Zechariah 3:10
In that day, said the LORD of hosts, shall you call every man his neighbor under the vine and under the fig tree.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
Zechariah 3:10. In that day — In the day of removing the sins of my people; literally referring to the returned captive Jews, and mystically to the whole church in gospel days, when Christ the chief corner stone should have purged away sin and established his church; and when sinners should come to him in repentance and faith, and obtain reconciliation with God and peace of conscience; shall ye call every man his neighbour — Invite, with love and kindness, such as become neighbours by partaking of the same divine grace and blessing of the gospel; under the vine, and under the fig- tree — To associate together in holy duties and godly fellowship, sitting under the shadow of the true vine with delight, and finding its fruits sweet to your taste; as in Judea men used to feast together under the shade, and upon the fruit of their vines and fig-trees. When the guilt and power of iniquity are taken away, and we are in Christ new creatures, we receive precious privileges and blessings, as the fruit of our justification, regeneration, and union with Christ; yea, more precious than the products of the vine or fig-tree. And we repose ourselves in sweet tranquillity under his protection and care, being saved from the fear of evil, and possessed of a peace that passeth all understanding. “This may perhaps have a special reference to that day when the eyes of the Jews shall be fixed upon Christ, the precious corner stone, which they have hitherto rejected. Then their load of national guilt shall at once be removed; and they shall enjoy spiritual peace and temporal security in their own land, as in the days of Solomon.” — Scott. 3:6-10 All whom God calls to any office he finds fit, or makes so. The Lord will cause the sins of the believer to pass away by his sanctifying grace, and will enable him to walk in newness of life. As the promises made to David often pass into promises of the Messiah, so the promises to Joshua look forward to Christ, of whose priesthood Joshua's was a shadow. Whatever trials we pass through, whatever services we perform, our whole dependence must rest on Christ, the Branch of righteousness. He is God's servant, employed in his work, obedient to his will, devoted to his honour and glory. He is the Branch from which all our fruit must be gathered. The eye of his Father was upon him, especially in his sufferings, and when he was buried in the grave, as the foundation-stones are under ground, out of men's sight. But the prophecy rather denotes the attention paid to this precious Corner-stone. All believers, from the beginning, had looked forward to it in the types and predictions. All believers, after Christ's coming, would look to it with faith, hope, and love. Christ shall appear for all his chosen, as the high priest when before the Lord, with the names of all Israel graven in the precious stones of his breastplate. When God gave a remnant to Christ, to be brought through grace to glory, then he engraved this precious stone. By him sin shall be taken away, both the guilt and the dominion of it; he did it in one day, that day in which he suffered and died. What should terrify when sin is taken away? Then nothing can hurt, and we sit down under Christ's shadow with delight, and are sheltered by it. And gospel grace, coming with power, makes men forward to draw others to it.Under the vine and under the fig tree - Micah had already made the description of the peaceful days of Solomon 1 Kings 4:25, a symbol Micah 4:4 of the universal fearless peace of the time of Christ. Lap.: "Christ by His passion shall not only take away iniquity, but also bring peace, delight, free communication of all things, so that all things among Christians should be common. For the law of Christ enjoineth charity, forgiveness of injuries, patience, love of enemies etc., all which bring temporal peace." 10. under … vine … fig tree—emblem of tranquil prosperity (1Ki 4:25). Type of spiritual peace with God through Christ (Ro 5:1); and of millennial blessedness (Mic 4:4). In that day of building my temple, when it is finished, and in the day of removing the sins of my people, literally referring to the returned captive Jews; mystically, to the whole church in gospel days, when Christ, the chief Cornerstone, shall have purged away sin, and established his church.

Shall ye call every man his neighbour; invite with love and peace, such as becomes neighbours, who are partakers of the same grace of God, and blessings of a Redeemer.

Under the vine; to feast or refresh themselves under the pleasing shadow, and with the sweet, delicious fruit of the vine and fig tree, of both which there were ever greatest store, and of choicest taste, when the people of God, the Jews, did obey, worship, and fear the Lord, and long for the Messiah, and loved each other. In that day, saith the Lord of hosts,.... The Gospel dispensation, which began with the incarnation, sufferings, death, and resurrection of Christ, and still continues; called sometimes the day of salvation, the acceptable time, and year of the redeemed:

shall ye call every man his neighbour under the vine, and under the fig tree; which may be expressive of the desire of gracious souls after the conversion of others; they would have them come under the means of grace; and are desirous that the means might be blessed to them; that they might know Christ, and be partakers of the same grace with them; which arises from a sense they have of the blessings they share in; from a love to immortal souls, and a desire to promote the glory of God; also of the fruitfulness and plenty of the Gospel dispensation; Christ is the true vine, laden with precious fruits; from him saints have all their fruitfulness; they sit under his shadow with delight, and his fruit is sweet unto them; the provisions of his house are very excellent and precious, to which others are invited to partake of: likewise of the fellowship and communion which saints have with each other; they converse in private, join in public worship, and feast together at the Lord's table; and encourage one another so to do; all which is crowned with the presence of God, and fellowship with him: moreover, the words may suggest that peace and tranquillity enjoyed by believers under the Gospel dispensation, and that safety and security which they have in and through Christ; See Gill on Micah 4:4.

In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, shall ye call every man his neighbour under the {q} vine and under the fig tree.

(q) You will then live in peace and quietness, that is, in the kingdom of Christ; Isa 2:2 Mic 4:4 Ha 2:9.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
10. The consequence of the removal of the iniquity of the land shall be the return of the peaceful and prosperous days of Solomon (1 Kings 4:25), and social intercourse and festivity shall prevail on every side. Micah had already made this a type of the kingdom of Christ (Zechariah 4:4).

“We are told in the Talmud (Yoma vii. 4) that when, on the great Day of Atonement, the high priest had performed the various duties of that solemn day, he was escorted home in a festive manner, and was accustomed to give a festal entertainment to his friends. The maidens and youths of the people went forth to their gardens and vineyards with songs and dances; social entertainments took place on all sides, and universal gladness closed the festival of that solemn day.” Rev. C. H. H. Wright, Bampton Lectures, pp. 77, 78.Verse 10. - Shall ye call every man his neighbour, etc. In this cleansed and purified kingdom shall be found peace, happiness, and plenty, recalling the prosperous days of Solomon (1 Kings 4:25). (For a similar picture of prosperity, see Micah 4:4, and note there.) This is fulfilled in Christ, who says to his true disciples, "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you" (John 14:27). Dr. Wright notes, "We are told in the Talmud ('Yoma,' 7:4) that when, on the great Day of Atonement, the high priest had performed the various duties of that solemn day, he was escorted home in a festive manner, and was accustomed to give a festal entertainment to his friends. The maidens and youths of the people went forth to their gardens and vineyards with songs and dances; social entertainments took place on all sides, and universal gladness closed the festival of that solemn day."



A splendour shines or arises like the light. תּהיה does not point back to תּהלּתו, "splendour like the sun will His glory be" (Hitzig); but it is the predicate to nōgah in the sense of to become, or to arise. האור is the light of the sun. Like this light, or like the rising sun, when the Lord comes, there arises (spreads) a brilliant light, from which the rays emanate on its two sides. קרנים, according to קרן in Exodus 34:29-30, is to be taken in the sense of rays; and this meaning has developed itself from a comparison of the first rays of the rising sun, which shoot out above the horizon, to the horns or antlers of the gazelle, which is met with in the Arabian poets. מיּדו, from His hand, i.e., since the hand is by the side, "at His side" (after the analogy of מימינו and משּׂמאלו), and indeed "His hand" in a general sense, as signifying the hand generally, and not one single hand, equivalent therefore to "on both sides" (Delitzsch). As the disc of the sun is surrounded by a splendid radiance, so the coming of God is enclosed by rays on both sides. לו refers to God. "Such a radiant splendour (קרנים) surrounding God is presupposed when it is affirmed of Moses, that on coming from the presence of Jehovah his face was radiant, or emitted rays" (קרן, Exodus 34:29-30). This interpretation of the words is established beyond all doubt, not only by the מימינו of the original passage in Deuteronomy 33:2, but also by the expressions which follow in Habakkuk 3:5, viz., לפניו (before him) and לרגלויו (behind him); and consequently the interpretation "rays (emanating) from His hand are to Him," with the idea that we are to think of flashes of lightning darting out of God's hand (Schnur., Ros., Hitzig, Maurer, etc.), is proved to be untenable. According to Hebrew notions, flashes of lightning do not proceed from the hand of God (in Psalm 18:9, which has been appealed to in support of this explanation, we have ממּנּוּ); and קרנים does not occur either in Arabic or the later Hebrew in the sense of flashes of lightning, but only in the sense of the sun's rays. ושׁם חביון עזּה, and there - namely, in the sun-like splendour, with the rays emanating from it - is the hiding of His omnipotence, i.e., the place where His omnipotence hides itself; in actual fact, the splendour forms the covering of the Almighty God at His coming, the manifestation of the essentially invisible God. The cloudy darkness is generally represented as the covering of the glory of God (Exodus 20:21; 1 Kings 8:12), not merely when His coming is depicted under the earthly substratum of a storm (Psalm 18:12-13), but also when God was manifested in the pillar of cloud and fire (Exodus 13:21) on the journey of the Israelites through the desert, where it was only by night that the cloud had the appearance of fire (Numbers 9:15-16). Here, on the contrary, the idea of the splendour of the rising sun predominates, according to which light is the garment in which God clothes Himself (Psalm 104:2, cf. 1 Timothy 6:16), answering to His coming as the Holy One (Habakkuk 3:3). For the sun-light, in its self-illumining splendour, is the most suitable earthly element to serve as a symbol of the spotless purity of the Holy One, in whom there is no variation of light and darkness (James 1:17; see at Exodus 19:6). The alteration of ושׁם into ושׂם (he provides or contrives the concealment of His power), which Hitzig proposes after the lxx (Aq., Symm., and Syr.), must be rejected, inasmuch as in that case the object, which he makes into the covering (cf. Psalm 18:12), could not be omitted; and this thought is by no means suitable here, and has merely been brought into the text on the assumption that God appears in a storm. As the Holy One, God comes to judgment upon the unholy world (Habakkuk 3:5). Before Him goes debher, plague, and after His feet, i.e., behind Him, resheph, lit., burning heat, or a blaze (Sol 8:6), here the burning heat of the pestilence, fever-heat, as in Deuteronomy 32:24. Plague and pestilence, as proceeding from God, are personified and represented as satellites; the former going before Him, as it were, as a shield-bearer (1 Samuel 17:7), or courier (2 Samuel 15:1); the latter coming after Him as a servant (1 Samuel 25:42). This verse prepares the way for the description, which commences with Habakkuk 3:6, of the impression produced by the coming of God upon the world and its inhabitants.
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