1 Timothy 2:9
In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array;
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(9) In like manner also, that women.—The Apostle continues his official injunctions in reference to public prayer. “Likewise,” he goes on to say, “I desire that women, when they pray”—women also in the congregation had their duties as well as the men—while the latter were directed to conduct and lead the public prayer, the women who worshipped with them were enjoined, as their part of the solemn service, to be present, adorned with neatness of apparel and modesty of demeanour, and the holy reputation of kind deeds.

Adorn themselves in modest apparel.—This direction to Christian women was not intended to apply to their ordinary dress in the world, but simply explained to the sisters of the Ephesian flock that their place in public worship was one of quiet attention—that their reverence and adoration must be shown not by thrusting themselves forward with a view to public teaching or public praying, but by being present and taking part silently—avoiding especially in these services anything like a conspicuous dress or showy ornaments—anything, in fact, which would be likely to arouse attention, or distract the thoughts of others.

With shamefacedness and sobriety.—These expressions denote the inward feelings with which the Apostle desires the devout Christian women to come to divine service; the first signifies “the innate shrinking from anything unbecoming.” The second, sobriety, includes the idea of self-restraint—the conquest over all wanton thought and desire.

Not with broided hair.—Comp. 1Peter 3:3; Isaiah 3:24. “Broided:” the modern form is “braided.” Some modern editions give “broidered,” apparently by mistake.

Or gold.—Probably, the “gold” is supposed to be twined among the plaits of the hair. These elaborate adornments, so likely to catch the eye at divine worship, were quite inconsistent with Christian simplicity, besides being calculated to distract the attention of their fellow worshippers, male as well as female. On this question of seemly, quiet apparel, in an assembly gathered for divine worship, see the difficult verse, 1Corinthians 11:10, where another and a still graver reason for modest demeanour and apparel of women is alleged—“because of the angels.”

Pearls, or costly array.—Ear-rings, necklaces, bracelets, are included here; these costly ornaments were worn by the ladies of the luxurious age in which St. Paul lived, in great profusion.

1 Timothy 2:9-10. In like manner also, I command that women — Particularly when they are about to appear in public assemblies for divine worship; adorn themselves in modest Κοσμιω, decent, or becoming, apparel — Neither too costly nor sordid, but what is neat and clean, as the word signifies, and suitable to their place and calling. The word καταστολη, rendered apparel, according to Theophylact and Œcumenius, was a long upper garment which covered the body every way. What the apostle especially forbids is that immodest manner of dressing which is calculated to excite impure desires in the spectators, or a vain admiration of the beauty of those that use it: also that gaudiness or showiness of dress which proceeds from vanity, and nourishes vanity, wastes time and money, and so prevents many good works. With shamefacedness Μετα αιδους, with modesty, teaching to avoid every thing unbecoming; and sobriety — Or soundness of mind, as σωφροσυνη signifies, which will prevent all unnecessary expense. This latter expression, in St. Paul’s sense, signifies the virtue that governs our whole life according to true wisdom. Not with broidered — Plaited, or rather curled hair, as πλεγμασιν properly signifies; or gold — Worn by way of ornament; or pearls — Jewels of any kind; (a part is put for the whole;) or costly array Ιματισμω πολυτελει, expensive clothing. These four things are expressly forbidden by name to all women, (there is no exception,) professing godliness — And no art of man can reconcile with the Christian profession, the wilful violation of an express command. But — Instead of these vain ornaments, (what is itself infinitely more valuable, and much better becometh women professing godliness, and the gospel of Christ, the great rule of it,) with good works — That is, works of mercy and charity to their fellow- creatures, which will render them amiable in the eyes of God himself, and of all wise and virtuous persons with whom they converse.

2:8-15 Under the gospel, prayer is not to be confined to any one particular house of prayer, but men must pray every where. We must pray in our closets, pray in our families, pray at our meals, pray when we are on journeys, and pray in the solemn assemblies, whether more public or private. We must pray in charity; without wrath, or malice, or anger at any person. We must pray in faith, without doubting, and without disputing. Women who profess the Christian religion, must be modest in apparel, not affecting gaudiness, gaiety, or costliness. Good works are the best ornament; these are, in the sight of God, of great price. Modesty and neatness are more to be consulted in garments than elegance and fashion. And it would be well if the professors of serious godliness were wholly free from vanity in dress. They should spend more time and money in relieving the sick and distressed, than in decorating themselves and their children. To do this in a manner unsuitable to their rank in life, and their profession of godliness, is sinful. These are not trifles, but Divine commands. The best ornaments for professors of godliness, are good works. According to St. Paul, women are not allowed to be public teachers in the church; for teaching is an office of authority. But good women may and ought to teach their children at home the principles of true religion. Also, women must not think themselves excused from learning what is necessary to salvation, though they must not usurp authority. As woman was last in the creation, which is one reason for her subjection, so she was first in the transgression. But there is a word of comfort; that those who continue in sobriety, shall be saved in child-bearing, or with child-bearing, by the Messiah, who was born of a woman. And the especial sorrow to which the female sex is subject, should cause men to exercise their authority with much gentleness, tenderness, and affection.In like manner also - That is, with the same propriety; with the same regard to what religion demands. The apostle had stated particularly the duty of men in public worship 1 Timothy 2:8, and he now proceeds to state the duty of women. All the directions here evidently refer to the proper manner of conducting public worship, and not to private duties; and the object here is to state the way in which he would have the different sexes appear. He had said that he would have prayers offered for all people (1 Timothy 2:1 ff), and that in offering such petitions he would have the men on whom devolved the duty of conducting public devotion, do it with holy hands, and without any intermingling of passion, and with entire freedom from the spirit of contention. In reference to the duty of females in attendance on public worship, he says that he would have them appear in apparel suitable to the place and the occasion - adorned not after the manner of the world, but with the zeal and love in the cause of the Redeemer which became Christians. He would not have a woman become a public teacher 1 Timothy 2:12, but would wish her ever to occupy the place in society for which she was designed 1 Timothy 2:11, and to which she had shown that she was adapted; 1 Timothy 2:13-14. The direction in 1 Timothy 2:9-12, therefore, is to be understood particularly of the proper deportment of females in the duties of public worship. At the same time, the principles laid down are doubtless such as were intended to apply to them in the other situations in life, for if modest apparel is appropriate in the sanctuary, it is appropriate everywhere. If what is here prohibited in dress is wrong there, it would be difficult to show that it is right elsewhere.

That women adorn themselves - The words "I will" are to be understood here as repeated from 1 Timothy 2:8. The apostle by the use of the word "adorn" (κοσμεῖν kosmein), shows that he is not opposed to ornament or adorning, provided it be of the right kind. The world, as God has made it, is full of beauty, and he has shown in each flower that he is not opposed to true ornament. There are multitudes of things which, so far as we can see, appear to be designed for mere ornament, or are made merely because they are beautiful. Religion does not forbid true adorning. It differs from the world only on the question what "is" true ornament, or what it becomes us, all things considered, to do in the situation in which we are placed, the character which we sustain, the duties which we have to perform, and the profession which we make. It may be that there are ornaments in heaven which would be anything but appropriate for the condition of a poor, lost, dying sinner on earth.

In modest apparel - The word here rendered "modest" (κόσμιος kosmios), properly relates to ornament, or decoration, and means that which is "well-ordered, decorous, becoming." It does not, properly, mean modest in the sense of being opposed to that which is immodest, or which tends to excite improper passions and desires, but that which is becoming or appropriate. The apostle does not positively specify what this would be, but he mentions somethings which are to be excluded from it, and which, in his view, are inconsistent with the true adorning of Christian females - "broidered hair, gold, pearls, costly array." The sense here is, that the apparel of females should be such as becomes them, or is appropriate to them. The word here used (κόσμιος kosmios), shows that there should be due attention that it may be truly neat, fit, decorous. There is no religion in a negligent mode of apparel, or in inattention to personal appearance - anymore than there is in wearing gold and pearls; and a female may as truly violate the precepts of her religion by neglecting her personal appearance as by excessive attention to it. The true idea here is, that her attention to her appearance should be such that she will be offensive to no class of persons; such as to show that her mind is supremely fixed on higher and more important things, and such as to interfere with no duty which she owes, and no good which she can do, either by spending her time needlessly in personal adorning, or by lavishing that money for dress which might do good to others, or by neglecting the proprieties of her station, and making herself offensive to others.

With shamefacedness - With modesty of appearance and manner - an eminent female virtue, whether in the sanctuary or at home.

And sobriety - The word here used means, properly, "sanity;" then sober-mindedness, moderation of the desires and passions. It is opposed to all that is frivolous, and to all undue excitement of the passions. The idea is, that in their apparel and deportment they should not entrench on the strictest decorum. Doddridge.

Not with broidered hair - Margin, "plaited." Females in the East pay much more attention to the hair than is commonly done with us. It is plaited with great care, and arranged in various forms, according to the prevailing fashion, and often ornamented with spangles or with silver wire or tissue interwoven; see the notes on Isaiah 3:24. The sense here is, that Christian females are not to imitate those of the world in their careful attention to the ornaments of the head. It cannot be supposed that the mere braiding of the hair is forbidden, but only that careful attention to the manner of doing it, and to the ornaments usually worn in it, which characterized worldly females.

Or gold, or pearls - It is not to be supposed that all use of gold or pearls as articles of dress is here forbidden; but the idea is, that the Christian female is not to seek these as the adorning which she desires, or is not to imitate the world in these personal decorations. It may be a difficult question to settle how much ornament is allowable, and when the true line is passed. But though this cannot be settled by any exact rules, since much must depend on age, and on the relative rank in life, and the means which one may possess, yet there is one general rule which is applicable to all, and which might regulate all. It is, that the true line is passed when more is thought of this external adorning, than of the ornament of the heart. Any external decoration which occupies the mind more than the virtues of the heart, and which engrosses the time and attention more, we may be certain is wrong. The apparel should be such as not to attract attention; such as becomes our situation; such as will not be particularly singular; such as shall leave the impression that the heart is not fixed on it. It is a poor ambition to decorate a dying body with gold and pearls. It should not be forgotten that the body thus adorned will soon need other habiliments, and will occupy a position where gold and pearls would be a mockery. When the heart is right; when there is true and supreme love for religion, it is usually not difficult to regulate the subject of dress.

Costly array - Expensive dress. This is forbidden - for it is foolish, and the money thus employed may be much more profitably used in doing good. "Costly array" includes that which can be ill afforded, and that which is inconsistent with the feeling that the principle ornament is that of the heart.

9, 10. The context requires that we understand these directions as to women, in relation to their deportment in public worship, though the rules will hold good on other occasions also.

in modest apparel—"in seemly guise" [Ellicott]. The adjective means properly. orderly, decorous, becoming; the noun in secular writings means conduct, bearing. But here "apparel." Women are apt to love fine dress; and at Ephesus the riches of some (1Ti 6:17) would lead them to dress luxuriously. The Greek in Tit 2:3 is a more general term meaning "deportment."

shamefacedness—Trench spells this word according to its true derivation, "shamefastness" (that which is made fast by an honorable shame); as "steadfastness" (compare 1Ti 2:11, 12).

sobriety—"self-restraint" [Alford]. Habitual inner self-government [Trench]. I prefer Ellicott's translation, "sober-mindedness": the well-balanced state of mind arising from habitual self-restraint.

with—Greek, "in."

braided hair—literally, "plaits," that is, plaited hair: probably with the "gold and pearls" intertwined (1Pe 3:3). Such gaud is characteristic of the spiritual harlot (Re 17:4).

The apostle’s next precept to be urged by Timothy, is concerning the habits of women, especially when they come to worship God in the public assemblies; for to such assemblies the precepts in this chapter, both before and after this, chiefly relate. Concerning these he commands, that they should

adorn themselves in modest apparel, observe a decency, with respect to the modesty of their sex, the purity of religion, the quality of their condition, and their age. Religion has no other interest in our habits, but to regulate them according to a modest comeliness; for they are indifferent in their nature, and neither add nor detract from the acceptance of our religious services.

Shamefacedness and sobriety, or modesty; a moderation of mind showed both in the habit of the body, and the manners and behaviour, both with these inward habits, and in an outward habit that may speak souls possessed of these inward habits.

Not with broidered hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array; not with hair platted or curled, not adorned with ornaments of gold, or pearls, or costly array. The apostle condemneth not these ornaments where they are suited to the quality of women, and ask not too much time to put on, and in order; but where they are too excessive with respect to the purse of those that wear them, or take up more time to be spent in putting them on than is fit to be so spent, especially on a sabbath day, or where they are put on out of pride, or to make a vain show, or are of that nature and fashion as they speak an unchaste or an immodest heart, or may cause scandal to others. The apostle Peter, 1 Peter 3:3, hath much the same precept, where he is not speaking of women’s habits, with such special reference to public assemblies, but to their ordinary conversation; but it ought to be more specially avoided when people come to worship God. They should not so habit themselves when they go to pray, as if they were going to a dancing school, as Chrysostom in his time complained of some that did.

In like manner also,.... Let the women pray likewise; though they are not to lead in prayer, or be the mouth of the church, which would be indecent, yet they are to join with the church in public prayer; see Acts 1:14 and in like manner as the men, with purity of heart and hand, without murmuring and impatience towards God, and without wrath and anger towards others, and in faith, without doubting and distrust: and the apostle proceeds to point out what sort of dress he would have them appear in at the time of prayer, and at any part of public worship; and thus the Ethiopic version renders it, "so let the women be clothed in prayer", namely, as follows;

that women adorn themselves in modest apparel: the word rendered "apparel" signifies a long robe, which reaches down to the feet; and the word translated "modest" signifies that which is clean, neat, and decent, yea, beautiful and ornamental; and the sense of the apostle is, that he would not have them to come to public worship in rags, and in dirty and filthy garments, but that their bodies should be covered with clean and decent raiment; so the Israelites washed their clothes that they might be ready to meet the Lord at Mount Sinai, Exodus 19:14. The Jews always appeared in their best clothes on the sabbath day; this is one of their rules: (n).

"for the honour of the sabbath, every man must be clothed, , "with clean or neat apparel" and clothing on the weekday must not be as clothing on the sabbath day; and if a man can make no change, he must let down his talith (or upper garment, his cloak); so that his clothing may not be as the clothing of the weekdays, when that was girt up about him.''

The apostle adds,

with shamefacedness and sobriety: these are the two general rules by which dress is to be regulated; it is right and proper, when it is consistent with chastity, when it is not immodest and impudent, and more like the attire of an harlot than of a woman professing godliness; and when it is moderate as well as modest, and suitable to a person's age and station, and is not beyond the circumstances of life in which they are. There is no religion or irreligion in dress, provided pride and luxury are guarded against, and modesty and moderation preserved.

Not with broidered hair, or plaited, as in 1 Peter 3:3; see Gill on 1 Peter 3:3. The Jews had women on purpose for this business; Mary Magdalene is thought to have her name from hence; See Gill on Matthew 27:56. Or gold, or pearls, or costly array: not that the apostle forbids all use or wear of such things by proper persons, whose circumstances would admit of it, and upon proper occasions, and at proper times: certain it is, that earrings and bracelets of gold, and jewels set in silver and gold, and raiment, costly raiment, were sent by Abraham, and given to Rebekah, and wore by her, who was a woman professing godliness so the church in Psalm 45:9 though in figurative expressions, yet in allusion to what is literal, and honourable, and commendable, is said to be in gold of Ophir, and her clothing to be of wrought gold, and to be brought to the king in raiment of needlework: but however justifiable such a dress may be at other seasons, the apostle judged it very improper at the time of public prayer, or at the time of public worship; seeing it might swell the heart of the wearer with pride, so as to forget herself and the business she was come about, and draw the eyes of others upon her; and so cause a general inattention. It was a complaint of Chrysostom's many hundreds of years ago, that some who came to public worship, appeared in such a dress, as if they came rather to dance than to pray; such apparel should be avoided: it is said of Pythagoras (o), that he taught the inhabitants of Crotona, the men literature, and the women chastity and modesty; and by his disputations so far prevailed upon the latter, as to lay aside their garments of gold and other ornaments of their dignity, as instruments of luxury; all which they brought into the temple of Juno, and dedicated them to that goddess; declaring, that shamefacedness or chastity, and not garments, are the true ornaments of matrons.

(n) Maimon. Hilch. Subbat. c. 30. sect. 3.((o) Justin. ex Trogo. l. 20. c. 4.

{7} In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array;

(7) Thirdly, he appoints women to learn in the public assemblies with silence and modesty, being dressed pleasantly, without any overindulgence or excess in their clothing.

1 Timothy 2:9-10. Ὡσαύτως γυναῖκας κ.τ.λ.] After speaking of the men, Paul turns to the women, and gives some precepts regarding their behaviour in church assemblies.

As to the construction, it is obvious that the verse depends on βούλομαι in 1 Timothy 2:8. Several expositors, however, connect it not only with βούλομαι, but also with βούλομαι προσεύχεσθαι: “I will that the men pray … so also the women;” they then take what follows: ἐν καταστολῇ κοσμίῳ κ.τ.λ., as corresponding to ἐπαίροντας κ.τ.λ., 1 Timothy 2:8, and as defining more precisely the manner in which the women are to pray. The infinitive κοσμεῖν, however, is against this construction. De Wette, indeed, thinks that it is added to the infinitive προσεύχεσθαι by asyndeton; but although the connection of several infinitives with one another asyndetically frequently occurs (1 Timothy 5:14, 1 Timothy 6:18; Titus 3:1-2), there is no example of two infinitives being thus connected.[98] Hofmann is forced to assume that κοσμεῖν “is a consequence dependent on μετὰ αἰδοῦς καὶ σωφροσύνης;” but how can self-adorning be considered a consequence of “modesty and good sense”? Though sometimes the infinitive does stand connected in such loose fashion with what precedes, it would be difficult to find an instance of such a connection as Hofmann here assumes.

Against that construction there is also this point: since in 1 Timothy 2:8 προσεύχεσθαι means prayer made by the men aloud in the church, here in 1 Timothy 2:9 it would have to be taken in a weakened sense; and it is so rendered by de Wette and Hofmann: “taking part in prayer.”

According to this, the verse cannot be dependent on βούλομαι προσεύχεσθαι, but on βούλομαι alone, so that ἐν καταστολῇ κ.τ.λ. merely states how the women are to adorn themselves (so, too, Plitt). De Wette, indeed, thinks that objection may be made to this construction because the affirmative ἐν κατ. κ.τ.λ. is followed not only by a negative μὴ ἐν πλ. κ.τ.λ., but also by a second affirmative in 1 Timothy 2:10. This accumulation of clauses, however, cannot be urged, since we have a similar accumulation in 1 Timothy 2:11-12. Nor is the particle ὡσαύτως an argument against us, since it stands in other places where the same predicates are not used (comp. 1 Timothy 3:8; Titus 2:3). Ὡσαύτως may be used wherever the members to be connected contain something not exactly alike, but of a kindred nature, as is the case here with ὁσίουςδιαλογισμοῦ and ἐν καταστολῇσωφροσύνης.[99] Nothing is to take place in the church, neither among the men nor among the women, which can hurt its spiritual dignity.

ἘΝ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΟΛῇ ΚΟΣΜΊῼ] ΚΑΤΑΣΤΟΛΉ may, according to Greek usage, denote “sedateness of nature.”[100] Hence it is that some expositors (de Wette among others) take it here as equivalent to habitus, κατάστημα (Titus 2:3); but it never occurs in that sense. The words that follow: μὴ ἐν πλέγμασινἱματισμῷ πολυτελεῖ, show that the word is to be understood of clothing. True, it does not originally mean this, but the letting down, e.g., of the περιβολή (Plutarch, Pericl. 5). This meaning, however, might easily pass into that of “the garment hanging down,” and then further, into that of “clothing in general.” This is the explanation given here by most expositors (also by Plitt and Hofmann; van Oosterzee translates it: “bearing,” but explains it afterwards: “καταστολή = ἔνδυμα”). Some take it quite generally; others, again, understand it of the garment enveloping the whole body (Chrysostom: ἡ ἀμπεχόνη πάντοθεν περιστέλλουσα καλῶς, μὴ περιέργως). This last explanation has no sufficient support in the etymology, nor in the ordinary usage.

κόσμιος] does not mean “delicately” (Luther), but “modestly, honourably” (comp. 1 Timothy 3:2); beyond these passages, it is not found in the N. T.

μετὰ αἰδοῦς καὶ σωφροσύνης] The outward modesty which makes itself known in the dress, is to be accompanied by inward purity and chastity, since the former would otherwise be of no account. While αἰδώς denotes the inward shrinking from everything immodest, σωφροσύνη expresses the control of the desires; τὸ κρατεῖν ἡδονῶν καὶ ἐπιθυμίων (Luther): “with modesty and propriety.”[101]

It is to be noted that ΣΩΦΡΟΣΎΝΗ (apart from Acts 26:25 : ΣΩΦΡΟΣΎΝΗς ῬΉΜΑΤΑ ἈΠΟΦΘΈΓΓΟΜΑΙ, in opposition to ΜΑΊΝΟΜΑΙ) occurs only here and in 1 Timothy 2:15, and that all words kindred to it (except ΣΩΦΡΟΝΕῖΝ in Romans 12:3, opposed to ὙΠΕΡΦΡΟΝΕῖΝ in 2 Corinthians 5:13, denoting the opposite of the ecstatic state; also in Mark 5:15; Luke 8:35; 1 Peter 4:7), such as ΣΩΦΡΟΝΊΖΕΙΝ, ΣΩΦΡΟΝΙΣΜΌς, ΣΏΦΡΩΝ, ΣΩΦΡΌΝΩς, are found only in the Pastoral Epistles.

ΜῊ ἘΝ ΠΛΈΓΜΑΣΙΝ Κ.Τ.Λ.] Instead of ΠΛΈΓΜΑΤΑ, we have ἘΜΠΛΟΚΉ [ΤΡΙΧῶΝ] (Isaiah 3:24 : מִקְשֶׁה) in 1 Peter 3:3, which is particularly to be compared with this passage; it denotes “the artificial plaits of hair” (Clemens Alex. Paedag. iii. 11: περίπλοκαι ἑταιρικαὶ τῶν τριχῶν).

καὶ χρυσίῳ] The καί divides the ornament into two parts, πλέγματα belonging to the body itself, and what follows being the things put on the body. In 1 Peter 3:3, we have περίθεσις χρυσίων (comp. Revelation 17:4).

It is wrong to connect χρυσίῳ with the previous πλέγμ. as a hendiadys for πλέγμα χρύσιον (Heinrichs).

ἢ μαργαρίταις] The gems are not named in Peter, and instead of ἱματισμὸς πολυτελής we have there ἔνδυσις ἱματίων; the adjective πολυτελής (Matt.: μαλακὰ ἱμάτια) is contrasted with κόσμιος.

ἀλλʼ ὃ πρέπει κ.τ.λ.] Most expositors (among them Wegscheider, Flatt, Heydenreich, Leo, de Wette, Wiesinger, van Oosterzee, also Winer, p. 149, note 1 [E. T. p. 171]) refer διʼ ἔργων ἀγαθῶν to κοσμεῖν, and take ἃ πρέπειθεοσέβειαν as a parenthesis.[102] But there are three points against this, viz., that the ornament of the women is already named in ἐν καταστολῇ κ.τ.λ., that the preposition διά does not suit with κοσμεῖν (which is construed previously with ἐν), and that “good works” would be unsuitably described as ornament here, where he is speaking of the conduct of the women in the assemblies of the church, unless we arbitrarily limit the general idea to offerings for the poor, as is done by Heydenreich and van Oosterzee. Theodoret rightly joins διʼ ἐργ. ἀγ. with the immediately preceding ἐπαγγελλ. θεοσεβ. (“εὐσέβειαν ἐπαγγέλλεσθε, καὶ τὴν διʼ ἔργων ἀρετήν”); so, too, Oecumenius, Luther, Calvin, etc.; and among more recent names, Mack, Matthies, and Plitt. The comma before διά, which is found in the editions, must therefore be deleted. Hofmann connects the words with what follows, taking διά in the sense of accompanying; but διά never has such a simple copulative meaning.[103]

The relative stands here either for ἐν τούτῳ ὅ, for which Matthies appeals, but wrongly, to Romans 6:21; Romans 10:14; or more probably for καθʼ ὅ. So far as the meaning goes, the various reading ὡς (καθώς, Ephesians 5:3) is correct. Hofmann wishes to refer to κοσμεῖν ἑαυτάς in such a way that “the latter is mentioned as a thing … seemly for women.” The intervening ἀλλά, however, manifestly makes this construction impossible.

ἐπαγγελλομέναις θεοσέβειαν] ἐπαγγέλλεσθαι usually means in the N. T. “promise.” Matthies accordingly renders the word here by “give information, show;” so, too, Luther: “who therein manifest blessedness.” But it is more correct here to take the word in the sense in which profiteri artem is used, so that θεοσέβεια is regarded as an art or a handicraft. De Wette rightly says: “who make profession of blessedness;” so, too, 1 Timothy 6:21; comp. Xenophon, Memor. i. 2. 7: ἀρετὴν ἐπαγγελλόμενος (Ignatius, ad Ephes. chap. 14: οὐδεὶς πίστιν ἐπαγγελλόμενος ἁμαρτάνει).

θεοσέβεια] only here in the N. T. (LXX. Genesis 20:11; more frequently in the Apocrypha; θεοσεβής, John 9:31; LXX. Exodus 18:21), is equivalent to εὐσέβεια.

διʼ ἔργων ἀγαθῶν] must not be limited to works of benevolence alone. The addition of these words is fully explained by a comparison with 2 Timothy 3:5. Calvin gives the connection with the preceding words rightly: si operibus testanda est pietas, in vestitu etiam casto apparere haec professio debet.

[98] Wiesinger unites the κοσμεῖν with the προσεύχεσθαι, and defends it with the remark, that if instead of the asyndeton of the infinitive κοσμεῖν we had the participle, there could have been no doubt regarding it. Then he asks: “Have we not elsewhere examples enough of a similar change of construction?” To this we must answer, “No,” unless “similar” be taken in too wide a sense.

[99] It is necessary therefore to do, as van Oosterzee does, supply the participle προσευχομένας with γυναῖκας because of the ὡσαύτως.

[100] In this sense the word is found, e.g. in Arrian (Epict. ii. 10), joined with αἰδώς and ἡμερότης.—In the passage of Josephus, B. J. ii. 8. 4 : καταστολὴ δὲ καὶ σχῆμα σώματος ὅμοιον τοῖς μετὰ φόβου παιδαγωγουμένοις παισίν, which is commonly quoted as a proof of the meaning “clothing,” the meaning is doubtful. Salmasius explains it: sedatus animus et remissus, elato et superbo tumentique oppositus, in contrast with ὀργῆς, ver. 8; but in that case the added adjective κόσμιος is superfluous.

[101] The two words are also placed together elsewhere as feminine virtues. See Raphelius, who quotes, among others, the passage from Epictetus (Enchir. chap. 62): mulieres in ornatu spem collocant omnem; quare operae pretium est, dare operam, ut sentiant, sibi non ob aliud honorem haberi, ἢ τῷ κοσμίαι φαίνεσθαι, καὶ αἰδήμονες ἐν σωφροσύνῃ. Although in the Cyropaedia (Book viii.) the two words are thus distinguished: διῄρει (sc. Cyrus) δὲ αἰδὼ καὶ σωφροσύνκν τῇδε, ὡς τοὺς μὲν αἰδουμένους, τὰ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ αἰσχρὰ φεύγοντας, τοὺς δὲ σώφρονας, καὶ τὰ ἐν τῷ ἀφανεῖ, the distinction cannot be regarded as always valid.—Aristotle (Rhet. i. 9) explains σωφροσύνη in the following fashion: σωφροσύνη ἀρετή, διʼ ἣν πρὸς τὰς ἡδονὰς τοῦ σώματος οὕτως ἔχουσιν, ὡς ὁ νόμος κελεύει.

[102] Van Oosterzee explains it as “a causal periphrasis to show why precisely this ornament is extolled by the apostle.”

[103] Hofmann thus paraphrases the thought: “They are to do what is good, and to learn in still seclusion. The former is that which is to be accompanied by the latter.” He appeals to 2 Corinthians 2:4. He does not prove, however, that that passage justifies such a paraphrase. The relation between writing and tears is obviously quite different from that between learning in stillness and good works.

1 Timothy 2:9. Having assigned to the men the prominent duties of the Church, St. Paul proceeds to render impossible any misconception of his views on this subject by forbidding women to teach in public. But he begins by emphasising what is their characteristic and proper glory, the beauty of personality which results from active beneficence.

The essential parts of the sentence are ὡσαύτως γυναῖκαςκοσμεῖν ἑαυτάςδιʼ ἔργων ἀγαθῶν. Both προσεύχεσθαι and κοσμεῖν ἑσυτάς depend on βούλομαι, as does ὡσαύτως, which introduces another regulation laid down by the apostle. In the Christian Society, it was St. Paul’s deliberate wish that the men should conduct public worship, and that the women should adorn the Society and themselves by good works. This verse has no reference to the demeanour of women while in Church. It is inconsistent with the whole context to supply προσεύχεσθαι after γυναῖκας.

The connexion of ἐν καταστολῇσωφροσύνης has been disputed. Ellicott takes it as “a kind of adjectival predication to be appended to γυναῖκας,” stating what is the normal condition of women, who are to superadd the adornment of good works. But it is more natural to connect it directly with κοσμεῖν, with which ἐν πλέγμασιν, κ.τ.λ. is also connected as well as διʼ ἔργων ἀγαθῶν; the change of preposition being due to the distinction between the means employed for adornment and the resultant expression of it. The effect of the practice of good works is seen in an orderly appearance, etc.

ὡσαύτως is a word of frequent occurrence in the Pastorals. See reff. Except in 1 Timothy 5:25, it is used as a connecting link between items in a series of regulations. The use of it in Romans 8:26, 1 Corinthians 11:25 is different.

καταστολή, as Ellicott says, “conveys the idea of external appearance as principally exhibited in dress”. It is “deportment, as exhibited externally, whether in look manner or dress”. The commentators cite in illustration Josephus, Bell. Jud. ii. 8, 4, where the καταστολὴ κ. σχῆμα σώματος of the Essenes is described in detail. The Latin habitus is a good rendering, if we do not restrict that term to dress, as the Vulg. here, habitu ornato, seems to do. But ordinato ([262]) hits the meaning better.

[262] Cod. Frisingensis

κόσμιος is applied to the episcopus in 1 Timothy 3:2. It means orderly, as opposed to disorderliness in appearance. κοσμίως (see apparat. crit.) would be a ἅπαξ λεγ. both in Old and New Testament. μετὰ αἰδοῦς: with shamefastness and self-control or discreetness: the inward characteristic, and the external indication or evidence of it.

For σωφροσύνη, see Trench, Synonyms, N.T. The cognate words σωφρονίζειν, Titus 2:4; σωφρονισμός, 2 Timothy 1:7; σωφρόνως, Titus 2:12; σώφρων, 1 Timothy 3:2, Titus 1:8; Titus 2:2; Titus 2:5, are in N.T. peculiar to the Pastoral Epistles; but σωφρο νεῖν, Titus 2:6, is found also in Mark, Luke, Rom., 2 Cor. and 1 Pet. See Dean Bernard’s note here.

ἐν πλέγμασιν, κ.τ.λ.: The parallel in 1 Peter 3:3, ὁ ἔξωθεν ἐμπλοκῆς τριχῶν καὶ περιθέσεως χρυσίων, ἢ ἐνδύσεως ἱματίων κόσμος, is only a parallel. The two passages are quite independent. The vanities of dress—of men and women—is common topic.

9. In like manner also, that women adorn themselves] The point of likeness consists in the fitting attitude of men and of women towards Public Worship and Common Prayer; for men, to lead in prayer with suitable posture and prepared spirit; for women, to attend in quiet dress and quiet behaviour, ‘unadorned’ but still ‘adorned the most’ with the halo of their church work. Cf. Titus 2:3.

modest apparel] Or, seemly guise, if we take the word (which occurs only here) to refer like the Latin habitus not solely to dress but also to demeanour. The simple noun occurs often, e.g. Luke 15:22, ‘bring out the best robe.’ The compound verb is used by the ‘town clerk of Ephesus,’ Acts 19:36, ‘ye ought to be composed.’

with shamefastness and sobriety] The word ‘shamefacedness’ is a vulgar printer’s corruption of the word used by the translators of the A.V. ‘shamefastness,’ now restored to the A.V. in the copies printed side by side with the R.V. The original word aidôs implies a reference to external standards; a feeling of what is due to another (God or man) irrespective of consequences (in contrast to aischunê, the same feeling through fear of harm); the other word sôphrosunê, characteristic of these epistles, implies restraint upon oneself from an innate sense of what is right. The English words of the A.V. may carry the same distinction. Compare Xen. Cyrop. viii. i. 31, ‘the shamefast shun what is openly disgraceful, the sober-minded what is disgraceful in secret also.’ Cf. ch. 1 Timothy 3:2. Trench, N. T. Syn., is not quite right.

broided hair] Lit. ‘plaitings’; ‘gold’ seems to have the best support of mss. here, though ‘gold coins’ is the best supported word in the parallel passage, 1 Peter 3:3, ‘plaiting the hair and wearing a necklace of coins.’

costly array] The R.V. raiment; the word in its form suggests what we convey by the modern term ‘wardrobe.’

1 Timothy 2:9. Καταστολῇ) A well-chosen word.[16] Women are delighted with elegant clothing; and to this the apostle alludes in this passage. They were rich at Ephesus, ch. 1 Timothy 6:17.—κοσμίῳ, elegant, becoming, ornamental [modest, Engl. Vers.]) spiritually, as it is presently described at 1 Timothy 2:10.—αἰδοῦς, shamefacedness) 1 Timothy 2:11-12.—σωφροσύνης, sobriety) A word of frequent occurrence in the epistles to Timothy and Titus. This virtue governs the whole of private life.—[17] ΜῊ) Οὐ denies, ΜῊ forbids, in a discourse of this kind. There is a great difference between Οὐ and ΜῊ. Οὐ indeed might even here be used, because there is not here a finite verb; and so in the case of participles. But otherwise the particles cannot be exchanged.

[16] Plutarch uses it of moderation or simplicity in dress.—ED.

[17] Κοσμεῖν ἑαντοὺς, to adorn themselves) construed with διʼ ἔργων ἀγαθῶν, ver. 10.—V. g.

Verse 9. - In like manner for in like manner also, A.V. and T.R.; braided for broided, A.V.; and gold for or gold, A.V.; raiment for array, A.V. The apostle here passes on to the duties of women as members of the congregation, and he places first modesty of demeanor and dress, the contrary to these being likely to prove a hurt and a hindrance to their fellow-worshippers. Adorn themselves in modest apparel. This is obviously the true construction, κοσμεῖν depending upon βούλομαι. There is a little doubt as to the exact meaning of καταστολή here, the only place where it occurs in the New Testament. Alford argues strongly in favor of the meaning "apparel." But it may also mean "steadiness" or "quietness" of demeanor; and then the phrase will be exactly parallel to 1 Peter 3:5, "The incorruptible apparel of a meek and quiet spirit." And the meaning will be, "Let Christian women adorn themselves with a decent and well-ordered quietness of demeanor, in strict accordance with [or, 'together with'] shame-fastness and sobriety [μετά, 'in strict accord with,' or 'together with'] not with braided hair," etc. A woman's true ornament is not the finery which sire gets from the milliner, but the chaste discretion which she has from the Spirit of God. Modest (κόσμιος); only found in the New Testament here and in 1 Timothy 3:2, where it is rendered" of good behavior" in the A.V., and "modest" in the margin, "orderly" in the R.V. It is common in classical Greek in the sense of "welt-ordered," "welt-behaved." Shamefastness (αἰδώς, bashfulness). So the edition of 1611; "shamefacedness" in the later editions is a corruption. Archbishop Trench compares "stead fast," "soothfast," "root fast," "master-fast," "footfast," "bedfast," with their substantives ('Synonyms of New Test.,' § 20.). Sobriety (σωφροσύνη, as in ver. 15, q.v.); soundness, health, purity, and integrity of mind. 'Απὸ τοῦ σώας τὰς φρένας ἔχειν (Chrysostom, 'Ap. Trench.'). Braided hair (πλέγμασιν); found only here in the New Testament, but used in Aquila and Theodotion, instead of the πλεκείς ορ πλακείς of the LXX., in Isaiah 28:5, for צְפִירָה, a "diadem," or "twined garland." In classical Greek πλέγματα are anything twined, tendrils of the vine, wickerwork, chaplets, etc. The corresponding word in 1 Peter 3:3 is ἐμπλοκὴ τριχῶν, "plaiting the hair." Costly raiment (ἱματισμῷ πολυτελεῖ). For ἱματισμὸς, comp. Luke 7:25; Luke 9:23; Acts 20:33; Psalm 45:10, LXX.; etc., which show tinct the word is used κατ ἐξοχήν of any splendid garment (Schleusuer). Πολυτελής, costly (see Mark 14:3; 1 Peter 3:4, and frequently in the LXX.). St. Peter manifestly had this passage before him from the marked verbal coincidences, as well as close similarity of thought (ἐμπλοκή χρύσιον κόσμος ἱμάτιον, πολυτελής ἀγαθοποιοῦσαι (compared with δι ἔργων ἀγαθῶν), ἡσυχία ὑποταγή, (compared with ὑποτασσόμεναι), ἁγαίαι γυναῖκες κ.τ.λ. (compared with ἐπαγγελλόμεναις θεοσέβειαν). (See reference to St. Paul's Epistles in 2 Peter 3:15.) 1 Timothy 2:9In like manner (ὡσαύτως)

The writer's thought is still running upon the public assemblies for worship.

Adorn themselves (κοσμεῖν ἑαυτάς)

Κοσμεῖν adorn, oP. Of female adornment, 1 Peter 3:5; Revelation 21:2. In Matthew 25:7, of trimming the lamps. From κοσμός order, so that the primary meaning is to arrange. Often in lxx and Class. Prominent in the writer's mind is the attire of women in church assemblies. Paul treats this subject 1 Corinthians 11:5 ff.

In modest apparel (ἐν κατασψολῇ κοσμιῳ)

Καταστολή N.T.o. Once in lxx, Isaiah 61:3. Opinions differ as to the meaning. Some apparel, others guise or deportment equals κατάστημα demeanour, Titus 2:3. There seems, on the whole, to be no sufficient reason for departing from the rendering of A.V. and Rev. Κοσμίῳ modest, seemly, Pasto. Note the word - play, κοσμεῖν κοσμίῳ.

With shamefacedness and sobriety (μετὰ αἰδοῦς καὶ σωφροσύνης)

Ἁιδώς N.T. (αἰδοῦς in Hebrews 12:28 is an incorrect reading). In earlier Greek, as in Homer, it sometimes blends with the sense of αἰσχύνη shame, though used also of the feeling of respectful timidity in the presence of superiors, or of penitent respect toward one who has been wronged (see Homer, Il. i. 23). Hence it is connected in Homer with military discipline (Il. v. 531). It is the feeling of a suppliant or an unfortunate in the presence of those from whom he seeks aid; of a younger man toward an older and wiser one. It is a feeling based upon the sense of deficiency, inferiority, or unworthiness. On the other hand, it is the feeling of a superior in position or fortune which goes out to an unfortunate. See Homer, Il. xxiv. 208; Od. xiv. 388; Soph. Oed. Col. 247. In the Attic period, a distinction was recognised between αἰσχύνη and αἰδώς: αἰδώς representing a respectful and reverent attitude toward another, while αἰσχύνη was the sense of shame on account of wrong doing. Thus, "one αἰδεῖται is respectful to his father, but αἰσχύνεται is ashamed because he has been drunk." Trench (N.T. Synon. xix.) remarks that "αἰδώς is the nobler word and implies the nobler motive. In it is involved an innate moral repugnance to the doing of the dishonorable act, which moral repugnance scarcely or not at all exists in the αἰσχύνη. Let the man who is restrained by αἰσχύνη alone be insured against the outward disgrace which he fears his act will entail, and he will refrain from it no longer." The A.V. shamefacedness is a corruption of the old English shamefastness. So Chaucer:

"Schamefast chastite."

Knight's T. 2057.


"'Tis a blushing shamefast spirit that mutinies in a man's bosom."

Richard III. i. 4.

It is one of a large class of words, as steadfast, soothfast, rootfast, masterfast, handfast, bedfast, etc. Shamefaced changes and destroys the original force of the word, which was bound or made fast by an honorable shame. Σωφροσύνη sobrietys oP. Once in Acts, Acts 26:25. The kindred verb σωφρονεῖν to be of sound mind, Romans 12:3-5; 2 Corinthians 5:13; Titus 2:6. Several representatives of this family of words appear in the Pastorals, and with the exception of σωφροσύνη and σωφρονεῖν, nowhere else in N.T. Such are σωφρονίζειν to be soberminded (Titus 2:4); σωφρονισμός discipline (2 Timothy 1:7); σωφρόνως soberly (Titus 2:12); σώφρων soberminded (1 Timothy 3:2). The word is compounded of σάος or σῶς safe, sound, and φρήν mind. It signifies entire command of the passions and desires; a self-control which holds the rein over these. So Aristotle (Rhet. i.:9): The virtue by which we hold ourselves toward the pleasures of the body as. the law enjoins." Comp. 4 Macc. 1:31. Euripides calls it "the fairest gift of the gods" (Med. 632). That it appears so rarely in N.T. is, as Trench remarks, "not because more value was attached to it in heathen ethics than in Christian morality, but because it is taken up and transformed into a condition yet higher still, in which a man does not command himself, which is well, but, which is better still, is commanded by God." The words with shamefastness and sobriety may either be taken directly with adorn themselves, or better perhaps, as indicating moral qualities accompanying (μετὰ with) the modest apparel. Let them adorn themselves in modest apparel, having along with this shamefastness and sobermindedness.


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