James 5:7
Be patient therefore, brothers, to the coming of the Lord. Behold, the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, and has long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(7) Be patient.—The third, and last, part of the Letter commences here with these exhortations towards endurance.

Thereforei.e., because of this your deep and abiding misery, be sure God’s help is nigh:—

“The darkest hour is on the verge of day.”

“Out of your stony griefs” build, like Jacob of old, a house of God (Genesis 28:19), whereunto you may run and find refuge. If there be wrath laid up in store for the oppressor, great is the coming peace of the oppressed.

The husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it . . . Be ye also patient.—It becomes you, the just, to bear with the unjust till God work the end of your trial, and prove them at the same time. Again and again, through several verses (James 5:7-11), St. James repeats his advice, emphasising it with various reasons: the nearness of deliverance; the Judge standing at the gate; the example of the prophets—persecuted by men, and therefore blessed of God; the hope of those who endure—Job for example: the very faithfulness and tender mercy of the Lord, bringing all things to a perfect end. Few ideas are more startling (is a reflection of Dr. Evans) than those produced by the strange combinations in Scripture. Matters are joined there which we mostly put asunder here, speaking of them, at least, as apart. And thus we read in the Revelation (James 1:9) of the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ. But all Christians are citizens of a patient kingdom; the King thereof is more patient, as He hath greater need of patience than His subjects, and He is patient, because He is strong. Impatience is a sign of weakness. God can afford to wait, for His time is eternity. And we can be strong in His strength, and wait also in patience. In so far as St. James’s hearers were earthly minded, they could not learn this lesson; so often with ourselves we would have our wrong righted instantly, and to the full. Only one view of life can alter this, viz., the lifting of our gaze from earth to heaven, remembering that “the time is short” (1Corinthians 7:29).

The early and latter rain.—It is, perhaps, just as well to recollect there were only two seasons of rainfall in the Holy Land, and, if long delayed, famine was a certain result. With the change of the Israelites from pastoral life to agricultural, the malignity of these dearths was lessened; but they were and are still severe. The Bible mentions many such—e.g., in the days of Abraham (Genesis 12:10), Isaac (Genesis 26:1), Jacob (Genesis 42:2), Ruth (James 1:1), Samuel (2Samuel 21:1), Ahab (1Kings 18:2). The “early rain” fell during the autumn sowing—in October, November, and December; “the latter” in March and April. By many versions the word “rain” is omitted, but, of course, was always intended.

James 5:7-9. Be patient therefore, brethren — He now addresses the pious, oppressed, and persecuted disciples of Christ: as if he had said, Since the Lord will soon come to punish them, and relieve you, patiently bear the injuries which rich men offer you, and quietly wait till he come. Behold the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit — Which will recompense his labour and patience; till he receive the early, or the former rain — Immediately after sowing; and the latter — Before harvest. In Judea the rains usually come in a regular manner; the early rain about the beginning of November, after the seed is sown, and the latter in the middle or toward the end of April, while the ears are filling. These rains were promised to the Israelites, Deuteronomy 11:14, where see the note, and on Hosea 6:3. Be ye also patient — Like the husbandman; stablish — Στηριξατε, strengthen, or confirm; your hearts — In faith and patience, considering that your sufferings will not be long; the coming of the Lord — To destroy your persecutors; draweth nigh — And so does his coming to rescue his people from the troubles of this life by death, and to judge the world in righteousness at the last day. Grudge, or, groan, not — As στεναζετε signifies; one against another — Groaning is caused by oppression; and when it is merely the natural expression of affliction, it is perfectly consistent with genuine piety, and moves God to pity the afflicted person, Jdg 2:18 : but when it is the effect of impatience, or when it implies a desire of revenge, it becomes criminal, and is the kind of groaning which the apostle forbids. Some read the clause, Murmur not one against another: that is, have patience also with each other; lest ye be condemned — Lest you all suffer for it, and perish in the common calamity; behold the Judge — Christ; standeth before the door — Hearing every word, marking every thought, and ready to execute those judgments.5:7-11 Consider him that waits for a crop of corn; and will not you wait for a crown of glory? If you should be called to wait longer than the husbandman, is not there something more worth waiting for? In every sense the coming of the Lord drew nigh, and all his people's losses, hardships, and sufferings, would be repaid. Men count time long, because they measure it by their own lives; but all time is as nothing to God; it is as a moment. To short-lived creatures a few years seem an age; but Scripture, measuring all things by the existence of God, reckons thousands of years but so many days. God brought about things in Job's case, so as plainly to prove that he is very pitiful and of tender mercy. This did not appear during his troubles, but was seen in the event, and believers now will find a happy end to their trials. Let us serve our God, and bear our trials, as those who believe that the end will crown all. Our eternal happiness is safe if we trust to him: all else is mere vanity, which soon will be done with for ever.Be patient therefore, brethren - That is, under such wrongs as the apostle had described in the previous verses. Those whom he addressed were doubtless suffering under those oppressions, and his object was to induce them to bear their wrongs without murmuring and without resistance. One of the methods of doing this was by showing them, in an address to their rich oppressors, that those who injured and wronged them would be suitably punished at the day of judgment, or that their cause was in the hands of God; and another method of doing it was by the direct inculcation of the duty of patience. Compare the notes at Matthew 5:38-41, Matthew 5:43-45. The margin here is, "be long patient," or "suffer with long patience." The sense of the Greek is, "be long-suffering, or let not your patience be exhausted. Your courage, vigor, and forbearance is not to be short-lived, but is to be enduring. Let it continue as long as there is need of it, even to the coming of the Lord. Then you will be released from sufferings."

Unto the coming of the Lord - The coming of the Lord Jesus - either to remove you by death, or to destroy the city of Jerusalem and bring to an end the Jewish institutions, or to judge the world and receive his people to himself. The "coming of the Lord" in any way was an event which Christians were taught to expect, and which would be connected with their deliverance from troubles. As the time of his appearing was not revealed, it was not improper to refer to that as an event that might possibly be near; and as the removal of Christians by death is denoted by the phrase "the coming of the Lord" - that is, his coming to each one of us - it was not improper to speak of death in that view. On the general subject of the expectations entertained among the early Christians of the second advent of the Saviour, see the 1 Corinthians 15:51 note; 2 Thessalonians 2:2-3 note.

Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth - The farmer waits patiently for the grain to grow. It requires time to mature the crop, and he does not become impatient. The idea seems to be, that we should wait for things to develop themselves in their proper season, and should not be impatient before that season arrives. In due time we may expect the harvest to be ripened. We cannot hasten it. We cannot control the rain, the sun, the season; and the farmer therefore patiently waits until in the regular course of events he has a harvest. So we cannot control and hasten the events which are in God's own keeping; and we should patiently wait for the developments of his will, and the arrangements of his providence, by which we may obtain what we desire.

And hath long patience for it - That is, his patience is not exhausted. It extends through the whole time in which, by the divine arrangements, he may expect a harvest.

Until he receive the early and latter rain - In the climate of Palestine there are two rainy seasons, on which the harvest essentially depends - the autumnal and the spring rains - called here and elsewhere in the Scriptures the early and the latter rains. See Deuteronomy 11:14; Job 29:23; Jeremiah 5:24. The autumnal or early rains of Scripture, usually commence in the latter half of October or the beginning of November; not suddenly, but by degrees, which gives opportunity for the husbandman to sow his fields of wheat and barley. The rains come mostly from the west or south-west, continuing for two or three days at a time, and falling especially during the nights. The wind then chops round to the north or east, and several days of fine weather succeed. During the months of November and December the rains continue to fail heavily; afterwards they return only at longer intervals, and are less heavy; but at no period during the winter do they entirely cease to occur.

Snow often falls in Jerusalem, in January and February, to the depth of a foot or more, but it does not last long. Rain continues to fall more or less through the month of March, but it is rare after that period. At the present time there are not any particular periods of rain, or successions of showers, which might be regarded as distinct rainy seasons. The whole period from October to March now constitutes only one continued rainy season, without any regularly intervening time of prolonged fair weather. Unless, therefore, there has been some change in the climate since the times of the New Testament, the early and the latter rains for which the husbandman waited with longing, seem rather to have implied the first showers of autumn, which revived the parched and thirsty earth, and prepared it for the seed; and the latter showers of spring, which continued to refresh and forward the ripening crops and the vernal products of the fields. In ordinary seasons, from the cessation of the showers in spring until their commencement in October or November, rain never falls, and the sky is usually serene. - Robinson's Biblical Researches, vol. ii., pp. 96-100.

7. Be patient therefore—as judgment is so near (Jas 5:1, 3), ye may well afford to be "patient" after the example of the unresisting Just one (Jas 5:6).

brethren—contrasted with the "rich" oppressors, Jas 5:1-6.

unto the coming of the Lord—Christ, when the trial of your patience shall cease.

husbandman waiteth for—that is, patiently bears toils and delays through hope of the harvest at last. Its "preciousness" (compare Ps 126:6, "precious seed") will more than compensate for all the past. Compare the same image, Ga 6:3, 9.

hath long patience for it—"over it," in respect to it.

until he receive—"until it receive" [Alford]. Even if English Version be retained, the receiving of the early and latter rains is not to be understood as the object of his hope, but the harvest for which those rains are the necessary preliminary. The early rain fell at sowing time, about November or December; the latter rain, about March or April, to mature the grain for harvest. The latter rain that shall precede the coming spiritual harvest, will probably be another Pentecost-like effusion of the Holy Ghost.

Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord; viz. to judgment, and that either particular, to avenge the quarrels of innocent sufferers upon their tyrannical persecutors; or rather, to the general judgment, in which a full retribution is to be made both to the just and unjust, Romans 2:5,6, &c. To which judgment the Scripture calls all to look, especially those that are under oppression and persecution, 2 Thessalonians 1:6,7, &c.

Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth; which cost him hard labour, and by which he receives great benefit, the sustentation of his life.

Until he receive the early and latter rain; the rain soon after the sowing, which caused the corn to spring up; and that before the harvest, which plumped it, and made it fit for reaping, Deu 11:14 Jeremiah 5:24 Hosea 6:3 Joel 2:23. Be patient therefore, brethren,.... The apostle here addresses himself to the poor who were oppressed by the rich men, and these he calls "brethren" of whom he was not ashamed; when he does not bestow this title upon the rich, though professors of the same religion: these poor brethren he advises to be patient under their sufferings, to bear them with patience,

unto the coming of the Lord; not to destroy Jerusalem, but either at death, or at the last, judgment; when he will take vengeance on their oppressors, and deliver them from all their troubles, and put them into the possession of that kingdom, and glory, to which they are called; wherefore, in the mean while, he would have them be quiet and easy, not to murmur against God, nor seek to take vengeance on men, but leave it to God, to whom it belongs, who will judge his people:

behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth; ripe fruit, which arises from the seed he sows in the earth; and which may be called "precious", because useful both to man and beast; see Deuteronomy 33:14 and between this, and the sowing of the seed, is a considerable time, during which the husbandman waits; and this may be an instruction in the present case:

and hath patience for it until he receive the early and latter rain; the Jews had seldom rains any more than twice a year; the early, or former rain, was shortly after the feast of tabernacles (u), in the month Marchesvan, or October, when the seed was sown in the earth; and if it did not rain, they prayed for it, on the third or seventh day of the month (w); and the latter rain was in Nisan, or March (x), just before harvest; and to this distinction the passage refers.

(u) Bartenora in Misn. Taanith, c. 1. sect. 2.((w) T. Bab. Taanith, fol. 4. 2. & 6. 1. & 10. 1. & Bava Metzia, fol. 28. 1. Maimon. Tephilla, c. 2. sect. 16. (x) Targum, Jarchi, Kimchi, & Miclol Jophi in Joel ii. 23. Vajikra Rabba, sect. 35. fol. 175. 3.

{2} Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord. {3} Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain.

(2) He applies that to the poor, which he spoke against the rich, warning them to wait for the Lord's coming patiently, who will avenge the injuries which the rich men do to them.

(3) The taking away of an objection: Although his coming seems to linger, yet at the least we must follow the farmer, we who do patiently wait for the times that are fitting for the fruits of the earth. And again, God will not postpone the least bit of the time that he has appointed.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Jam 5:7. Exhortation to the brethren to patient waiting, on to Jam 5:11.

μακροθυμήσατε οὖν] μακροθυμεῖν; literally, to be long-suffering to those who do an injury; opposed to ὀξυθυμεῖν; see Meyer on Colossians 1:11. On its distinction from ὑπομένειν, see on 2 Timothy 3:11; here the meaning appears to run into that of ὑπομένειν; comp. the following μακροθυμῶν and Jam 5:8; but it is here well put, in order to exclude the feeling of disquieting doubt; comp. Hebrews 6:12; Hebrews 6:15.

οὖν] refers to the preceding sentiment (also to that indicated in οὐκ ἀντιτάσσεται ὑμῖν), that the judgment is near (de Wette, Wiesinger[228]).

ἈΔΕΛΦΟΊ] contrast to the ΠΛΟΎΣΙΟΙ.

Patience is to endure ἝΩς Τῆς ΠΑΡΟΥΣΊΑς ΤΟῦ ΚΥΡΊΟΥ. On ἜΩς as a preposition, see Winer, p. 418 [E. T. 590]. As regards the meaning which ἜΩς here has, Schneckenburger correctly observes: non tempus tantum sed rem quoque indicat, qua Ἡ ΘΛῖΨΙς ΜΑΚΡΟΘΎΜΩς toleranda tollatur. By ΠΑΡΟΥΣΊΑ ΤΟῦ ΚΥΡΊΟΝ, according to constant Christian usage, is to be understood the advent of Christ (Wiesinger, Brückner, Lange, Bouman), not the coming of God (Augusti, Theile, de Wette); although James by κύριος chiefly designates God, yet he also uses this name for Christ, chap. Jam 2:1.

The exhortation is strengthened by the reference to the patient waiting of the husbandman (the same figure in Sir 6:19). As he waits (ἘΚΕΔΈΧΕΤΑΙ) for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient with reference to it, until it has received the early and latter rain, so should the Christian patiently wait for the precious fruit of his labour, for which he hopes. The καρπός is designated as ΤΊΜΙΟς, because it is its preciousness which occasions the ΜΑΚΡΟΘΥΜΊΑ. By ΜΑΚΡΟΘΥΜῶΝ ἘΠʼ ΑὐΤῷ, ἘΚΔΈΧΕΤΑΙ is more definitely stated, since that verb does not necessarily include in itself the idea here intended. On ἘΠʼ ΑὐΤῷ = in reference to the ΚΑΡΠΌς, comp. Luke 18:7.

Ὁ ΓΕΩΡΓΌς is not the subject of ΛΆΒῌ (Luther), but Ὁ ΚΑΡΠΌς (Stier).

The question whether we are here to read ἝΩς with or without ἌΝ (see critical remarks) cannot be answered from the usage of the N. T.; see Matthew 10:11, and, on the other hand, Luke 12:59. According to Tischendorf, the authorities are decisive for the omission of ἌΝ. See Al. Buttmann, p. 198 f. [E. T. 230 f.].[229]—(ὙΕΤῸΝ) ΠΡΏΪΜΟΝ ΚΑῚ ὌΨΙΜΟΝ] the autumnal and spring rains; see Deuteronomy 11:14; Jeremiah 5:26; Joel 2:23; Zechariah 10:1 : not “the morning and the evening rain” (Luther); see Winer’s Realwörterb. under “Witterung.”[230]

[228] Schneckenburger correctly observes: ad judicii divini propinquitatem respicit; but the remark is erroneous: neque cam infitias, si quis pariter versui 6 hunc jungat, ita ut exemplo τῆς μακροθυμίας ad eandem animi lenitatem usque servandam excitentur.

[229] It is peculiar that in the parallel sentences, Exodus 15:16, Jeremiah 23:20, at first ἕως stands and then ἕως ἄν.

[230] In a peculiar manner Oecumenius allegorizing says: πρώϊμος ὑετός, ἡ ἐν νεότητι μετἀ δακρύων μετάνοια· ὄψιμος, ἡ ἐν τῇ γήρᾳ.Jam 5:7-11. The section 7–11 is a Christian adaptation of the earlier Jewish conception of the Messianic Era; in place of αἱ ἐσχάται ἡμέραι there is ἡ παρουσία τοῦ Κυρίου, the one a specifically Jewish, the other a specifically Christian expression; the two expressions, which represent, as it were, the titles of Jewish and Christian Eschatology respectively, are sufficient to show the difference of venue regarding these two sections. It is characteristic of one type of apocalyptic literature that the central figure of the Messiah is not mentioned, while another type lays great emphasis on the Messianic Personality; Jam 5:1-6 represents the former of these; that it contains no trace of Christian interpolation is the more remarkable in that it is utilised by a Jewish-Christian writer and is incorporated in Christian literature. The fact is additional evidence in favour of its being a quotation,—one of several which our Epistle contains. It is christianised by the addition to it of Jam 5:7-11, which, though interspersed with O.T. reminiscences, is specifically Christian. A similar christianising of Jewish material by adding to it is found, though on a much smaller scale, in Revelation 22:20, Ἀμήν ἔρχου κύριε Ἰησοῦ, which forms a response to the preceding ναί, ἔρχομαι ταχύ. Dr. Schiller-Szinessy (in Encycl. Brit., art. “Midrash”) discovered that the Hebrew equivalent of the words Ἀμήν ἔρχου (= אמן בא) indicated acrostically a primitive hymn, which still appears in all the Jewish prayer books, and is known from its opening words as En Kelohenu (“There is none like our God”; see Singer’s The Authorised Daily Prayer Book, p. 167). This hymn consists of five verses of four lines each; the first word of each line in the first verse begins with [60], of the second verse with מ, of the third with נ, of the fourth with ב, and of the fifth with [61], thus making a four-fold repetition of the formula אמן בא (= “Amen, Come”). This formula is the short title of the hymn referred to and “is actually written instead of the hymn in the place where it is to be used after the Additional Service for the New Year, and again towards the conclusion of the additional service for the eighth day of Solemn Assembly …, at the end of the Feast of Tabernacles” (Taylor, The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, pp. 78 ff., and see Box in Church and Synagogue, iii., pp. 41 ff.). The formula “Amen Bo” belonged to Jewish Eschatology, and possibly took its origin from the phrase עולם הבא (= “The age to come,” a common expression for the Messianic Era); it is christianised by the Jewish-Christian writer in the Apocalypse by the addition of κύριε Ἰησοῦ, just as in the passage before us the second, obviously Christian, section Jam 5:7-11, is added on to the former, quite as obviously Jewish, in order to make the whole Christian.

[60] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.

[61] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.7–11. Comfort and Counsel for the Poor

7. Be patient therefore] More literally, Be long-suffering. The logical sequence implied in “therefore” is that the “brethren” whom St James addresses should follow the example of the ideal “just man” of whom the previous verse had spoken. There is a terminus ad quem for that long-suffering, and it is found in “the coming of the Lord.” Here, with scarcely the shadow of a doubt, it is the Lord Jesus who is meant. St James had learned from the discourse recorded in Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:37; Matthew 24:39, to think of that Advent as redressing the evils of the world, and he shared the belief, natural in that age of the Church, that it was not far off. It had already drawn nigh (James 5:8). The patient expectation of the sufferers would not be frustrated. We see that the hope was not fulfilled as men expected, but we may believe that even for those who cherished it, it was not in vain. There was a judgment at hand, in which evil-doers received their just reward, and which made glad the hearts of the righteous.

hath long patience for it] The verb is the same as that just translated “be patient.” Better, perhaps, is long-suffering over it, as implying a kind of watchful expectancy. The prevalence of a long-continued drought in Palestine when St James wrote (see note on James 5:16) gave, we can scarcely doubt, a very special emphasis to his words of counsel.

until he receive the early and latter rain] The MSS. present a singular variety of readings, some giving “rain,” some “fruit,” and some no substantive at all. “Rain” gives the best meaning. The “early rain” fell in the months from October to February; the latter, from March to the end of April. Comp. Deuteronomy 11:14; Jeremiah 3:3; Jeremiah 5:24; Joel 2:23. An ingenious allegorising interpretation finds in the “early” rain the tears of youthful repentance; in the “latter,” those of age.Jam 5:7. Οὖν, therefore) Whatever the wicked may do in the meantime.—παρουσίας, the coming) Jam 5:8-9; Jam 5:12.—τοῦ Κυρίου, of the Lord) Jesus Christ.—ἐκδέχεται, waiteth for) obtains by waiting, at the harvest. יקצר, shall reap, Septuagint, ἐκδέξεται, Hosea 8:7.—τίμιον, precious) the reward of labour and patience.—ἕως, until) To be taken with—and hath long patience. He does not cease before (he receives it).—ἂν) See App. Crit.[69]—λάβῃ) he receive, from heaven.—πρώϊμον) the early rain, after sowing.—ὄψιμον) the latter rain, when harvest is now near.

[69] B supports ἂν (judging from the silence of collators). A, Theb. and later Syr omit ἄν.—E.Verses 7-20. - CONCLUDING EXHORTATIONS

(1) TO PATIENCE (vers. 7-11);

(2) AGAINST SWEARING (ver. 12);

(3) TO PRACTICAL CONDUCT IN HEALTH AND IN SICKNESS (ver. 13, etc.). Verses 7-11. - Exhortation to patience. Verse 7. - Be patient therefore. In his concluding remarks St. James reverts to the point from which he started (comp. James 1:3, 4). Μακροθυμεῖν is here given a wider meaning than that which generally attaches to it. As was pointed out in the notes on James 1:3, it ordinarily refers to patience in respect of persons. Here, however, it certainly includes endurance in respect of things, so that the husbandman is said μακροθυμεῖν where we should rather have expected ὑπομενεῖν (cf. Lightfoot on Colossians 1:11). Unto the coming of the Lord (ἕως τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ Κυρίου); Vulgate, usque ad adventure Domiai. The word παρουσία ηαδ been used by our Lord himself of his return to judge, in Matthew 24:3, 27, 37, 39. It is also found in St. Paul's writings, only, however (in this sense), in Thessalonians (1 Thessalonians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:15; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1, 8) and 1 Corinthians 15:23. St. Peter uses it in his Second Epistle (2 Peter 1:16; 3:4, 12), as does St. John (1 John 2:28). Behold, the husbandman, etc. Consideration, exciting to patience, drawn from an example before the eyes of all. Until he receive; better, taking γή as the subject of the verb, until it receive. The early and the latter rain. Υετόν of the Received Text has the authority of A, K, L, and the Syriac Versions; א (with which agree the Coptic and Old Latin, if), καρπόν. B and the Vulgate omit the substantive altogether. In this they are followed by most critical editors (e.g. Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott and Hort), but not by the Revisers; and as the expression, πρώιμον καὶ ὄψιμον, without the substantive, is never found in the LXX., it is safer to follow A and the Syriac in retaining ὑετόν here. (For "the early and the latter rain," comp. Deuteronomy 11:14; Jeremiah 5:24; Joel 2:23; Zechariah 10:1.) "The first showers of autumn which revived the parched and thirsty soil and prepared it for the seed; and the later showers of spring which continued to refresh and forward both the ripening crops and the vernal products of the field" (Robinson, quoted in 'Dictionary of the Bible,' 2:994). Be patient (μακροθυμήσατε)

From μακρός, long, and θυμός, soul or spirit, but with the sense of strong passion, stronger even than ὀργή, anger, as is maintained by Schmidt ("Synonymik"), who describes θυμός as a tumultuous welling up of the whole spirit; a mighty emotion which seizes and moves the whole inner man. Hence the restraint implied in μακροθυμία is most correctly expressed by long-suffering, which is its usual rendering in the New Testament. It is a patient holding out under trial; a long-protracted restraint of the soul from yielding to passion, especially the passion of anger. In the New Testament the word and its cognates are sometimes rendered by patient or patience, which conceals the distinction from ὑπομονή, uniformly rendered patience, and signifying persistent endurance, whether in action or suffering. As Trench observes, "ὑπομονή is perseverantia and patientia both in one." Thus Bishop Ellicott: "The brave patience with which the Christian contends against the various hindrances, persecutions, and temptations that befall him in his conflict with the inward and outward world." Ὑπομονή. contains an element of manliness. Thus Plato joins it with the adverb ἀνδρικῶς, in a manly way, and contrasts it with ἀνάνδρως, unmanly, cowardly. Μακροθυμία is exercised toward persons; ὑπομονή, toward things. The former is ascribed to God as an attribute (Luke 18:7; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 3:9, 2 Peter 3:15), the latter never; for the God of patience (Romans 15:5) is the God who imparts patience to his children. "There can be no resistance to God nor burden upon him, the Almighty, from things. Therefore ὑπομονή cannot find place in him" (Trench). Rev. retains A. V., be patient. The thought links itself naturally with that in the preceding verse: the righteous doth not resist.

Therefore

Since things are so. Referring to the condition of things described in the previous passage.

Brethren

In contrast with the rich just addressed.

Waiteth (ἐκδέχεται)

With expectation. Compare Matthew 13:30; Mark 4:27.

The early and latter rain (ὑετὸν πρώιμον καὶ ὄψιμον)

Both adjectives only here in New Testament. Ὑετὸν, rain, is rejected by all the best texts. The early rain fell in October, November, and December, and extended into January and February. These rains do not come suddenly, but by degrees, so that the farmer can sow his wheat or barley. The rains are mostly from the west or southwest (Luke 12:54), continuing two or three days at a time, and falling mostly in the night. Then the wind shifts to the north or east, and fine weather ensues (Proverbs 25:23). The latter rains, which are much lighter, fall in March and April. Rain in harvest was regarded as a miracle (1 Samuel 12:16-18). See Introduction, on James' local allusions.

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