Hebrews 2:13
And again, I will put my trust in him. And again, Behold I and the children which God has given me.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(13) I will put my trust in him . . . Behold I and the children . . .—Of the two passages cited in this verse, the latter is certainly from Isaiah 8:18; and though the former might be derived from 2Samuel 22:3 or Isaiah 12:2, yet, as the words are also found in the same chapter of Isaiah (Isaiah 8:17), we may with certainty consider this the source of the quotation. That the section of Isaiah’s prophecies to which Hebrews 8 belongs is directly Messianic, is a fact that must be kept in mind; but the stress of the quotation cannot be laid on this. The prophet, as the representative of God to the people, has given utterance to the divine message: in these words, however, “I will put my trust” (better, “I will have my trust,” for continuous confidence is what the words denote) “in Him,” he retires into the same position with the people whom he has addressed; their relation towards God’s word and the hope it inspires must be his also. This two-fold position of the prophet symbolised the two-fold nature of Him of whom every prophet was a type. (In Isaiah 8:17, the Authorised version, “I will look for Him,” is nearer to the strict meaning of the original; but the difference is of little moment.)

The second passage is free from difficulty up to a certain point. In Isaiah 7, 8 we not only read of the word of God sent by Isaiah, but also find his sons associated with him in his message to the people. The warning of judgment and the promise are, so to speak, held up before the people inscribed in the symbolic names borne by the sons, Maher-shalal-hash-baz (“Speed the spoil, hastens the prey”) and Shear-jashub (“A remnant shall return;” see Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 10:21), and by Isaiah himself (“Salvation of Jehovah”). “Behold I,” he says, “and the children whom the Lord hath given me, are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the Lord of hosts.” By God’s own appointment, the children whom God gave him, though themselves no prophets, were joined with himself in the relation of prophets to the people, and were representatives of those whom God, who “hideth His face from the house of Jacob” (Isaiah 8:17), will save. As in the former passage Isaiah is taken as representing Christ, so here those who, being of the same blood, are joined with him in his work and in the promise of salvation, represent those whom the Son calls “brethren.” The difficulty is that, whereas the original passage speaks of “the children” of the prophet, the meaning here must be children of God, given by Him to the Son. But no type can answer in every respect to that which it represents. The association of Jesus with His, people contains three elements of thought—His essential superiority, His sharing the same nature with His people, His brotherhood with them. The first two thoughts are truly represented in this Old Testament figure; the last no figure could at the same time set forth. And though Hebrews 2:12-13 are directly connected with the word “brethren,” yet, as the next verse shows, the most important constituent of the thought is community of nature. It should be observed that in these two verses the citations are not so distinctly adduced by way of proof as are those of the first chapter.

2:10-13 Whatever the proud, carnal, and unbelieving may imagine or object, the spiritual mind will see peculiar glory in the cross of Christ, and be satisfied that it became Him, who in all things displays his own perfections in bringing many sons to glory, to make the Author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. His way to the crown was by the cross, and so must that of his people be. Christ sanctifies; he has purchased and sent the sanctifying Spirit: the Spirit sanctifies as the Spirit of Christ. True believers are sanctified, endowed with holy principles and powers, set apart to high and holy uses and purposes. Christ and believers are all of one heavenly Father, who is God. They are brought into relation with Christ. But the words, his not being ashamed to call them brethren, express the high superiority of Christ to the human nature. This is shown from three texts of Scripture. See Ps 22:22; 18:2; Isa 8:18.And again - That is, it is said in another place, or language is used of the Messiah in another place, indicating the confidence which he put in God, and showing that he partook of the feelings of the children of God, and regarded himself as one of them.

I will put my trust in him - I will confide in God; implying:

(1) a sense of dependence on God; and,

(2) confidence in him. It is with reference to the former idea that the apostle seems to use it here - as denoting a condition where there was felt to be need of divine aid. His object is to show that he took part with his people, and regarded them as brethren - and the purpose of this quotation seems to be to show that he was in such a situation as to make an expression of dependence proper. He was one with his people, and shared their "dependence" and their piety - using language which showed that he was identified with them, and could mingle with the tenderest sympathy in all their feelings. It is not certain from what place this passage is quoted. In Psalm 18:2, and the corresponding passage in 2 Samuel 22:3, the Hebrew is אחסה־בּו echacah bow - "I will trust in him;" but this Psalm has never been regarded as having any reference to the Messiah, even by the Jews, and it is difficult to see how it could be considered as having any relation to him. Most critics, therefore, as Rosenmuller, Calvin, Koppe, Bloomfield, Stuart, etc., regard the passage as taken from Isaiah 8:17. The reasons for this are:

(1) that the words are the same in the Septuagint as in the Epistle to the Hebrews;

(2) the apostle quotes the next verse immediately as applicable to the Messiah;

(3) no other place occurs where the same expression is found.

The Hebrew in Isaiah 8:17, is וקוּיתי־לו weqiwweytiy-low - "I will wait for him," or I will trust in him - rendered by the Septuagint πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι ἐπ ̓αὐτῶ pepoithōs esomai ep' autō - the same phrase precisely as is used by Paul - and there can be no doubt that he meant to quote it here. The sense in Isaiah is, that he had closed his message to the people; he had been directed to seal up the testimony; he had exhorted the nation to repent, but he had done it in vain; and he had now nothing to do but to put his trust in the Lord, and commit the whole cause to him. His only hope was in God; and he calmly and confidently committed his cause to him. Paul evidently designs to refer this to the Messiah; and the sense as applied to him is, "The Messiah in using this language expresses himself as a man. It is people who exercise dependence on God; and by the use of this language he speaks as one who had the nature of man, and who expressed the feelings of the pious, and showed that he was one of them, and that he regarded them as brethren." There is not much difficulty in the "argument" on the passage; for it is seen that in such language he must speak as "a man," or as one having human nature; but the main difficulty is on the question how this and the verse following can be applied to the Messiah? In the prophecy, they seem to refer solely to Isaiah, and to be expressive of his feelings alone - the feelings of a man who saw little encouragement in his work, and who having done all that he could do, at last put his sole trust in God. In regard to this difficult, and yet unsettled question, the reader may consult my Introduction to Isaiah, section 7. The following remarks may serve in part to remove the difficulty.

(1) the passage in Isaiah Isa 8:17-18, occurs "in the midst" of a number of predictions relating to the Messiah - preceded and followed by passages that had an ultimate reference undoubtedly to him; see Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 8:8; Isaiah 9:1-7, and the notes at those passages.

(2) the language, if used of Isaiah, would as accurately and fitly express the feelings and the condition of the Redeemer. There was such a remarkable similarity in the circumstances that the same language would express the condition of both. Both had delivered a solemn message to people; both had come to exhort them to turn to God, and to put their trust in him and both with the same result. The nation had disregarded them alike, and now their only hope was to confide in God, and the language used here would express the feelings of both - "I will trust in God. I will put confidence in him, and look to him."

(3) there can be little doubt that in the time of Paul this passage was regarded by the Jews as applicable to the Messiah. This is evident, because:

(a) Paul would not have so quoted it as a "proof text" unless it would be admitted to have such a reference by those to whom he wrote; and,

(b) because in Romans 9:32-33, it is evident that the passage in Isaiah 8:14, is regarded as having reference to the Messiah, and as being so admitted by the Jews. It is true that this may be considered merely as an argument "ad hominem" - or an argument from what was admitted by those with whom he was reasoning, without vouching for the precise accuracy of the manner in which the passage was applied - but that method of argument is admitted elsewhere, and why should we not expect to find the sacred writers reasoning as other people do, and especially as was common in their own times?

(Yet the integrity of the apostle would seem to demand, that he argue not only "ex concessis," but "ex veris." We cannot suppose for a moment, that the sacred writers (whatever others might do), would take advantage of erroneous admissions. We would rather expect them to correct these. Proceed upon them, they could not; see the supplementary note on Hebrews 1:5. Without the help of this defense, what the author has otherwise alleged here, is enough to vindicate the use the apostle has made of the passage; see also the note on Hebrews 2:6.)

continued...

13. I will put my trust in him—from the Septuagint, Isa 8:17, which immediately precedes the next quotation, "Behold, I and the children," &c. The only objection is the following words, "and again," usually introduce a new quotation, whereas these two are parts of one and the same passage. However, this objection is not valid, as the two clauses express distinct ideas; "I will put my trust in Him" expresses His filial confidence in God as His Father, to whom He flees from His sufferings, and is not disappointed; which His believing brethren imitate, trusting solely in the Father through Christ, and not in their own merits. "Christ exhibited this "trust," not for Himself, for He and the Father are one, but for His own people" (Heb 2:16). Each fresh aid given Him assured Him, as it does them, of aid for the future, until the complete victory was obtained over death and hell Php 1:16 [Bengel].

Behold I and the children, &c.—(Isa 8:18). "Sons" (Heb 2:10), "brethren" (Heb 2:12), and "children," imply His right and property in them from everlasting. He speaks of them as "children" of God, though not yet in being, yet considered as such in His purpose, and presents them before God the Father, who has given Him them, to be glorified with Himself. Isaiah (meaning "salvation of Jehovah") typically represented Messiah, who is at once Father and Son, Isaiah and Immanuel (Isa 9:6). He expresses his resolve to rely, he and his children, not like Ahaz and the Jews on the Assyrian king, against the confederacy of Pekah of Israel, and Rezin of Syria, but on Jehovah; and then foretells the deliverance of Judah by God, in language which finds its antitypical full realization only in the far greater deliverance wrought by Messiah. Christ, the antitypical Prophet, similarly, instead of the human confidences of His age, Himself, and with Him God the Father's children (who are therefore His children, and so antitypical to Isaiah's children, though here regarded as His "brethren," compare Isa 9:6; "Father" and "His seed," Isa 53:10) led by Him, trust wholly in God for salvation. The official words and acts of all the prophets find their antitype in the Great Prophet (Re 19:10), just as His kingly office is antitypical to that of the theocratic kings; and His priestly office to the types and rites of the Aaronic priesthood.

And again, I will put my trust in him: this is a further proof that Christ’s sanctified ones are his brethren, his exercising himself in a necessary work proper to that brotherhood only. They are all of the household of faith, Galatians 6:10; their business is to believe in God. All who do so, are brethren; Christ doth so, and so is a Brother to them; he and they rely on one and the same God and Father to both: he did believe, confide, and rest on God, that he would help his humanity to go through all his works and sufferings to the perfecting of that of redemption. Some say he spake this in the person of David in Psalm 18:2, because Psalm 18:49 is applied to Christ by the Spirit in Romans 15:9. But others think that Psalm is not so properly understood of Christ, and that these words are not found in the Septuagint, which the apostle frequently useth, as being most familiar with these Hebrews; but that these words of his trusting in God, and of his children, are to be found near together in Isaiah 8:17,18, which chapter is a clear prophecy of this God-man the Redeemer, and punctually fulfilled by him on earth. This seems most rationally to be the place the apostle refers as to both these texts.

And again, Behold I and the children which God hath given me: this is the third proof, which, though it be literally Isaiah’s words, who complained how himself and the children of God in his days were scorned by the world for cleaving to him, yet herein was he a type of Christ, and in him was it eminently fulfilled. This the word

Behold intimates, it being a matter of great weight and importance, to be attended, to be considered and unstood, by the church.

I and the children which God hath given me; I and my brethren, children of the same heavenly Father, John 11:52 20:17 1Jo 3:1; which my Father of free grace chose and delivered on my purchase, and whom he had fitted and wrought by his Spirit, to be brought home by him unto glory, though they were the wonder and contempt of this world, John 17:2,6,8,9,11,19,22,24. These words are taken not from Isaiah 8:17 where, in the Septuagint version, is a like phrase; for they are not the words of the Messiah there, but of the prophet; and besides, the apostle disjoins them from the following words, which stand there, by saying, "and again"; but they are cited from Psalm 18:2 in which psalm are many things which have respect to the Messiah, and his times; the person spoken of is said to be made the head of the Heathen, to whom unknown people yield a voluntary submission, and the name of God is praised among the Gentiles, Psalm 18:43. The Targum upon it makes mention of the Messiah in Psalm 18:32 and he is manifestly spoken of under the name of David, in Psalm 18:50 and which verse is applied to the Messiah, by the Jews, both ancient and modern (i): and these words are very applicable to him, for as man he had every grace of the Spirit in him; and this of faith, and also of hope, very early appeared in him; he trusted in God for the daily supplies of life, and that he would help him in, and through the work of man's salvation; see Psalm 22:9 he committed his Spirit into his hands at death, with confidence, and believed he would raise his body from the dead; and he trusted him with his own glory, and the salvation of his people: and this is a citation pertinent to the purpose, showing that Christ and his people are one, and that they are brethren; for he must be man, since, as God, he could not be said to trust; and he must be a man of sorrows and distress, to stand in need of trusting in God.

And again, behold I and the children which God hath given me; this is a citation from Isaiah 8:18 in which prophecy is a denunciation of God's judgments upon Israel, by the Assyrians, when God's own people among them are comforted with a promise of the Messiah, who is described as the Lord of hosts; who is to be sanctified, and be as a sanctuary to the saints, and as a stone of stumbling to others; and the prophet is ordered to bind and seal up the doctrine among the disciples, at which he seems astonished and concerned, but resolves to wait; upon which Christ, to encourage him, speaks these words; for they are not addressed to God, as the Syriac version renders them, "behold I and the children, whom thou hast given me, O God"; in which may be observed, that the saints are children with respect to God, who has adopted them, and with respect to Christ, who is their everlasting Father; that they were given to Christ as his spiritual seed and offspring, as his portion, and to be his care and charge; and that this is worthy of attention, and calls for admiration, that Christ and his people are one, and that he is not ashamed to own them before God and men.

(i) Echa Rabbati, fol. 50. 2. Tzeror Hammor, fol. 47. 3.

{14} And again, I will put my {t} trust in him. And again, {u} Behold I and the children which God hath given me.

(14) He applies the same to the kingly power of Christ, in delivering his own from the power of the devil and death.

(t) I will commit myself to him, and to his defence.

(u) This Isaiah speaks of himself and his disciples but signifying by this all ministers, as also his disciples signify the whole Church. Therefore seeing Christ is the head of the prophets and ministers, these words are more rightly confirmed by him, than by Isaiah.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Hebrews 2:13. Second and third proofs, taken from Isaiah 8:17-18. The design of the author in dividing into two different citations, by means of καὶ πάλιν, the words which stand together in the Hebrew and the LXX., is not to present the relation of community between Christ and the Christians on two different sides, in that, namely, it is indicated in his first passage how the incarnate Son of God descended to the standpoint of man; in the second, on the other hand, how redeemed men are raised by God to the standpoint of Christ (Kurtz),—all of which is subtle and far-fetched; but only to pile up the Scripture testimonies, inasmuch as the end of Hebrews 2:17, as well as the beginning of Hebrews 2:18, seemed to him to contain each in itself an independent means of evidence for that which he would make good. The words of the first proof passage: πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι ἐπʼ αὐτῷ, are likewise found in the LXX. at 2 Samuel 22:3 and Isaiah 12:2. But that the author was not thinking of one of these passages (according to Ebrard, of the first), but of Isaiah 8:17, is the more natural supposition, because with the LXX. and in the original the words, which here, too, are first adduced (only in partially inverted order, and augmented by ἐγώ): καὶ πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι ἐπʼ αὐτῷ, immediately precede the directly following passage, taken from Isaiah 8:18. In their historic sense the words cited refer to the prophet and his sons, and, indeed, with the LXX., the ἰδοὺθεός is a further unfolding of the subject in ἔσομαι. The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, however, regards the words as an utterance of Christ, led thereto, as Bleek rightly conjectures, by the καὶ ἐρεῖ, interpolated by the LXX. before Hebrews 2:17, which seemed to indicate another subject than the prophet, since he spoke throughout the whole section in the first person; and other than God, since He is spoken of, by virtue of ἐπʼ αὐτῷ, as the one in whom the speaker trusts. The demonstrative force of the words cited is found by our author in the fact that the person speaking, i.e. Christ, places Himself, by means of the testifying of His confidence in God, upon the same level with other men;[49] as also in that the author understands by the παιδία, not the children of the speaker, but the children of God, the children whom God the Father has given to Christ.

[49] Theophylact: καὶ διὰ τούτον δείκνυσιν, ὅτι ἄνθρωπος καὶ ἀδελφὸς ἡμῶν γέγονεν. ὥσπερ γὰρ ἕκαστος τῶν ἀνθρώπων, οὕτω καὶ αὐτὸς πέποιθεν ἐπʼ αὐτῷ, τουτέστι τῷ πατρί.Hebrews 2:13. The two quotations cited in the thirteenth verse are from Isaiah 8:17-18. There they are continuous, here they are separately introduced, each by the usual καὶ πάλιν, because they serve to bring out two distinct points. In the first, the Messiah utters his trust in God, and thereby illustrates His sonship and brotherhood with man. Like all men He is dependent on God. As Calvin says: “since He depends on the aid of God His condition has community with ours”. In the second part, ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ not only calls attention to Himself as closely associated with the παιδία; but also, as Weiss thinks, intimates His readiness to obey, as if “Here am I”. This obedience He shares with those whom God has committed to His care, God’s παιδία and His brothers. Cf. John 6:37; John 6:39; John 17:11.13. And again, I will put my trust in him] The quotation is probably from Isaiah 8:17, but nearly the same words are found in Psalm 18:2 and 2 Samuel 22:3 (LXX.). The necessity of putting His trust in God is a proof of Christ’s humanity, and therefore of His brotherhood with us. When He was on the Cross His enemies said by way of taunt, “He trusted in God” (Matthew 27:43).

Behold, I, and the children which God hath given me] This verse furnishes a marked instance of the principles of Biblical interpretation, of which we have already seen many specimens. Isaiah by the prophetess has a son to whom he is bidden to give the name Maher-shalal-hash-baz, or “Speed-plunder-haste-spoil;” to his elder son he has been bidden to give the name Shear-Jashub, “a remnant shall remain;” and as the names of both sons are connected with prophecies concerning Israel he says “Lo! I and the children whom the Lord hath given me are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the Lord of hosts.” The words are here entirely dissociated from their context and from their primary historical meaning to indicate the relation between Christ and His redeemed children. The LXX. in Isaiah 8:17 insert the words “And He will say,” and some have supposed that the author (who, like most Alexandrians, was evidently unacquainted with the original Hebrew) understood these words to imply that it was no longer the Prophet but the Messiah who was the speaker. It is however more probable that he took for granted the legitimacy of his application. In this he merely followed the school of interpretation in which he had been trained, in accordance with principles which were at that period universally accepted among Jews and Christians. We must ourselves regard it as a somewhat extreme instance of applying the words of Scripture in a Messianic sense. But we see the bearing of the illustration upon the immediate point in view, when we recall the typical character and position of Isaiah, and therefore the mystic significance which was naturally attached to his words. Our Lord Himself uses, with no reference to Isaiah, a similar expression, “those that thou gavest me,” in John 17:12.Hebrews 2:13. Ἐγὼ ἔσομαι πεποιθὼς ἐπʼ αὐτῷ, I will put my trust in Him) LXX. καὶ πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι ἐπʼ αὐτῷ, in Isaiah immediately before the place from ch. 8, which will be afterwards quoted: πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι ἐπʼ αὐτῷ, 2 Samuel 22:3, which the Church imitates, Isaiah 12:2. The filial confidence of the Messiah is indicated, fleeing from His sufferings to the Father [and by no means disappointed: comp. Hebrews 2:10, at the end.—V. g.], ch. Hebrews 5:7 : comp. 2 Samuel 22:4, etc. A small portion is quoted; the whole passage is intended by the apostle. Our Theologians rightly blame the Schoolmen, who are of opinion, that the atonement of Christ was not simply and in itself condign or meritorious. See Calov. Matæol. pass. in Dedic. But yet the most fragrant part of this atonement is the exceedingly pure confidence by which solely He was supported in His approach to the Father; Psalm 22:10; Matthew 27:43. For He did not show His merits, but rather confessed the sins that were laid upon Him, Psalm 69:6. As He therefore by Himself confidently (by faith) trusted in the Father, so we confidently (by faith) put our trust in Christ, and through Christ in the Father. The argument is very important against the merit of men’s works. But Christ exhibited this confidence not for Himself, for He and the Father are one, but for His own people, Hebrews 2:16. Every instance of present assistance gave assurance of assistance for the future (comp. Php 1:6), until He obtained a complete victory over death and the devil.—ἰδοὺὁ Θεός) Isaiah 8:18, LXX., in the same words. He calls them παιδία ילדים, children, sons, using an expression well becoming the First-begotten, who intimates that the same are both His brethren and His inferiors (juniors); and He presents all these, to be glorified alike with Himself, before God, who has given them to Him to be saved.Verse 13. - And again, I will put my trust in him. There are two passages of the Old Testament from which this may be a citation 2 Samuel 22:3 and Isaiah 8:17. In either case the original is slightly altered in the citation, probably with a purpose; the emphatic ἐγὼ being prefixed, and ἔσομαι being (suitably after this addition) placed before instead of after πεποιθὼς. The purpose of this change may be to bring into prominence the thought that the Messiah himself, in his humanity, puts his trust in God as well as the "brethren" with whom he associates himself. The passage in 2 Samuel 22:3 is from the psalm of David, written "in the day when the Loan had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul." It is given also in the Book of Psalms as Psalm 18, where the LXX. reads ἐλπιῶ ἐπ αὐτόν instead of πεποίθως ἔσομαι ἐπ αὐτῷ: so that, if the quotation is from the psalm, it is taken from the historical book. But is the quotation from the psalm or from Isaiah? If from the former, it serves (if Psalm 22. is also David's) to complete the type of the same royal sufferer, showing him reliant on God along with his brethren in the day of success, as well as during previous trial. Most commentators, however, suppose the quotation to be from Isaiah, inasmuch as the following one is from him, not only coming immediately after the first in the original, but also dependent on it for its meaning. Nor is the introduction of the second quotation by καὶ πάλιν conclusive against its being the continuation of the same original passage, since it introduces a new idea, to which attention may be thus drawn. Possibly the writer, familiar as he was with the Old Testament, had both passages in his view, the phrase common to both serving as a connecting link between David and Isaiah. And again, Behold I and the children which God hath given me. The applicability of the whole passage in Isaiah (Isaiah 8:17, 18) to the writer's argument is not at first sight obvious. It occurs in connection with the memorable message to Ahaz, on the occasion of the confederacy of Rezin and Pekah against Judah, in the course of which the prophet foretells (Isaiah 7:14) the birth of Immanuel. In Hebrews 8. and Hebrews 9. he expands this message, rising into a vein of undoubted Messianic prophecy (see especially Isaiah 9:1-8). In the midst of general dismay and disbelief the prophet stands firm and undaunted, presenting himself as a sign as well as a messenger of the salvation which he foretells: "Behold, I and the children whom the Lord hath given me are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the Lord of hosts." The "children" thus associated with himself as signs appear to have been his two sons, with their symbolical names, Shear-jashub and Maher-shalal-hash-baz, the first of whom he had been commanded to take with him (Isaiah 7:3) on his first visit to Ahaz, and the second of whom (Isaiah 8:3) had been borne to him by the "prophetess," and named under a Divine command. His own name also may be regarded in the "sign" as symbolical, meaning "Jehovah's salvation." If then, the words of vers. 17, 18 are quoted as those of the prophet himself (and they are certainly his own in our Hebrew text), he is viewed as himself a sign, in the sense of type, of the Immanuel to come. And the point of the quotation is that, to complete such typical sign, it was required that "the children God had given him" should be combined with him in the representation. They represent the ἀδελφοί, the ἀγιαζομένοι, as Isaiah does the υἱὸς, the ἀγιάζων, all being together ἐξ ἑνός. If it be objected that the children given to Isaiah were his own offspring, and not "brethren," as in the antitype, it may be replied that it is net the human paternity of the "children," but their having been given by God to the prophet to be "signs" along with him, that is the prominent; idea in the original passage, and that, thus viewed, the words of Isaiah have their close counterpart in those of our Lord; "The men which thou gavest me out of the world; thine they were, and thou gavest them me" (John 17:6, 9, 11, 12). Such, then, may be the ground for assigning the utterance to Christ, justified by the Messianic character of Old Testament prophecy in general, according to which "the historic sense of the utterance does not exclude the purpose of prophecy; but leaves typical references open which declare themselves historically by some corresponding Messianic fact, and hence are recognized afterwards from the point of view of historic fulfillment" (Meyer). But when we refer to the LXX. (which in the passage before us varies greatly from the Hebrew) we find a further reason. The LXX. has (Isaiah 8:16, 17, 18) "Then shall be manifest these that seal the Law that one should not learn it. And he will say (καὶ ἐρεῖ), I will wait upon God, who has turned away his hoe from the house of Israel, and I will put my trust in him. Lo I and the children which God hath given me." Here, in the absence of any preceding nominative in the singular to be the subject of ἐρεῖ, the writer of the Epistle may have understood the Messiah to be the speaker; and the Seventy also may have so intended the expression. The general drift of the passage, as interpreted in the Epistle, remains the same, though the LXX. more distinctly suggests and justifies its application to Christ. The only difference is that, according to the Hebrew, the prophet speaks and is regarded as a type; according to the LXX., the Antitype himself is introduced as speaking, and declaring the type of Isaiah to be fulfilled in himself. I will put my trust, etc.

Isaiah 8:17, Isaiah 8:18. The passage occurs in an invective against the people's folly in trusting to any help but God's during the Syro-Israelitish war under Ahaz. The prophet is commanded to denounce those who trusted to soothsayers and not to God, and to bind and seal God's testimony to the righteous party who maintained their confidence in him - a party comprising the disciples of Isaiah, and in whom lies the prophet's hope for the future of Israel. Isaiah declares his own faith in God, and announces that he and his children have been appointed as living symbols of the divine will, so that there is no need of applying to necromancers. The names of the children are Shear-jashub a remnant shall return, and Maher-shalal-hash-baz haste-spoil-hurry-prey. These names will teach Israel that Assyria will spoil Damascus and Samaria; and that, in the midst of foreign invasion, God will still be with Judah, and will make a nation of the remnant which the war shall leave. The prophet and his children are thus omens of the nation's fortunes. The children were babes at this time, and "the only unity which existed among them was that which exists between every father and his children, and that which resulted from their belonging to the same prophetic household and all bearing symbolic names (without knowledge of the fact on the part of the children)." Our writer ignores the historical sense of the words, takes a part of a sentence and puts a messianic meaning into it, inferring from it the oneness of Jesus and his people, and the necessity of his assuming their nature in order to be one with them. He treats the two parts of the passage separately, emphasizing in the first part Messiah's trust in God in common with his human brethren, and inserting ἐγὼ I into the lxx text in order to call special attention to the speaker as Messiah. In the second part, he expresses the readiness of himself and his children to carry out God's will.

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