quite arbitrarily and in opposition to the text, that the names refer to tribes, not to persons, although an incident is related of Zibeon's son, which proves at once that the list relates to persons and not to tribes; and expecting his readers to believe that not only are the descendants of these troglodytes, who were exterminated before the time of Moses, still to be found, but even their names may be traced in certain Bedouin tribes, though more than 3000 years have passed away! The utter groundlessness of such explanations, which rest upon nothing more than similarity of names, may be seen in the association of Shobal with Syria Sobal (Judith 3:1), the name used by the Crusaders for Arabia tertia, i.e., the southernmost district below the Dead Sea, which was conquered by them. For notwithstanding the resemblance of the name Shobal to Sobal, no one could seriously think of connecting Syria Sobal with the Horite prince Shobal, unless he was altogether ignorant of the apocryphal origin of the former name, which first of all arose from the Greek or Latin version of the Old Testament, and in fact from a misunderstanding of Psalm 60:2, where, instead צובה ארם, Aram Zobah, we find in the lxx Συριά Σοβάλ, and in the Vulg. Syria et Sobal.)

Of Anah, the son of Zibeon, it is related (Genesis 36:24), that as he fed the asses of his father in the desert, he "found היּמם" - not "he invented mules," as the Talmud, Luther, etc., render it, for mules are פּרדים, and מצא does not mean to invent; but he discovered aquae calidae (Vulg.), either the hot sulphur spring of Calirrhoe in the Wady Zerka Maein (vid., Genesis 10:19), or those in the Wady el Ahsa to the S.E. of the Dead Sea, or those in the Wady Hamad between Kerek and the Dead Sea.

(Note: It is possible that there may be something significant in the fact that it was "as he was feeding his father's asses," and that the asses may have contributed to the discovery; just as the whirlpool of Karlsbad is said to have been discovered through a hound of Charles IV, which pursued a stag into a hot spring, and attracted the huntsmen to the spot by its howling.)

Genesis 36:31 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the kings.

Genesis 17:6,16 And I will make you exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of you, and kings shall come out of you...

Genesis 25:23 And the LORD said to her, Two nations are in your womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from your bowels...

Numbers 20:14 And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, Thus said your brother Israel...

Numbers 24:17,18 I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not near: there shall come a Star out of Jacob...

Deuteronomy 17:14-20 When you are come to the land which the LORD your God gives you, and shall possess it, and shall dwell therein, and shall say...

Deuteronomy 33:5,29 And he was king in Jeshurun, when the heads of the people and the tribes of Israel were gathered together...

1 Chronicles 1:43-50 Now these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the children of Israel; Bela the son of Beor...

before there. Moses may here allude to the promise which God made to Jacob (ch.

Genesis 35:11 And God said to him, I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of you...

,) that kings should proceed from him; and here states that these kings reigned before that prophecy began to be fulfilled.

Cross References
Genesis 17:6
I will make you exceedingly fruitful, and I will make you into nations, and kings shall come from you.

Genesis 17:16
I will bless her, and moreover, I will give you a son by her. I will bless her, and she shall become nations; kings of peoples shall come from her."

Genesis 35:11
And God said to him, "I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply. A nation and a company of nations shall come from you, and kings shall come from your own body.

Genesis 36:30
Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan; these are the chiefs of the Horites, chief by chief in the land of Seir.

Numbers 20:14
Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom: "Thus says your brother Israel: You know all the hardship that we have met:

1 Chronicles 1:43
These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the people of Israel: Bela the son of Beor, the name of his city being Dinhabah.

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