Judges 17:5
New International Version
Now this man Micah had a shrine, and he made an ephod and some household gods and installed one of his sons as his priest.

New Living Translation
Micah set up a shrine for the idol, and he made a sacred ephod and some household idols. Then he installed one of his sons as his personal priest.

English Standard Version
And the man Micah had a shrine, and he made an ephod and household gods, and ordained one of his sons, who became his priest.

Berean Study Bible
Now this man Micah had a shrine, and he made an ephod and some household idols, and installed one of his sons to be his priest.

New American Standard Bible
And the man Micah had a shrine and he made an ephod and household idols and consecrated one of his sons, that he might become his priest.

King James Bible
And the man Micah had an house of gods, and made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

Christian Standard Bible
This man Micah had a shrine, and he made an ephod and household idols, and installed one of his sons to be his priest.

Contemporary English Version
He had a shrine for worshiping God there at his home, and he had made some idols and a sacred priestly vest. Micah chose one of his own sons to be the priest for his shrine.

Good News Translation
This man Micah had his own place of worship. He made some idols and an ephod, and appointed one of his sons as his priest.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
This man Micah had a shrine, and he made an ephod and household idols, and installed one of his sons to be his priest.

International Standard Version
This man Micah had his own shrine, had crafted his own ephod and some household idols, and had installed one of his sons as a priest.

NET Bible
Now this man Micah owned a shrine. He made an ephod and some personal idols and hired one of his sons to serve as a priest.

New Heart English Bible
The man Micah had a house of God, and he made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Micah owned a shrine. He also made an ephod and household idols. He ordained one of his sons to be his priest.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And the man Micah had a house of God, and he made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

New American Standard 1977
And the man Micah had a shrine and he made an ephod and household idols and consecrated one of his sons, that he might become his priest.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And the man Micah had a brothel of idolatry, {Heb. house of gods}, and made an ephod and teraphim {the vessels, clothing and instruments pertaining to idol worship} and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

King James 2000 Bible
And the man Micah had a shrine, and made an ephod, and household gods, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

American King James Version
And the man Micah had an house of gods, and made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

American Standard Version
And the man Micah had a house of gods, and he made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And the house of Michaias was to him the house of God, and he made an ephod and theraphin, and he consecrated one of his sons, and he became to him a priest.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And he separated also therein a little temple for the god, and made an ephod, and theraphim, that is to say, a priestly garment, and idols: and he filled the hand of one of his sons, and he became his priest.

Darby Bible Translation
And the man Micah had a house of gods, and made an ephod and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

English Revised Version
And the man Micah had an house of gods, and he made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

Webster's Bible Translation
And the man Micah had a house of gods, and made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

World English Bible
The man Micah had a house of gods, and he made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

Young's Literal Translation
As to the man Micah, he hath a house of gods, and he maketh an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrateth the hand of one of his sons, and he is to him for a priest;
Study Bible
Micah's Idolatry
4So he returned the silver to his mother, and she took two hundred shekels of silver and gave them to a silversmith, who made them into a graven image and a molten idol. And they were placed in the house of Micah. 5Now this man Micah had a shrine, and he made an ephod and some household idols, and installed one of his sons to be his priest. 6In those days there was no king in Israel; everyone did what was right in his own eyes.…
Cross References
Genesis 31:19
Now while Laban was out shearing his sheep, Rachel stole her father's household idols.

Numbers 3:10
So you shall appoint Aaron and his sons to carry out the duties of the priesthood; but any layman who approaches the tabernacle must be put to death."

Judges 8:27
From all this Gideon made an ephod, which he placed in Ophrah, his hometown. But soon all Israel prostituted themselves by worshiping it there, and it became a snare to Gideon and his household.

Judges 17:4
So he returned the silver to his mother, and she took two hundred shekels of silver and gave them to a silversmith, who made them into a graven image and a molten idol. And they were placed in the house of Micah.

Judges 18:14
Then the five men who had gone to spy out the land of Laish said to their brothers, "Did you know that one of these houses has an ephod, household gods, a graven image, and a molten idol? Now think about what you should do."

Judges 18:24
He replied, "You took the gods I had made, and my priest, and went away. What else do I have? How can you say to me, 'What is the matter with you?'"

Judges 18:30
The Danites set up idols for themselves, and Jonathan son of Gershom, the son of Moses, and his sons were priests for the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land.

1 Kings 13:33
Even after these events, Jeroboam did not repent of his evil ways, but again he appointed priests for the high places from every class of people. He ordained anyone who desired to be a priest of the high places.

Isaiah 44:13
The woodworker extends a measuring line; he marks it out with a stylus; he shapes it with chisels and outlines it with a compass. He fashions it in the likeness of man, like man in all his glory, that it may dwell in a shrine.

Ezekiel 21:21
For the king of Babylon stands at the fork in the road, at the junction of the two roads, to seek an omen: He shakes the arrows, he consults the idols, he examines the liver.

Hosea 3:4
For the Israelites must live many days without king or prince, without sacrifice or sacred pillar, and without ephod or idol.

Treasury of Scripture

And the man Micah had an house of gods, and made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

Judges 18:24
And he said, Ye have taken away my gods which I made, and the priest, and ye are gone away: and what have I more? and what is this that ye say unto me, What aileth thee?

Genesis 31:30
And now, though thou wouldest needs be gone, because thou sore longedst after thy father's house, yet wherefore hast thou stolen my gods?

Ezra 1:7
Also Cyrus the king brought forth the vessels of the house of the LORD, which Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jerusalem, and had put them in the house of his gods;

ephod

Judges 8:27
And Gideon made an ephod thereof, and put it in his city, even in Ophrah: and all Israel went thither a whoring after it: which thing became a snare unto Gideon, and to his house.

Judges 18:14
Then answered the five men that went to spy out the country of Laish, and said unto their brethren, Do ye know that there is in these houses an ephod, and teraphim, and a graven image, and a molten image? now therefore consider what ye have to do.

Exodus 28:4,15
And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office…

teraphim

Genesis 31:19,30
And Laban went to shear his sheep: and Rachel had stolen the images that were her father's…

Hosea 3:4
For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and without teraphim:

consecrated.

Exodus 29:9
And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest's office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons.

1 Kings 12:31
And he made an house of high places, and made priests of the lowest of the people, which were not of the sons of Levi.

1 Kings 13:33,34
After this thing Jeroboam returned not from his evil way, but made again of the lowest of the people priests of the high places: whosoever would, he consecrated him, and he became one of the priests of the high places…

his sons

Exodus 24:5
And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the LORD.







Lexicon
Now this man
וְהָאִ֣ישׁ (wə·hā·’îš)
Conjunctive waw, Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 376: A man as an individual, a male person

Micah
מִיכָ֔ה (mî·ḵāh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4318: Micah -- the name of several Israelites

had a shrine,
בֵּ֣ית (bêṯ)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1004: A house

and he made
וַיַּ֤עַשׂ (way·ya·‘aś)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6213: To do, make

an ephod
אֵפוֹד֙ (’ê·p̄ō·wḏ)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 646: A girdle, the ephod, highpriest's shoulder-piece, an image

and some household idols,
וּתְרָפִ֔ים (ū·ṯə·rā·p̄îm)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 8655: (a kind of idol) perhaps household idol

and installed
וַיְמַלֵּ֗א (way·mal·lê)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Piel - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4390: To fill, be full of

one
אַחַד֙ (’a·ḥaḏ)
Number - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 259: United, one, first

of his sons
מִבָּנָ֔יו (mib·bā·nāw)
Preposition-m | Noun - masculine plural construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1121: A son

to be
וַיְהִי־ (way·hî-)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1961: To fall out, come to pass, become, be

his priest.
לְכֹהֵֽן׃ (lə·ḵō·hên)
Preposition-l | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3548: Priest
(5) Had an house of gods.--The Hebrew is Beth Elohim, which may mean equally well "a house of God" (Vulg., ?diculam Deo, and so too the LXX.). It is quite clear that Micah did not abandon the worship of God under the names of Jehovah and Elohim, by which He was known to the Israelites. How he coordinated this worship with his grossly idolatrous symbols, or whom those symbols were intended to represent, it is impossible to say. The fact remains that in the Beth-Micah we find "a house of gods"--"whole chapel of idols"--consecrated to Jehovah as a pious act (Judges 17:2; Judges 17:5; Judges 17:13; Judges 18:6).

An ephod.--No doubt the ephod was nothing more than a gorgeous priestly garment, though possibly it may have been used for oracular purposes. (See Judges 8:27.)

And teraphim.--These were Syrian images (Genesis 31:19), the use of which among the Israelites seems to have lasted for a long period, until it was put down by King Josiah in his great reformation (2Kings 23:34; Ezekiel 21:26; Hosea 3:4; Zechariah 10:2). I have entered upon the interesting question of the use of Teraphim in an article on the subject in Kitto's Cyclop?dia. (See Excursus II: Teraphim.)

Consecrated.--The curious Hebrew phrase is "filled the hand" (see Exodus 28:41; Exodus 29:24; Leviticus 7:37), i.e., gave him the office by putting certain offerings in his hands. It is rather installed than "consecrated."

EXCURSUS II.--ON Judges 17:5. (TERAPHIM.)

THE Hebrew word Teraphim is always simply transliterated as in our version, or rendered by "images," with "teraphim" in the margin, except in 1Samuel 15:23, Zechariah 10:2, where it is represented by "idolatry," "idols." The singular of the word, "a teraph," does not occur in Scripture, although it is clear that only one can have been put into David's bed (1Samuel 19:13-16). The LXX. adopt many different renderings, as does the Vulg., but they all point to idolatrous images or the implements of necromancy, as do the two renderings of the Targums, images and (Hosea 3:4) "announcers."

1. Teraphim are first mentioned in Genesis 31:19, where Rachel steals her father's "images," and successfully hides them from his search under the hiran on which she was sitting--the coarse carpet used to cover the wicker-work pack-saddle of her camel. Josephus supposes that she was actuated by idolatrous reverence; Iben Ezra that she expected oracular guidance from them; others that she stole them because of their intrinsic value. She probably shared the superstitions of her father, and regarded them as sacred (Genesis 30:14; Genesis 31:30), as being the figures of ancestral divinities (Genesis 31:53). It is not impossible that they were among the "strange gods" which Jacob ordered his family to bury under "the sorcerer's oak"--Allon Meonenim (Judges 9:37). But that Jacob's right feeling in the matter was not permanent is proved only too clearly by the conduct of Micah (Judges 17:5) and the Danites (Judges 18:3), although, unlike Jeroboam, they could not even plead the poor palliation of political motives.

2. The next definite notice of teraphim occurs in 1Samuel 19:13-16, where Michal, in the dark eastern chamber, conceals her husband's absence by putting the teraphim in his bed, with a bolster of goat's hair for a pillow. The use of the article shows that even in David's family the use of the "teraphim" was perfectly well known. Nor can we rely on the vague conjecture of Thenius, that barren women (Rachel and Michal) were especially addicted to their worship, or on that of Michaelis, that Michal may have possessed them unknown to David. The passage seems to show that they had at least some rude resemblance to the human shape, whence Aquila renders the word by protomai ("busts"), which is used of figures like the ancient Hermae. This is not the place to enter into the curious reading of the LXX. on this verse, by which they seem to connect the worship of teraphim with what the ancients called extispicium--i.e., divination by means of the liver of sacrifices, as in Ezekiel 21:21. Josephus follows the same reading, and dishonestly suppresses all mention of the teraphim.

3. The next important passage is Hosea 3:4, where the prima facie view of every unbiassed reader would be that the "image" (matsebah) and the teraphim are mentioned without blame as ordinary adjuncts to religious worship. Hence, perhaps, arose the notion that the teraphim were in some way connected with the Urim and Thummim, which led to the rendering of the word in this passage by ????? (LXX., "bright gems"), and by ????????? ("enlightenments," Aquila), and by "implements of priestly dress" (St. Jerome). This is the theory maintained most unconvincingly, though with great learning, by Spencer in his De Legibus Hebr?-orum, lib. 3, pp. 920-1038.

But if these passages show that even in religious families teraphim were sometimes tolerated as material adjuncts to an Elohistic worship, on the other hand we find them unequivocally condemned by Samuel (1Samuel 15:23), by Josiah (2Kings 23:24), and by the prophet Zechariah (Zechariah 10:2 ); and in Ezekiel 21:21 the use of them, is attributed to the heathen Nebuchadnezzar.

The general inference seems to be that the use of the teraphim involved a violation of the second commandment, but that this use of symbols, this monotheistic idolatry, which is very different from polytheism, arises from a tendency very deeply ingrained in human nature, and which it took many years to eradicate. If centuries elapsed before the Jews were cured of their propensity to worship "other gods,"we can feel no surprise that "image worship" continued to linger among them, in spite of the condemnation of it by the stricter prophets. The calf-worship, the toleration of teraphim and consecrated stones (baetylia) and high places, the offering of incense to the brazen serpent, the glimpses of grave irregularities even in the worship of the sanctuary, show that it was only by centuries of misfortune and a succession of prophets that Israel was at last educated into the spiritual worship of the true God.

The reader will find further remarks on this subject in the article on "Teraphim," by the present writer, in Kitto's Biblical Cyclop?dia.

Verse 5. - And the man Micah, etc. It is impossible to say for certain whether the state of things here described in respect of Micah preceded the events narrated in the preceding verses, or was consequent upon them. If it preceded, then we have the reason of his mother's vow: she wished to make her son's "house of God" complete by the addition of a graven and molten image. If it was consequent upon his mother's vow, then we have in the opening verses of this chapter a history of the circumstances of the foundation of Micah's "house of God," which was to play an important part in the colony of Danites, whose proceedings arc related in the following chapter, and for the sake of which this domestic history of Micah is introduced. House of gods. Rather, of God (Elohim); for the worship was of Jehovah, only with a corrupt and semi-idolatrous ceremonial. An ephod. See Judges 8:26, 27, note. Teraphim. See Genesis 31:19 (images, A.V.; teraphim, Hebrews); 1 Samuel 15:23 (idolatry, A.V.; teraphim, Hebrews); 19:13 (an image, A.V.; teraphim, Hebrews); Hosea 3:4,to etc. They seem to have been a kind of Penates, or household gods, and were used for divination (Ezekiel 21:21; Zechariah 10:2). Became his priest. One function of the priest, and for which it is likely he was much resorted to, was to inquire of God by the ephod (Judges 18:5, 6). What his other duties might be does not appear. 17:1-6 What is related in this, and the rest of the chapters to the end of this book, was done soon after the death of Joshua: see chap. Jud 20:28. That it might appear how happy the nation was under the Judges, here is showed how unhappy they were when there was no Judge. The love of money made Micah so undutiful to his mother as to rob her, and made her so unkind to her son, as to curse him. Outward losses drive good people to their prayers, but bad people to their curses. This woman's silver was her god, before it was made into a graven or a molten image. Micah and his mother agreed to turn their money into a god, and set up idol worship in their family. See the cause of this corruption. Every man did that which was right in his own eyes, and then they soon did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord.
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OT History: Judges 17:5 The man Micah had a house (Jd Judg. Jdg) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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