Genesis 36:31
Parallel Verses
New International Version
These were the kings who reigned in Edom before any Israelite king reigned:

King James Bible
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

Darby Bible Translation
And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before there reigned a king over the children of Israel.

World English Bible
These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the children of Israel.

Young's Literal Translation
And these are the kings who have reigned in the land of Edom before the reigning of a king over the sons of Israel.

Genesis 36:31 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Before there reigned any king over - Israel - I suppose all the verses, from Genesis 36:31-39 inclusive, have been transferred to this place from 1 Chronicles 1:43-50, as it is not likely they could have been written by Moses; and it is quite possible they might have been, at a very early period, written in the margin of an authentic copy, to make out the regal succession in Edom, prior to the consecration of Saul; which words being afterwards found in the margin of a valuable copy, from which others were transcribed, were supposed by the copyist to be a part of the text, which having been omitted by the mistake of the original writer, had been since added to make up the deficiency; on this conviction he would not hesitate to transcribe them consecutively in his copy. In most MSS. sentences and paragraphs have been left out by the copyists, which, when perceived, have been added in the margin, either by the original writer, or by some later hand. Now, as the margin was the ordinary place where glosses or explanatory notes were written, it is easy to conceive how the notes, as well as the parts of the original text found in the margin, might be all incorporated with the text by a future transcriber; and his MSS., being often copied, would of course multiply the copies with such additions, as we have much reason to believe has been the case. This appears very frequently in the Vulgate and Septuagint; and an English Bible now before me written some time in the fourteenth century, exhibits several proofs of this principle. See the preface to this work.

I know there is another way of accounting for those words on the ground of their being written originally by Moses; but to me it is not satisfactory. It is simply this: the word king should be considered as implying any kind of regular government, whether by chiefs, dukes, judges, etc., and therefore when Moses says these are the kings which reigned in Edom, before there was any king in Israel, he may be only understood as saying that these kings reigned among the Edomites before the family of Jacob had acquired any considerable power, or before the time in which his twelve sons had become the fathers of those numerous tribes, at the head of which, as king himself in Jeshurun, he now stood.

Esau, after his dukes, had eight kings, who reigned successively over their people, while Israel were in affliction in Egypt.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the kings.

Genesis 17:6,16 And I will make you exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of you, and kings shall come out of you...

Genesis 25:23 And the LORD said to her, Two nations are in your womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from your bowels...

Numbers 20:14 And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, Thus said your brother Israel...

Numbers 24:17,18 I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not near: there shall come a Star out of Jacob...

Deuteronomy 17:14-20 When you are come to the land which the LORD your God gives you, and shall possess it, and shall dwell therein, and shall say...

Deuteronomy 33:5,29 And he was king in Jeshurun, when the heads of the people and the tribes of Israel were gathered together...

1 Chronicles 1:43-50 Now these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the children of Israel; Bela the son of Beor...

before there. Moses may here allude to the promise which God made to Jacob (ch.

Genesis 35:11 And God said to him, I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of you...

,) that kings should proceed from him; and here states that these kings reigned before that prophecy began to be fulfilled.

Library
Syria at the Beginning of the Egyptian Conquest
SYRIA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE EGYPTIAN CONQUEST NINEVEH AND THE FIRST COSSAEAN KINGS-THE PEOPLES OF SYRIA, THEIR TOWNS, THEIR CIVILIZATION, THEIR RELIGION-PHOENICIA. The dynasty of Uruazagga-The Cossseans: their country, their gods, their conquest of Chaldaea-The first sovereigns of Assyria, and the first Cossaean Icings: Agumhakrime. The Egyptian names for Syria: Khara, Zahi, Lotanu, Kefatiu-The military highway from the Nile to the Euphrates: first section from Zalu to Gaza-The Canaanites:
G. Maspero—History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 4

Cross References
Genesis 17:6
I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you.

Genesis 17:16
I will bless her and will surely give you a son by her. I will bless her so that she will be the mother of nations; kings of peoples will come from her."

Genesis 35:11
And God said to him, "I am God Almighty; be fruitful and increase in number. A nation and a community of nations will come from you, and kings will be among your descendants.

Genesis 36:30
Dishon, Ezer and Dishan. These were the Horite chiefs, according to their divisions, in the land of Seir.

Numbers 20:14
Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, saying: "This is what your brother Israel says: You know about all the hardships that have come on us.

1 Chronicles 1:43
These were the kings who reigned in Edom before any Israelite king reigned: Bela son of Beor, whose city was named Dinhabah.

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