Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men;1 Timothy 2:1. Παρακαλῶ, I exhort) In this chapter he describes public worship: I. In regard to prayers; II. In regard to doctrine, 1 Timothy 2:11-12.—οὖν, therefore) This exhortation flows from that sense of grace [spoken of, last chap., 1 Timothy 2:14]. Paul intimates not only what he himself wishes, but what Timothy ought to inculcate.—πρῶτον πάντων ποιεισθαι, first of all to make) The highest duty. [The apostle here furnishes sufficient employment to prevent any ἀλλοτριοεπισχοπίας, curious investigation into irrelevant questions, ch. 1 Timothy 1:4.—V. g.]—δεήσεις, προσευχὰς, ἐντεύξεις, εὐχαριστίας) The plural number indicates force: δέησις (from δεῖ) is the imploring of grace in any special necessity: προσευχὴ, prayer, is exercised, when on any occasion we offer our wishes and desires to God: ἔντευξις is earnest intercession for other men or creatures, ch. 1 Timothy 4:5, even if they cannot pray for themselves: εὐχαριστίας, giving of thanks, is becoming to be made also for all men, because, for example, God wishes all men to be saved, and Christ is the Mediator of all.—ὑπὲρ, for) This is connected with supplications—thanksgivings. All, at separate times, have special necessities.—πάντων, for all) 1 Timothy 2:4; 1 Timothy 2:6.
For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.1 Timothy 2:2. Ὑπὲρ βασιλέων, for kings) on whom other men depend, [and who frequently enjoy less opportunity of arriving at the knowledge of saving truth.—V. g.]—πάντων, all) Often the humblest magistrates, even in villages, do much harm, or else are of much benefit.—ἐν ὑπεροχῇ, in eminent stations, authority) as for instance the counsellors of kings, or, where there is no king, other magistrates.—ἵνα, that) The reason, why we must pray for kings.—ἤρεμον, quiet) free, aliens being removed out of the country. Chrysostom, for example, applies ἠρεμίαν to the Holy of Holies in the temple; and the word agrees with ἔρημος, lonely, by Metathesis.—ἡσύχιον, peaceable) free; those who are aliens, if allowed to reside, at least giving us no disturbance.—εὐσεβείᾳ, in godliness) piety towards God. The word is frequently used in the epistles to Timothy and Titus. [Luke uses the same word in the Acts, and Peter in his second epistle. It may be mentioned among the vile rabble of a most perverse world as a remarkable stratagem, contrary to the kingdom of God and advantageous to the aims of Satan, that piety, in name at least never hitherto lightly esteemed, has at length been converted into a term of reproach, ‘Pietist,’ by an anonymous person of the worst character, whose death, as we are informed, was shocking. Nor even does the termination itself involve anything bad in itself, as it corresponds to the words, Statist, Copyist, Linguist. But if the intention is to distinguish by a peculiar name fanatics and men assuming the appearance of holiness (in which case it ought to be made certain, that a blow is not dealt at those really innocent), why, pray, is piety hereby virtually punished? A serious matter is at stake. Experience cries out in witness of the fact; in conversations and social meetings, when a man, having said not as much as a word for the cause of religion, has conducted himself somewhat more modestly, he is easily assailed by this title, of which not even the pronunciation is in some instances well known to the common people. It can scarcely be told, what a number of sparks of piety have been quenched by the use of the scoffing term, pietist. GOD will execute judgment for all this, Jude, 1 Timothy 2:15.—V. g.]—σεμνότητι, [honesty] propriety) on the part of men towards one another.
For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour;1 Timothy 2:3. Τοῦτο γὰρ, for this) The reason, why we must pray for all. It may be asked, why are not more converted? We do not sufficiently pray. It is a religious duty, that in behalf of ourselves, and in behalf of others, we should meet the will of God, which is favourable to us.—καὶ) and, therefore.—τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν, our Saviour) who has actually saved us that believe. The antithesis is in the following verse: Who wishes that all, even including those who do not believe, should be saved: comp. ch. 1 Timothy 4:10. It is strange if a soul, having found in reality the salvation of God, can deny the universality of grace.
Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth.1 Timothy 2:4. Πάντας) all, not merely a part, much less a very small part; 1 Timothy 2:3, note.—ἀνθρώπους, men) lost in themselves.—θέλει, [‘wills’] wishes) in serious earnestness of wish: ibid.—σωθῆναι, to be saved) This is treated of, at 1 Timothy 2:5-6.—Καὶ εἰς, and unto) This is treated of, at 1 Timothy 2:6-7.—ἀληθείας) of saving truth.—ἐλθεῖν, to come) They are not forced.
For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;1 Timothy 2:5. Εἷς) one, common to all. They who have not this one God, by one Mediator, have none, [—and therefore they are not saved. Yet GOD wishes all men to be saved by the saving knowledge of God and the Mediator; but there is a legitimate and most holy order in the exercise of that will, wherewith men ought to receive it. All mankind constitute as it were one man before God; wherefore it is right, that they who have obtained salvation should intercede for those who are farther distant from it. If that were done, how much better would be the condition of the human race! Let him pray, I request, who knows how to pray.—V. g.]—γὰρ, for) 1 Timothy 2:4 is proved from 1 Timothy 2:5; 1 Timothy 2:1 from 1 Timothy 2:4. The whole is universal. Comp. Isaiah 45:22.—εἷς καὶ, one also) [who is Mediator.] He does not say, also one; therefore the stress of the voice does not so much fall upon the adjective, one, as upon the substantives. We could not rejoice that there is a God, if we did not rejoice also in the Man Mediator.—εἷς—εἷς, one—one) Mark 12:29; Mark 12:32; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Ephesians 4:5-6.—μεσίτης, Mediator) This is as it were an epithet of the noun, man; and the word, one, coheres at the same time with both of these.—ἄνθρωπος, man) The Saviour, not without reason, is here called man, rather than God; that the reason may be marked, why all men should be converted to this Mediator, who [i.e. inasmuch as He, a man] has given Himself for all [men]: comp. Romans 5:15, note. The article is not added. Again, in turn, he calls Him God, ch. 1 Timothy 3:16.
Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.1 Timothy 2:6. Τὸ μαρτύριον, the testimony) The accusative absolute, as ἔνδειγμα, 2 Thessalonians 1:5. A word suited to the character which Paul and Timothy sustained; for they were witnesses. The testimony of universal redemption is intended.—καιροῖς ἰδίοις, in its own due times, or His own due times) ch. 1 Timothy 6:15, note.
Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not;) a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and verity.1 Timothy 2:7. Κήρυξ) [Eng. Vers. preacher] a herald solemnly appointed, sent by God. A word of large import, as 2 Corinthians 5:20; 1 Thessalonians 2:6, at the end.—ἀπόστολος, an apostle) of Christ.—ἀλήθειαν λέγω, I speak the truth, οὐ ψεύδομαι, I lie not) This affirmation belongs to the preceding clause; for there are added to the subsequent clause the parallel words, ἐν πίστει χαὶ ἀληθείᾳ, in faith and truth; [i.e. parallel to ἀληθ. λέγω, and οὐ ψευδ.]
I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.1 Timothy 2:8. Βούλομαι οὖν, I will therefore) The apostolic authority is represented in this expression; ch. 1 Timothy 5:14 : comp. presently 1 Timothy 2:12, I suffer not. The particle therefore takes up again, 1 Timothy 2:1.—προσεύχεσθαι τοὺς ἄνδρας, that men pray) So also in 1 Peter 3:7, prayers are assigned to men, in a certain particular point of view. He is speaking here of public prayers, in which the heart of the people follows close after the language of him who prays: comp. the next verse concerning women.—ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ, in every place) construed with ἄνδρας, men. Paul also appeals elsewhere on this subject to a similar practice in all the churches. Wherever men are, there are those by whom and for whom prayers are to be made.—ἐπαίροντας, lifting up) They turned up the palms of their hands to heaven, as those asking for help are wont to do.—ὁσίους χεῖρας, holy hands) Wrath and doubting are in the soul: but the hands also ought to be holy. The contrary is found at Isaiah 1:15, at the end. The word ὁσίους is especially used in the propriety of the Greek idiom for freedom from all violence.—ὀργῆς, wrath) which [molesting men especially.—V. g.] is the reverse of love (comp. 1 Peter 3:7, at the end), and the mother of doubting.—διαλογισμοῦ, doubting) which is opposed to faith. Christianity consists of faith and love, and comprises grace and truth: it therefore ought to form the principal object of our desires, that we may both pray, and live and die, without doubting and wrath. The exercise of prayer, and of the whole of Christianity, is at once either true or vain. Grace cherishes faith; truth, love, Ephesians 4:15.
 That is, Prayer and the whole sum of Christianity stand or fall together. If one is true, both are true; if one is false, both are false.—ED.
In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array;1 Timothy 2:9. Καταστολῇ) A well-chosen word. Women are delighted with elegant clothing; and to this the apostle alludes in this passage. They were rich at Ephesus, ch. 1 Timothy 6:17.—κοσμίῳ, elegant, becoming, ornamental [modest, Engl. Vers.]) spiritually, as it is presently described at 1 Timothy 2:10.—αἰδοῦς, shamefacedness) 1 Timothy 2:11-12.—σωφροσύνης, sobriety) A word of frequent occurrence in the epistles to Timothy and Titus. This virtue governs the whole of private life.— ΜῊ) Οὐ denies, ΜῊ forbids, in a discourse of this kind. There is a great difference between Οὐ and ΜῊ. Οὐ indeed might even here be used, because there is not here a finite verb; and so in the case of participles. But otherwise the particles cannot be exchanged.
 Plutarch uses it of moderation or simplicity in dress.—ED.
 Κοσμεῖν ἑαντοὺς, to adorn themselves) construed with διʼ ἔργων ἀγαθῶν, ver. 10.—V. g.
But (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works.1 Timothy 2:10. Ἐπαγγελλομέναις) promising (engaging to follow), professing. The same word is at ch. 1 Timothy 6:21.—διʼ ἔργων, with works) construed with adorn; with works, without speaking, which is competent for (the province belonging to) men, 1 Timothy 2:8; 1 Timothy 2:11-12; 1 Peter 3:1. There is a very frequent mention of works in the epistles to Timothy and Titus, and those are adorned with the appellation of good works, which come to be performed in the ordinary affairs of human life.
Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection.1 Timothy 2:11. Μανθανέτω, let the woman learn) The antithesis of to teach, 1 Timothy 2:12.—ὑποταγῇ, in subjection) The antithesis is to the phrase, to use (usurp) authority, 1 Timothy 2:12.
But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.1 Timothy 2:12. Οὐκ ἐπιτρέπω) I do not commit to the charge of the woman [suffer]; i.e. I cannot commit or entrust it. Litotes (see Append.).—αὐθεντεῖν ἀνδρὸς) to use authority in respect to [over] the man, viz. by teaching, by speaking, for example, in prayer.—ἀνδρὸς, in respect to [over] the man) This implies not merely a husband, but the whole race of men.
For Adam was first formed, then Eve.1 Timothy 2:13. Ἀδὰμ γὰρ, for Adam) The reason which applies to the first man, holds good for all men; and that which applies to Eve, holds good for all women. Again, what is said of the salvability [safety] of the woman, 1 Timothy 2:15, is also appropriate to be understood of the first woman.—πρῶτος) first; so that the woman was created for him, 1 Corinthians 11:8-9.
And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.1 Timothy 2:14. Οὐκ ἠπατήθη, was not deceived) The Serpent deceived the woman; the woman did not deceive the man, but persuaded him: Genesis 3:17, thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife. In the preceding verse, we are taught why the woman ought not to exercise authority, now, why she ought not to teach; more easily deceived, she more easily deceives; comp. Ecclesiastes 7:29. Deceiving indicates less strength in the understanding; and this is the strong ground on which a woman is not allowed to teach.—ἀπατηθεῖσα ἐν παραβάσει γέγονε, being deceived, fell into the transgression) i.e. was guilty of falling into the deception (Genesis 3:13, ὁ ὄφις ἠπάτησέ με), and so she began to be in the transgression. It is not said, ἘΝ ΠΑΡΑΒΆΣΕΙ ΓΕΓΟΝῦΙΑ ἨΠΑΤΉΘΗ, having come to be in the transgression, she was deceived. Therefore γέγονε does not apply to the very origin of the woman; for the deception followed not until after that; but γέγονε closely agrees with ἘΝ ΠΑΡΑΒΆΣΕΙ, which has the meaning of a noun; see Acts 22:17 [ἘΝ ἘΚΣΤΆΣΕΙ, in a state of trance]; and comp. note on John 1:15. The state of transgression which quickly followed the deception, once for all admitted, is here intended. A phrase very like this is found at Numbers 26:10, ἐγενήθησαν ἐν σημείῳ.
 “Was in,” Engl. Vers.; rather, “Came to be in.” For it is γέγονε, not ἦν.—ED.
Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety.1 Timothy 2:15. Σωθήσεται δὲ, but she shall be saved) She shall be rescued from that offence (and from its consequences).—διὰ τῆς τεκνογονίας, in child-bearing) The part of the woman is here described, in antithesis to the duty of teaching and governing: τεκνογονία, bringing forth and training children. He is not speaking here as to the properly-called cause of salvation; for many who bring forth children nevertheless perish: many, who do not bear children, are saved; but the state or condition is denoted, in which a woman may be likely to obtain salvation, although she be not mixed up with the duty that belongs to the man. Wherefore the if has a stronger force here than διὰ, in: and the continuing takes for granted the standing in faith, etc.—μείνωσιν, if they continue) Namely, the women. A Syllepsis of the number. For sobriety, which is presently praised, is competent for (a grace peculiarly becoming in) women: comp. 1 Timothy 2:9. Let them remain within these bounds.—πίστει καὶ ἀγάπῃ, in faith and love) General divisions.—ἁγιασμῷ μετὰ σωφροσύνης) in holiness with sobriety. A special part of sanctification is modesty or moderation, a grace which regulates man in respect of himself, as faith in respect of God, love in respect of our neighbour: ἁγιασμὸς, holiness, especially chastity: σωφροσύνη, moderation, self-control, 1 Timothy 2:9; 1 Timothy 2:11 A figure whereby ἡ γυνὴ, the singular, is here expressed, whilst the plural is meant. And accordingly the plural verb μείνωσιν is put, agreeing with γυναῖκες, women, understood.—ED.