Psalm 60:6
God hath spoken in his holiness; I will rejoice, I will divide Shechem, and mete out the valley of Succoth.
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(6) In his holiness . . .—The LXX. and Vulg. have “in his sanctuary” which suits the utterance of an oracle.

I will rejoice . . .—Rather, I will raise a shout of triumph.

I will divide Shechem . . .—Rather, I may divide, &c, implying unquestioned right of ownership. Shechem and Succoth appear to be named as a rude indication of the whole breadth of the country, from west to east. The fact that Dr. Robinson and Vandervelde have identified one Succoth on the right bank of Jordan, does not at all weaken the evidence for the existence of another on the east of that river. See Genesis 33:17; Judges 8:5 seq.; Joshua 13:17 (where ēmek is used for valley, as here).

Psalm 60:6. God hath spoken, &c. — Having prayed that God would hear and save him, he now intimates that God had done it already, had prevented his prayers, and had spoken to him, and of him, about the establishing of his throne; in his holiness — Or, rather, by his holiness, as this very expression, בקדשׁו, bekodsho, is rendered, Psalm 89:35. Which carries the form of an oath, and implies, that God did not simply speak, but swore by his holiness, as is there expressed. I will rejoice — Therefore I will turn my prayers into praises, for what God has already done; and, as I am assured, will further do on my behalf. I will divide Shechem — Namely, as a portion or inheritance, as אחלקה, achallekah, properly signifies. I will exercise dominion over, and distribute it to be possessed as I see good. Shechem was a place within Jordan in mount Ephraim. And mete out the valley of Succoth — A place without Jordan. He mentions Shechem and Succoth for all the land of Canaan within and without Jordan, which, having been formerly divided between him and Ish-bosheth, was now entirely in his possession. Some, however, think that the expression is proverbial, and only means, I will divide the spoils of my enemies with as much ease as the sons of Jacob portioned out Shechem, and measured out for their tents the valley of Succoth.

60:6-12 If Christ be ours, all things, one way or another, shall be for our eternal good. The man who is a new creature in Christ, may rejoice in all the precious promises God has spoken in his holiness. His present privileges, and the sanctifying influences of the Spirit, are sure earnests of heavenly glory. David rejoices in conquering the neighbouring nations, which had been enemies to Israel. The Israel of God are through Christ more than conquerors. Though sometimes they think that the Lord has cast them off, yet he will bring them into the strong city at last. Faith in the promise will assure us that it is our Father's good pleasure to give us the kingdom: But we are not yet made complete conquerors, and no true believer will abuse these truths to indulge sloth, or vain confidence. Hope in God is the best principle of true courage, for what need those fear who have God on their side? All our victories are from him, and while those who willingly submit to our anointed King shall share his glories, all his foes shall be put under his feet.God hath spoken in his holiness - That is, as a holy God; a God who is true; a God whose promises are always fulfilled. The idea is, that the holiness of God was the public pledge or assurance that what he had promised he would certainly perform. God had made promises in regard to the land of Canaan or Palestine, as a country to be put into the possession of Abraham and his posterity. Genesis 12:7; Genesis 13:15; Genesis 17:8; Psalm 105:8-11. The original promise of the gift of that land, made to Abraham under the general name of Canaan Genesis 12:7, embraced the whole territory from the river (that divided the land from Egypt) to the Euphrates: "Unto thy seed, addressed to Abraham, have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates," Genesis 15:18. This would embrace the country of Edom, as well as the other countries which are specified in the psalm. The natural and proper boundary of the land on the east, therefore, according to the promise, was the river Euphrates; on the west, Egypt and the Mediterranean sea; on the south, the outer limit of Edom. It was the object of David to carry out what was implied in this promise, and to secure the possession of all that had been thus granted to the Hebrews as the descendants of Abraham. Hence, he had been engaged in carrying his conquests to the east, with a view to make the Euphrates the eastern border or boundary of the land: "David smote also Hadarezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his border at the river Euphrates," 2 Samuel 8:3. Compare 1 Chronicles 18:3. In the prosecution of the same purpose he was anxious also to subdue Edom, that the entire territory thus promised to Abraham might be put in possession of the Hebrews, and that he might transmit the kingdom in the fullness of the original grant to his posterity. It is to this promise made to Abraham that he doubtless refers in the passage before us.

I will rejoice - I, David, will exult or rejoice in the prospect of success. I will find my happiness, or my confidence in what I now undertake, in the promise which God has made. The meaning is, that since God had made this promise, he would certainly triumph.

I will divide Shechem - That is, I will divide up the whole land according to the promise. The language here is taken from that which was employed when the country of Canaan was conquered by Joshua, and when it was divided among the tribes: "Be strong and of a good courage: for unto this people shalt thou divide for an inheritance the land which I sware unto their fathers to give them," Joshua 1:6. Compare Joshua 13:6-7; Joshua 14:5; Joshua 18:10; Joshua 19:51; Joshua 23:4; Psalm 78:55; Acts 13:19. David here applies the same language to Shechem, "and the valley of Succoth," as portions of the land, meaning that he would accomplish the original purpose in regard to the land by placing it in possession of the people of God. Shechem or Sichem was a city within the limits of the tribe of Ephraim, between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim, called by the Romans Neapolis, and now Nablus. It is about two hours, or eight miles, south of Samaria. It seems to be mentioned here as being the spot where the law of Moses was read to the people of Israel, and especially the blessings and curses recorded in Deuteronomy 27; Deuteronomy 28, which Moses commanded to be read to the different tribes on the above-named mountains, Deuteronomy 27:11-13. This was actually done, Joshua 8:33. Shechem, therefore, as lying between these mountains, and as being the place where the great mass of the people were assembled to hear what was read, became a central place, a representative spot of the whole land, and to say that that was conquered or subdued, was to speak of that which implied a victory over the land. David speaks of having secured this, as significant of the fact that the central point of influence and power had been brought under subjection, and as in fact implying that the land was subdued. The importance of that place, and the allusion to it here, will justify a more extended reference to it, which I copy from "The Land and the Book," by Dr. Thomson, vol. ii. p. 203, 204.

"Nablus is a queer old place. The streets are narrow, and vaulted over; and in the winter time it is difficult to pass along many of them on account of brooks which rush over the pavement with deafening roar. In this respect, I know no city with which to compare it except Brusa; and, like that city, it has mulberry, orange, pomegranate, and other trees, mingled in with the houses, whose odoriferous flowers lead the air with delicious perfume during the months of April and May. Here the billbul delights to sit and sing, and thousands of other birds unite to swell the chorus. The inhabitants maintain that theirs is the most musical vale in Palestine, and my experience does not enable me to contradict them.

"Imagine that the lofty range of mountains running north and south was cleft open to its base by some tremendous convulsion of nature, at right angles to its own line of extension, and the broad fissure thus made is the vale of Nablus, as it appears to one coming up the plain of Mukhna from Jerusalem. Mount Ebal is on the north, Gerizim on the south, and the city between. Near the eastern end, the vale is not more than sixty rods wide; and just there, I suppose, the tribes assembled to hear the 'blessings and the curses' read by the Levites. We have them in extenso in Deuteronomy 27 and Deuteronomy 28; and in Joshua 8 we are informed that it was actually done, and how. Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Joseph, and Benjamin, stood on Gerizim; and Reuben, Gad, Asher, Zebulon, Dan, and Naphtali, on Ebal; while all Israel, and their elders, and officers, and their judges, stood on this side of the ark and on that side before the priests which bare the ark of the covenant of the Lord; the whole nation of Israel, with the women and little ones, were there. And Joshua read all the words of the law, the blessings and the cursings; there was not a word of all that Moses commanded which Joshua read not before all the congregation of Israel. This was, beyond question or comparison, the most august assembly the sun has ever shone upon; and I never stand in the narrow plain, with Ebal and Gerizim rising on either hand to the sky, without involuntarily recalling and reproducing the scene. I have shouted to hear the echo, and then fancied how it must have been when the loud-voiced Levites proclaimed from the naked cliffs of Ebal, 'Cursed be the man that maketh any graven image, an abomination unto Jehovah.' And then the tremendous amen! tenfold louder, from the mighty congregation, rising, and swelling, and re-echoing from Ebal to Gerizim, and from Gerizim to Ebal. amen! even so let him be accursed. No, there never was an assembly to compare with this."

And mete out the valley of Succoth - Measure out; that is, measure or survey for the purpose of "dividing" it, or assigning it to the conquerors, to the people of God, according to the promise. There is the same allusion here, as in the former clause, to the dividing of the land in the time of Joshua. Succoth, in the division of the land by Joshua, fell to the tribe of Gad; Joshua 13:27. It was on the east side of the river Jordan, and is now called Sakut. It is first mentioned in Genesis 33:17, in the account of the journey which Jacob took on returning from the East to the land of Canaan. At this place he paused in his journey, and made booths for his cattle; and hence, the name Succoth, or booths. Why this place is referred to here by David, as representing his conquests, cannot now be ascertained. It seems most probable that it was because it was a place east of the Jordan, as Shechem was west of the Jordan, and that the two might, therefore, represent the conquest of the whole country. Succoth, too, though not more prominent than many other places, and though in itself of no special importance, was well known as among the places mentioned in history. It is possible, also, though no such fact is mentioned, that there may have been some transaction of special importance there in connection with David's conquests in the East, which was well understood at the time, and which justified this special reference to it.

6-10. God hath spoken in—or, "by."

his holiness—(Ps 89:35; Am 4:2), on the pledge of His attributes (Ps 22:3; 30:4). Taking courage from God's promise to give them possession (Ex 23:31; De 11:24) (and perhaps renewed to him by special revelation), with triumphant joy he describes the conquest as already made.

Shechem, and … Succoth—as widely separated points, and—

6 God hath spoken in his holiness; I will rejoice, I will divide Shechern, and mete out the valley of Succoth.

7 Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine; Ephraim also is the strength of mine head; Judah is my lawgiver;

8 Moab is my washpot; over Edom will I cast out my shoe: Philistia, triumph thou because of me.

Psalm 60:6

"God hath spoken in his holiness," Faith is never happier than when it can fall back upon the promise of God. She sets this over against all discouraging Circumstances; let outward providences say what they will, the voice of a faithful God drowns every sound of tear. God had promised Israel victory, and David the kingdom: the holiness of God secured the fulfilment of his own covenant, and therefore the king spake confidently. The goodly land had been secured to the tribes by the promise made to Abraham, and that divine grant was an abundantly sufficient warrant for the belief that Israel's arms would be successful in battle. Believer make good use of this, and banish doubts while promises remain. "I will rejoice," or "I will triumph." Faith regards the promise not as fiction but fact, and therefore drinks in joy from it, and grasps victory by it. "God hath spoken; I will rejoice;" here is a fit motto for every soldier of the cross. "I will divide Shechem." As a victor David would allot the conquered territory to those to whom God had given it by lot. Shechem was an important portion of the country which as yet had not yielded to his government; but he saw that by Jehovah's help it would be, and indeed was all his own. Faith divides the spoil, she is sure of what God has promised, and enters at once into possession. "And mete out the valley of Succoth." As the east So the west of Jordan should be allotted to the proper persons. Enemies should be expelled, and the landmarks of peaceful ownership Set Up. Where Jacob had pitched his tent, there his rightful heirs should till the soil. When God has spoken, his divine shall, our "I will,", becomes no idle boast, but the fit echo of the Lord's decree. Believer, up and take possession of covenant mercies, "Divide Shechem, and mete out the valley of Succoth." Let not Canaanitish doubts and legalisms keep thee out of the inheritance of grace. Live up to thy privileges, take the good which God provides thee.

Psalm 60:7

"Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine." He claims the whole land on account of the promise. Two other great divisions of the country he mentions, evidently delighting to survey the goodly land which the Lord had given him. All things are ours, whether things present or things to come; no mean portion belongs to the believer, and let him not think meanly of it. No enemy shall withhold from true faith what God has given her, for grace makes her mighty to wrest it from the foe. Life is mine, death is mine, for Christ is mine, "Ephraim also is the strength of mine head." All the military power of the valiant tribe was at the command of David, and he praises God for it. God will bow to the accomplishment of his purposes all the valour of men: the church may cry, "the prowess of armies is mine," God will overrule all their achievements for the progress of his cause. "Judah is my lawgiver." There the civil power was concentrated: the king being of that tribe sent forth his laws out of her midst. We know no lawgiver, but the King who came out of Judah. To all the claims of Rome, or Oxford, or the councils of men, we pay no attention; we are free from all other ecclesiastical rule, but that of Christ; but we yield joyful obedience to him: "Judah is my lawgiver." Amid distractions it is a great thing to have good and sound legislation, it was a balm for Israel's wounds, it is our joy in the church of Christ.

Psalm 60:8

Having looked at home with satisfaction, the hero-king now looks abroad with exultation. "Moab," so injurious to me in former years, "is my washpot." The basin into which the water falls when it is poured from an ewer upon my feet. A mere pot to hold the dirty water after my feet have been washed in it. Once she defiled Israel, according to the counsel of Balaam, the son of Beor; but she shall be no longer able to perpetrate such baseness; she shall be a washpot for those whom she sought to pollute. The wicked as we see in them the evil, the fruit, and the punishment of sin, shall help on the purification of the saints. This is contrary to their will, and to the nature of things, but faith finds honey in the lion, and a washpot in filthy Moab. David treats his foes as but insignificant and inconsiderable; a whole nation he counts but as a footbath for his kingdom. "Over Edom will I cast out my shoe." As a man when bathing throws his shoes on one side, so would he obtain his dominion over haughty Esau's descendants as easily as a man casts a shoe. Perhaps he would throw his shoe as nowadays men throw their glove, as a challenge to them to dare dispute his way. He did not need draw a sword to smite his now crippled and utterly despondent adversary, for if he dared revolt he would only need to throw his slipper at him, and he would tremble. Easily are we victors when Omnipotence leads the way. The day shall come when the church shall with equal ease subdue China and Ethiopia to the sceptre of the Son of David. Every believer also may by faith triumph over all difficulties and reign with him who hath made us kings and priests. "They overcame through the blood of the Lamb," shall yet be said of all who rest in the power of Jesus. "Philistia, triumph thou because of me." Be so subdued as to rejoice in my victories over my other foes. Or does he mean, I who smote thy champion have at length so subdued thee that thou shalt never be able to rejoice over Israel again; but if thou must needs triumph it must be with me, and not against me; or rather is it a taunting defiance, a piece of irony? O proud Philistia, where are thy vaunts? Where now thy haughty looks, and promised conquests? Thus dare we defy the last enemy, "O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?" So utterly hopeless is the cause of hell when the Lord comes forth to the battle, that even the weakest daughter of Zion may shake her head at the enemy, and laugh him to scorn. O the glorying of faith! There is not a grain of vainglory in it, but yet her holy boastings none can hinder. When the Lord speaks the promise, we will not be slow to rejoice and glory in it?

God hath spoken: having prayed that God would save and hear him, he now intimates that God had done it already, and had prevented his prayers, and had spoken to him and of him, about the stablishing of his throne.

In his holiness; or, in the sanctuary or holy place, to which David used to resort to ask counsel, and from whence God usually gave out his oracles. Or rather, by his holiness, as this very word is rendered, Psalm 89:35, which carries the form of an oath, and implies that God did not simply speak, but swore by his holiness as it is there expressed. I will rejoice; therefore I will turn my prayers into praises and rejoicings for what God had already done, and, as I am assured, will further do, on my behalf.

I will divide; or, distribute; which supposeth possession and dominion. Shechem; a place within Jordan, in Mount Ephraim. See Genesis 33:18 Joshua 20:7.

Succoth; a place without Jordan. See Genesis 33:17 Joshua 13:27. He mentions Shechem and Succoth, either synecdochically for all the land of Canaan within and without Jordan, which, having been formerly divided between him and Ishbosheth, was now entirely in his possession; or because these two places had been in Ishbosheth’s hands, and possibly were extraordinarily devoted to Saul’s house, and utterly averse from David; or for some other reason now unknown.

God hath spoken in his holiness,.... Or "in his holy place" (q); in heaven, the habitation of his holiness and of his glory; or "in the house of the sanctuary", as the Targum: in the tabernacle, in the holy place by Urim and Thummim; and in the most holy place by his sacred oracle, from between the mercy seat: or "by his Holy Ones", as the Arabic version; by his holy prophets, Samuel and Nathan, by whom he spoke to David concerning the kingdom; and by his Holy Spirit dictating this psalm, and the rest unto him; and by his Son, his Holy One, by whom he has spoken in these last times unto his people, to which this psalm has reference: or it may be understood of the perfection of his holiness in which he has spoken, and by which he has swore; not only to David literally, concerning the extent of his dominion, the perpetuity and stability of it; but to David's son and antitype, the Messiah, concerning his seed, possession, and inheritance, Psalm 89:19;

I will rejoice; at the holiness of the Lord, which is matter of joy to the saints, especially as the is displayed and glorified in salvation by Christ, Psalm 97:12; and at what he said in his holiness to David, concerning his temporal kingdom, and the duration of it; because he knew that what he said he would perform; and at what was spoken to him by the Messiah, in council and covenant, concerning his seeing his seed, and prolonging his days; which was the joy set before him, which carried him through his sorrows and sufferings, Hebrews 12:2; wherefore he believed his kingdom should be enlarged, both among Jews and Gentiles, as follows;

I will divide Shechem; a city in Mount Ephraim, Joshua 20:7; and so was in the hands of Ishbosheth the son of Saul; as the valley of Succoth, Gilead, Ephraim, and Manasseh, after mentioned, and all the tribes of Israel, were, but Judah, 2 Samuel 2:4; but, because of God's promise, David believed that they would be all in his possession; signified by dividing, as a land is divided for an inheritance when conquered, Joshua 13:7; or this is said in allusion to the dividing of spoils in a conquered place; and so the Targum,

"I will divide the prey with the children of Joseph, that dwell in Shechem;''

and as Shechem was the same with Sychar, near to which our Lord met with the Samaritan woman, and converted her, and many others of that place, then might he be said to divide the spoils there, John 4:5;

and mete out the valley of Succoth; with a measuring line, so taking possession of it, 2 Samuel 8:2; Succoth was near to Shechem, Genesis 33:17; and was in the tribe of Gad, and in a valley, Joshua 13:27; there was a Succoth in the plain of Jordan, 1 Kings 7:46; it signifies booths, tents, or tabernacles, and may mystically signify the churches of Christ, wherein he dwells and exercises his dominion.

(q) "in sanctuario suo", Tigurine version, Vatablus; "in sancto suo", V. L. Musculus, Cocceius.

God hath spoken in his {g} holiness; I will rejoice, I will divide Shechem, and mete out the valley of Succoth.

(g) It is as certain as if it were spoken by an oracle, that I will possess those places which Saul has left to his children.

6. in his holiness] Or, by his holiness, for ‘spoken’ is the equivalent of ‘promised’ or ‘sworn.’ Cp. Psalm 89:35; Amos 4:2. God’s ‘holiness’ includes His whole essential nature in its moral aspect, and that nature makes it impossible for Him to break His promise (Numbers 23:19; Titus 1:2). It is equivalent to ‘Himself’ (Amos 6:8; Hebrews 6:13; Hebrews 6:17 f). ‘In his sanctuary’ (cp. Psalm 63:2) is a possible but less probable rendering.

I will rejoice] Better as R.V., I will exult. But who is the speaker? Is it David or God? The latter alternative is certainly preferable. The language is bold, but not bolder than that of Isaiah 63:1 ff. God is represented as a victorious warrior, conquering the land, and portioning it out to His people. The language recalls the conquest of the land under Joshua (Joshua 18:10); but it certainly does not imply that the land was now permanently in the possession of foreigners, and needing to be reconquered. He makes Ephraim the chief defence of His kingdom, and Judah the seat of government, and treats the neighbouring nations as His vassals. It is possible that some actual oracle is quoted, but more probable that the drift of the great promise to David (2 Samuel 7:9 f) is freely reproduced in a poetical form. Cp. Psalm 2:7; Psalm 89:19.

Shechem … the valley of Succoth] Shechem, as a central place of importance, represents the territory west of the Jordan; Succoth, ‘in the vale’ (Joshua 13:27), somewhere to the south of the Jabbok, between Peniel and the Jordan, represents the territory east of the Jordan. These two places may be named, because of their connexion with the history of Jacob, who halted first at Succoth and then at Shechem, when he returned to Canaan (Genesis 33:17-18). God will fulfil His promise to Jacob, apportioning to His people the land in which their great ancestor settled.

Verses 6-8. - Appeal is next made in God's promises. Some suppose that a Divine oracle had been recently given to David himself, and that he here records the words of it. But, in that case, it is difficult to account for the despondent tone of vers. 1-4. Hengstenberg's explanation seems preferable, that David now encourages himself by a "reference to the general aspect of the assurances given in the Pentateuch in regard to the possession of the land of Canaan in its widest extent, and to victory over hostile neighbours," and that he has his eye especially on the blessing of Jacob (Genesis 49) and the blessing of Moses (Deuteronomy 33). If these assurances are to be depended on, Israel cannot now be about to succumb to Edom. Verse 6. - God hath spoken in his holiness; or, promised by his holiness (comp. Psalm 89:35). As God is holy, he cannot falsify his promises. I will rejoice, I will divide Shechem, and mete out the valley of Succoth; i.e. I will distribute Canaan among my people - both the western region, of which Shechem was the chief town (1 Kings 12:25), and the eastern, which contained "the valley of Succoth" (Genesis 33:17). God, having assigned the whole laud to his people (Genesis 13:14, 15), "meted it out" through Joshua, his servant, and gave to each tribe its inheritance. Psalm 60:6A divine utterance, promising him victory, which he has heard, is expanded in this second strophe. By reason of this he knows himself to be in the free and inalienable possession of the land, and in opposition to the neighbouring nations, Moab, Edom, and Philistia, to be the victorious lord to whom they must bow. The grand word of promise in 2 Samuel 7:9. is certainly sufficient in itself to make this feeling of certainty intelligible, and perhaps Psalm 60:8-10 are only a pictorial reproduction of that utterance; but it is also possible that at the time when Edom threatened the abandoned bordering kingdom, David received an oracle from the high priest by means of the Urim and Thummim, which assured him of the undiminished and continued possession of the Holy Land and the sovereignty over the bordering nations. That which God speaks "in His holiness" is a declaration or a promise for the sure fulfilment and inviolability of which He pledges His holiness; it is therefore equal to an oath "by His holiness" (Psalm 89:36; Amos 4:2). The oracle does not follow in a direct form, for it is not God who speaks (as Olshausen thinks), to whom the expression אעלזה is unbecoming, nor is it the people (as De Wette and Hengstenberg), but the king, since what follows refers not only to the districts named, but also to their inhabitants. כּי might have stood before אעלזה, but without it the mode of expression more nearly resembles the Latin me exultaturum esse (cf. Psalm 49:12). Shechem in the centre of the region on this side the Jordan, and the valley of Succoth in the heart of the region on the other side, from the beginning; for there is not only a [Arab.] sâkût (the name both of the eminence and of the district) on the west side of the Jordan south of Beisn (Scythopolis), but there must also have been another on the other side of the Jordan (Genesis 33:17., Judges 8:4.) which has not as yet been successfully traced. It lay in the vicinity of Jabbok (ez-Zerka), about in the same latitude with Shechem (Sichem), south-east of Scythopolis, where Estori ha-Parchi contends that he had found traces of it not far from the left bank of the Jordan. Joshua 13:27 gives some information concerning the עמק (valley) of Succoth. The town and the valley belonged to the tribe of Gad. Gilead, side by side with Manasseh, Psalm 60:9, comprehends the districts belonging to the tribes of Gad and Reuben. As far as Psalm 60:9, therefore, free dominion in the cis-and trans-Jordanic country is promised to David. The proudest predicates are justly given to Ephraim and Judah, the two chief tribes; the former, the most numerous and powerful, is David's helmet (the protection of his head), and Judah his staff of command (מחקק, the command-giving equals staff of command, as in Genesis 49:10; Numbers 21:18); for Judah, by virtue of the ancient promise, is the royal tribe of the people who are called to the dominion of the world. This designation of Judah as the king's staff or sceptre and the marshal's baton shows that it is the king who is speaking, and not the people. To him, the king, who has the promise, are Joab, Edom, and Philistia subject, and will continue so. Joab the boastful serves him as a wash-basin;

(Note: A royal attendant, the tasht-dâr, cup-or wash-basin-bearer, carried the wash-basin for the Persian king both when in battle and on a journey (vid., Spiegel, Avesta ii. LXIX). Moab, says the Psalmist, not merely waits upon him with the wash-basin, but himself serves as such to him.)

Edom the crafty and malicious is forcibly taken possession of by him and obliged to submit; and Philistia the warlike is obliged to cry aloud concerning him, the irresistible ruler. סיר רחץ is a wash-pot or basin in distinction from a seething-pot, which is also called סיר. The throwing of a shoe over a territory is a sign of taking forcible possession, just as the taking off of the shoe (חליצה) is a sign of the renunciation of one's claim or right: the shoe is in both instances the symbol of legal possession.

(Note: The sandal or the shoe, I as an object of Arab. wt'̣, of treading down, oppressing, signifies metaphorically, (1) a man that is weak and incapable of defending himself against oppression, since one says, ma kuntu na‛lan, I am no shoe, i.e., no man that one can tread under his feet; (2) a wife (quae subjicitur), since one says, g'alaa‛ na‛lahu, he has taken off his shoe, i.e., cast off his wife (cf. Lane under Arab. ḥiḏa'â', which even signifies a shoe and a wife). II As an instrument of Arab. wṭ‛, tropically of the act of oppressing and of reducing to submission, the Arab. wa‛l serves as a symbol of subjugation to the dominion of another. Rosenmller (Das alte und neue Morgenland, No. 483) shows that the Abyssinian kings, at least, cast a shoe upon anything as a sign of taking forcible possession. Even supposing this usage is based upon the above passage of the Psalms, it proves, however, that a people thinking and speaking after the Oriental type associated this meaning with the casting of a shoe upon anything. - Fleischer. Cf. Wetzstein's Excursus at the end of this volume.)

The rendering of the last line, with Hitzig and Hengstenberg: "exult concerning me, O Philistia," i.e., hail me, though compelled to do so, as king, is forbidden by the עלי, instead of which we must have looked for לי. The verb רוּע certainly has the general signification "to break out into a loud cry," and like the Hiph. (e.g., Isaiah 15:4) the Hithpal. can also be used of a loud outcry at violence.

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