Hebrews 2:12
Saying, I will declare your name to my brothers, in the middle of the church will I sing praise to you.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(12) I will declare thy name . . . .—The quotation is taken (with very slight variation) from the 22nd verse of Psalms 22 (Psalm 22:22)—a Psalm remarkable for its close connection with the narratives of the Passion of our Lord. Whether the inscription which speaks of David as author is correct, or whether (from the difficulty of discovering any period in David’s history to which the expressions used can apply) we consider the Psalm to have been written after the Captivity, there can be no doubt of its Messianic character. Some would class this Psalm with Psalms 110 (see Note on Hebrews 1:13), as simply and directly prophetic, having no historic foreground; but the language of some of the verses is so definite and peculiar that we must certainly regard it as descriptive of actual experience, and must rather regard the Psalm (comp. Hebrews 1:8-9) as typically prophetic of Christ. Each division of this verse is in point as a quotation. (1) Those to whom the Messiah will declare God’s name He speaks of as “brethren;” (2) not alone, but in the “church” (or rather, in a congregation of God’s people; see Psalm 22:22) will He sing the praise of God. The latter thought—community with men, as attested by a like relation to God—is brought out with still greater prominence in Hebrews 2:13.

2:10-13 Whatever the proud, carnal, and unbelieving may imagine or object, the spiritual mind will see peculiar glory in the cross of Christ, and be satisfied that it became Him, who in all things displays his own perfections in bringing many sons to glory, to make the Author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. His way to the crown was by the cross, and so must that of his people be. Christ sanctifies; he has purchased and sent the sanctifying Spirit: the Spirit sanctifies as the Spirit of Christ. True believers are sanctified, endowed with holy principles and powers, set apart to high and holy uses and purposes. Christ and believers are all of one heavenly Father, who is God. They are brought into relation with Christ. But the words, his not being ashamed to call them brethren, express the high superiority of Christ to the human nature. This is shown from three texts of Scripture. See Ps 22:22; 18:2; Isa 8:18.Saying - This passage is found in Psalm 22:22. The whole of that Psalm has been commonly referred to the Messiah; and in regard to such a reference there is less difficulty than attends most of the other portions of the Old Testament that are usually supposed to relate to him. The following verses of the Psalm are applied to him, or to transactions connected with him, in the New Testament, Hebrews 2:1, Hebrews 2:8,Hebrews 2:18; and the whole Psalm is so strikingly descriptive of his condition and sufferings, that there can be no reasonable doubt that it had an original reference to him. There is much in the Psalm that cannot be well applied to David; there is nothing which cannot be applied to the Messiah; and the proof seems to be clear that Paul quoted this passage in accordance with the original sense of the Psalm. The point of the quotation here is not that he would "declare the name" of God - but that he gave the name brethren to those whom he addressed.

I will declare thy name - I will make thee known. The word "name" is used, as it often is, to denote God himself. The meaning is, that it would be a part of the Messiah's work to make known to his disciples the character and perfections of God - or to make them acquainted with God. He performed this. In his parting prayer John 17:6, he says, "I have manifested thy name unto the men whom thou gavest me out of the world." And again, Hebrews 2:26, "And I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it."

Unto my brethren - The point of the quotation is in this. He spoke of them as "brethren." Paul is showing that he was not ashamed to call them such. As he was reasoning with those who had been "Jews," and as it was necessary as a part of his argument to show that what he maintained respecting the Messiah was found in the Old Testament, he makes his appeal to that, and shows that the Redeemer is represented as addressing his people as "brethren." It would have been easy to appeal to "facts," and to have shown that the Redeemer used that term familiarly in addressing his disciples, (compare Matthew 12:48-49; Matthew 25:40; Matthew 28:10; Luke 8:21; John 20:17), but that would not have been pertinent to his object. It is full proof to us, however, that the prediction in the Psalm was literally fulfilled.

In the midst of the church - That is, in the assembly of my brethren. The point of the proof urged by the apostle lies in the first part of the quotation. This latter part seems to have been adduced because it might assist their memory to have the whole verse quoted; or because it contained an interesting truth respecting the Redeemer - though not precisely a "proof" of what he was urging; or because it "implied" substantially the same truth as the former member. It shows that he was united with his church; that he was one of them; and that he mingled with them as among brethren.

Will I sing praise - That the Redeemer united with his disciples in singing praise, we may suppose to have been in the highest degree probable - though, I believe, but a single case is mentioned - that at the close of the Supper which he instituted to commemorate his death; Matthew 26:30. This, therefore, proves what the apostle intended - that the Messiah was among them as his brethren - that he spoke to them as such - and mingled in their devotions as one of their number.

12. (Ps 22:22.) Messiah declares the name of the Father, not known fully as Christ's Father, and therefore their Father, till after His crucifixion (Joh 20:17), among His brethren ("the Church," that is, the congregation), that they in turn may praise Him (Ps 22:23). At Ps 22:22, which begins with Christ's cry, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" and details minutely His sorrows, passes from Christ's sufferings to His triumph, prefigured by the same in the experience of David.

will I sing—as leader of the choir (Ps 8:2).

Saying; this brings in the proof, that the great gospel Minister, Christ, God-man, did call his sanctified ones

brethren; and was by the same nature so related to them. The proof is in Psalm 22:22, where the apostle asserts, Christ spoke what was said by the prophet there; and that this Psalm concerneth him, is evident by the application of other passages in it to him, both by himself and the Spirit; and who reads it, may see him crucified afresh there.

I will declare thy name unto my brethren; I, as the gospel Prophet, who have seen thee, and am of thee. John 1:18, and who only understand

thy name, will teach, and make it to be known and admired, as that whereby thou art described, distinguished, and set above all other beings and relations to them; a name suitable to their state and relation unto thee and me. Thee in all thy glorious attributes, related to them as to Moses, Exodus 34:5-7, especially thy name of Father, whereby thou standest related to me and them as brethren, fulfilled, John 20:17:

My Father, and your Father; my God, and your God; when he sent this message by Mary Magdalene to his apostles and disciples, to whom he was related as a brother in his humanity, sonship and heirship, family and household and amongst whom he is the First-begotten and elder Brother. Brethren are one, and as one; and so is he and his sanctified ones, Hebrews 2:14 Luke 1:31,35 Joh 17:22,23 Ro 8:14; so Romans 8:17,29 Ga 4:5-7 Ephesians 3:14,15.

In the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee; in the respective parts and congregations of his mystical body, implicitly his brethren. Christ and they are from one Father divine, he by nature, they by grace; and from one human parent, Luke 3:23,38, and both of one flesh: he solemnly sung and praised his Father with them at his supper, in that representative church, Matthew 26:30 Mark 14:26. Saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren,.... These words, with the following clause, are cited from Psalm 22:22 as a proof of what the apostle had before asserted; and that this psalm is to be understood, not of the Jewish nation, or people of Israel, nor of Esther, nor of David, but of the Messiah, appears from the title of it, "Aijeleth, Shahar", which signifies "the morning hind"; from the particular account of Christ's sufferings in it; from his several offices herein pointed to; from the conversion of the Gentiles it prophesies of; and from several passages cited from hence, and applied to Christ; see Matthew 27:35. And these are the words of Christ addressed to his Father; whose name he promises to declare to his brethren; meaning not the Jews, in general, his brethren according to the flesh; but his disciples and followers, particularly the twelve apostles, and the five hundred brethren to whom he appeared after his resurrection; and indeed all the saints and people of God may be included: and by his name he would declare to them, is not meant any particular name of his, as Elohim, El-shaddai, Jehovah, or the like; but rather he himself, and the perfections of his nature, which he, the only begotten Son, lying in his bosom, has declared; though the Gospel seems chiefly to be designed; see John 17:6 and this Christ declared with great exactness and accuracy, with clearness and perspicuity, and with all integrity and fidelity: he spoke it out plainly, and concealed no part of it; as he received it from his Father, he faithfully made it known to his people; this is expressive of Christ's prophetic office, of his preaching of the Gospel, both in his own person, and by his ministers:

in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee; or "a hymn"; this is to be understood not of the church above, but of the church below; and not of the synagogue of the Jews, but of the disciples of Christ, and of his singing an hymn to God, with and among them, as he did at the institution of the supper, Matthew 26:30 for though the number of the apostles was but small, yet they made a congregation or church, and which was a pure and glorious one. With the Jews (h), ten men made a congregation.

(h) Misn. Sanhedrin, c. 1. sect. 6.

{13} Saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee.

(13) That which he taught before about the incarnation of Christ, he applies to the prophetic office.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Hebrews 2:12. First proof, taken from Psalm 22:23 (22). In its historic sense the citation has reference to the composer of the psalm himself, who in the deepest distress supplicates God for deliverance, and promises to praise Him for the deliverance granted. The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, on the other hand, interprets the psalm Messianically, and regards Christ as the subject speaking therein.

ἀπαγγελῶ] LXX.: διηγήσομαι.

Hebrews 2:12-13. Documentary proofs from Scripture for the οὐκ ἐπαισχύνεται ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοὺς καλεῖν, Hebrews 2:11.Hebrews 2:12. In proof that He is not ashamed to take his place among men as a brother three passages are adduced from the O.T. in which this relationship is implied. These passages are so confidently assumed to be Messianic that they are quoted as spoken by Christ Himself, λέγων. The fact that words of Jesus spoken while He lived on earth are not quoted can scarcely be accepted as proof that the Gospels were not in existence when this Epistle was written, for even after the middle of the second century, the O.T. was still the “Scripture” of the Christian Church. The first quotation is from the twenty-second Psalm applied to Himself by our Lord on the cross. The LXX διηγήσομαι is altered to ἀπαγγελῶ. The significant words in the first clause are τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς μου; and the significance of the second clause consists in the representation of the Messiah as taking part in the worship of God in the congregation. This is one particular form in which His brotherhood manifests itself. For the passages cited not merely affirm the brotherhood, but also exhibit its reality in the participation by the Messiah of human conditions.12. I will declare thy name unto my brethren] Psalm 22:22. This is a typico-prophetic Psalm, accepted in a Messianic sense, which was supposed to be mystically indicated by its superscription, “On the hind of the dawn.” The sense of its prophetic and typical character had doubtless been deepened among Christians by our Lord’s quotation from it on the Cross (Matthew 27:46). It is one of our special Psalms for Good Friday. See the references to it in Matthew 27:35; John 19:24.

in the midst of the church] Rather, “of the congregation.”Hebrews 2:12. Λέγων, saying) Here three things are quoted from the Old Testament, by which the preceding discourse of the apostle is admirably confirmed, by Chiasmus, in retrograde order. For

the apostle mentions

Christ says, in the words of the Old Testament,

Hebrews 2:12, Sons.

Hebrews 2:13, at the end, I and the children.

Ibid., The perfecting, or consummation by sufferings.

Hebrews 2:13, at the beginning, I will put My trust.

Hebrews 2:11, The relationship of Him who sanctifies, and of those who are sanctified.

Hebrews 2:12, Unto My brethren.

And again, Hebrews 2:14-17, in inverted order, the children, and the successful work of Christ, and brethren, are mentioned. The two chains of quotations, ch. 1 on the Glory of Christ, ch. 2 on Redemption, most sweetly correspond to one another.—ἀπαγγελῶὑμνήσω σε) Psalm 22:23, LXX., διηγήσομαι: as to the rest, the words are the same. Messiah declares the name of the good Lord, which was unknown to His brethren, that the brethren may also praise Him. Ps. already quoted, ver. 24.—ὑμνήσω, I will sing) as the leader of the choir: comp. Psalm 8:3.Verse 12. - I will declare thy Name unto my brethren, in the midst of the Church (or, congregation) will I sing praise unto thee. This first citation is from Psalm 22:22, quoted, it would seem, from memory or from a text of the LXX. different from ours, διηγήσομαι being changed to ἀπαγγελῶ, but with no difference of meaning. The psalm is attributed by tradition to David, being entitled "a psalm of David." Delitzsch and Ebrard accept it as certainly his, concluding, from its position in the first book of the psalms (1-72.), that it was included in the collection made by David himself (cf. 2 Chronicles 23:18 with Psalm 72:20). Others, as recently Perowne, think that the fact of the suffering and humiliation described, being beyond any experienced by David himself, points to some other unknown author. The conclusion, however, does not necessarily follow. David, writing "in Spirit," when under persecution by Saul, may be conceived as drawing a picture, with regard both to present humiliation and to expected triumph, beyond the facts of his own case, taking his own experience as typical of a higher fulfillment. And the minute details of the suffering described, answering so remarkably to the circumstances of the Crucifixion, certainly suggest the idea of a distinct prophetic vision. Still, there is no reason for concluding that the psalm was not, like other Messianic psalms, suggested by and founded on the writer's own circumstances and experience. Detitzsch says well, "The way of sorrows by which David mounted to his earthly throne was a type of that Via Dolorosa by which Jesus, the Son of David, passed before ascending to the right hand of the Father." There is no psalm of which the ultimate Messianic reference is to Christian believers more undoubted. The first words of it were uttered by Jesus himself from the cross (Matthew 27:46); and for its fulfillment in him, recognized by the evangelists, see Matthew 27:39, 43; John 19:23, 28. The general purport of the psalm is as follows: A persecuted sufferer, under a feeling of being forsaken by God, pours out his complaint, and prays for succor; suddenly, at the end of ver. 21, the tone of the psalm changes into one of confident anticipation of deliverance and triumph, when the psalmist shall praise the Lord in the congregation of his brethren, when all that fear the Lord shall join him in praise, when the "ends of the earth" shall turn to the Lord, and "all the families of the nations" shall worship with Israel. The close agreement of the latter part of the psalm with the Messianic anticipations of prophecy is obvious, and would in itself determine its Messianic import. The marked difference between this psalm and those previously quoted is that the typical psalmist appears here as a human sufferer previously to his triumph, thus anticipating the similar view of the Messiah in prophecy, as notably in Isaiah lilt. And hence this psalm is suitably quoted here as a striking and early anticipation of a Messiah "perfected through sufferings," and associated in sympathy with human "brethren," the verse actually quoted, in which "he is not ashamed to call them brethren," being sufficient to remind the readers of the whole of this aspect of Messianic prophecy. This acknowledgment as brethren the writer represents as prophetically announced by Messiah in Psalm 22:22. The Psalm is the utterance of a sufferer crying to God for help in the midst of enemies. The Psalmist declares that God has answered his prayer, and that he will give public thanks therefore.

Unto my brethren (τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς μου)

His brethren in the worshipping assembly. This is applied by our writer to the human brotherhood at large, and Christ is represented as identifying himself with them in thanksgiving.

Will I sing praise unto thee (ὑμνήσω σε)

Rare in N.T. Matthew 26:30; Mark 14:26; Acts 16:25. Lit. hymn thee. Often in the Greek liturgies.

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