Hebrews 9:5
And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the mercyseat; of which we cannot now speak particularly.
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(5) Cherubims of glory.—See Exodus 25:18-22; Exodus 29:43; Numbers 7:89; Ezekiel 10:19-20. As these passages will show, the reference is to the glory which appeared above the mercy seat. (See Note on Hebrews 1:3.) This is the only express mention of the cherubim in the New Testament; but see the Notes on Revelation 4:6, et seq.

The mercy seat (literally, the propitiatory) is the rendering adopted in the LXX. for the Hebrew Capporeth, signifying the golden covering of the ark (Exodus 25:17). Whether the Hebrew word properly denotes covering or bears the meaning which is expressed by the Greek translation, is a disputed question, into which we cannot here enter. The act of expiation with which the Greek name at all events stands connected is that of Leviticus 16:10-14. It is noteworthy that in 1Chronicles 28:11 the Most Holy Place itself is called “the house of the mercy seat.” (See the Note on Romans 3:25.)

Of which—viz., all things that the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies contained.

Particularlyi.e., severally, one by one.

9:1-5 The apostle shows to the Hebrews the typical reference of their ceremonies to Christ. The tabernacle was a movable temple, shadowing forth the unsettled state of the church upon earth, and the human nature of the Lord Jesus Christ, in whom the fulness of the Godhead dwelt bodily. The typical meaning of these things has been shown in former remarks, and the ordinances and articles of the Mosaic covenant point out Christ as our Light, and as the Bread of life to our souls; and remind us of his Divine Person, his holy priesthood, perfect righteousness, and all-prevailing intercession. Thus was the Lord Jesus Christ, all and in all, from the beginning. And as interpreted by the gospel, these things are a glorious representation of the wisdom of God, and confirm faith in Him who was prefigured by them.And over it - That is, over the ark.

The cherubim of glory - A Hebrew mode of expression, meaning "the glorious cherubim." The word "cherubim" is the Hebrew form of the plural, of which cherub is the singular. The word "glory" used here in connection with "cherubim," refers to the splendor, or magnificence of the image, as being carved with great skill, and covered with gold. There were two cherubim on the ark, placed on the lid in such a manner that their faces looked inward toward each other, and downward toward the mercy-seat. They stretched out their wings "on high," and covered the mercy-seat, or the lid of the ark; Exodus 25:18-20; compare 1 Kings 8:6-7; 1 Chronicles 28:18. In the temple, the cherubim were made of the olive tree, and were ten cubits high. They were overlaid with gold, and were so placed that the wing of one touched the wall on one side of the Holy of Holies, and that of the other the other side, and their wings met together over the ark; 1 Kings 6:23-28.

It is not probable, however, that this was the form used in the tabernacle, as wings thus expanded would have rendered it inconvenient to carry them from place to place. Of the form and design of the cherubim much has been written, and much that is the mere creation of fancy, and the fruit of wild conjecture. Their design is not explained in the Bible, and silence in regard to it would have been wisdom. If they were intended to be symbolical, as is certainly possible, (compare Ezekiel 10:20-22), it is impossible now to determine the object of the symbol. Who is authorized to explain it? Who can give to his speculations anything more than the authority of "pious conjecture?" And of what advantage, therefore, can speculation be, where the volume of inspiration says nothing? They who wish to examine this subject more fully, with the various opinions that have been formed on it, may consult the following works, namely, Calmet's Dictionary, Fragment No. 152, with the numerous illustrations; Bush's notes on Exodus 25:18; and the Quarterly Christian Spectator, vol. viii. pp. 368-388. Drawings resembling the cherubim were not uncommon on ancient sculptures.

Shadowing - Stretching out its wings so as to cover the mercy-seat.

The mercy-seat - The cover of the ark on which rested the cloud or visible symbol of the divine presence. It was called "mercy-seat," or "propitiatory" - ἱλαστήριον hilastērion - because it was this which was sprinkled over with the blood of atonement or propitiation, and because it was from this place, on which the symbol of the deity rested, that God manifested himself as propitious to sinners. The blood of the atonement was that through or by means of which he declared his mercy to the guilty. Here God was supposed to be seated, and from this place he was supposed to dispense mercy to man when the blood of the atonement was sprinkled there. This was undoubtedly designed to be a symbol of his dispensing mercy to people in virtue of the blood which the Saviour shed as the great sacrifice for guilt; see Hebrews 9:13-14.

Of which we cannot now speak particularly - That is, it is not my present design to speak particularly of these things. These matters were well understood by those to whom he wrote, and his object did not require him to go into a fuller explanation.

5. over it—over "the ark of the covenant."

cherubim—representing the ruling powers by which God acts in the moral and natural world. (See on [2560]Eze 1:6; [2561]Eze 10:1). Hence sometimes they answer to the ministering angels; but mostly to the elect redeemed, by whom God shall hereafter rule the world and set forth His manifold wisdom: redeemed humanity, combining in, and with itself, the highest forms of subordinate creaturely life; not angels. They stand on the mercy seat, and on that ground become the habitation of God, from which His glory is to shine upon the world. They expressly say, Re 5:8-10, "Thou hast redeemed us." They are there distinguished from the angels, and associated with the elders. They were of one piece with the mercy seat, even as the Church is one with Christ: their sole standing is on the blood-sprinkled mercy seat; they gaze down at it as the redeemed shall for ever; they are "the habitation of God through the Spirit."

of glory—The cherubim were bearers of the divine glory, whence, perhaps, they derive their name. The Shekinah, or cloud of glory, in which Jehovah appeared between the cherubim over the mercy seat, the lid of the ark, is doubtless the reference. Tholuck thinks the twelve loaves of the showbread represent the twelve tribes of the nation, presented as a community before God consecrated to Him (just as in the Lord's Supper believers, the spiritual Israel, all partaking of the one bread, and becoming one bread and one body, present themselves before the Lord as consecrated to Him, 1Co 10:16, 17); the oil and light, the pure knowledge of the Lord, in which the covenant people are to shine (the seven (lights), implying perfection); the ark of the covenant, the symbol of God's kingdom in the old covenant, and representing God dwelling among His own; the ten commandments in the ark, the law as the basis of union between God and man; the mercy seat covering the law and sprinkled with the blood of atonement for the collective sin of the people, God's mercy [in Christ] stronger than the law; the cherubim, the personified [redeemed] creation, looking down on the mercy seat, where God's mercy, and God's law, are set forth as the basis of creation.

mercy seat—Greek, "the propitiatory": the golden cover of the ark, on which was sprinkled the blood of the propitiatory sacrifice on the day of atonement; the footstool of Jehovah, the meeting place of Him and His people.

we cannot—conveniently: besides what met the eye in the sanctuary, there were spiritual realities symbolized which it would take too long to discuss in detail, our chief subject at present being the priesthood and the sacrifices. "Which" refers not merely to the cherubim, but to all the contents of the sanctuary enumerated in Heb 9:2-5.

And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the mercy-seat; on the cover of the ark at each end was a cherub of beaten gold; these and the cover of the ark were all of one piece, they had their feet on the ledge of the cover, or its crown, at each end; their faces looked towards each other, and their wings touched each other in the extreme part of them, and so on the cover formed the mercy seat see Exodus 25:17-22: and Exodus 37:6-9 40:20. Their form is described by Ezekiel, Ezekiel 1:1-28 and Ezekiel 10:1-22. They were glorious for matter and service, God in his glory manifesting himself over them, gave propitious answers unto Moses about his church, Exodus 25:22 Leviticus 16:2. These cherubims typified the ministry of angels to our Lord Jesus, especially in his great work of rendering God propitious to his church, and saving it, Hebrews 1:14. Standing on the two ends of the ark’s cover, they showed Christ to be the basis of their own standing, when others fell: they spread out their wings, to show their readiness for serving him in all; with their faces opposite to each other, and looking down on the mercy-seat and ark, typifying what the apostle saith of them, 1 Peter 1:10-12, desirous to pry into the mystery of this great Propitiator, the Surety and Mediator of God’s testament, and on his propitiation and its effects, which is admirable and astonishing, not to sinners only, but to angels, Ephesians 3:10.

Of which we cannot now speak particularly; the apostle apologizeth for his but mentioning these mysterious things now, that it was not to eclipse the glory of that administration, but because the matters were well known to them already, only in this they were defective, that they reached not after Christ, the truth and substance of all these types; and therefore he proceeds from the places, to treat of the services to be performed by the Aaronical priesthood in them.

And over it the cherubim of glory,.... Or "glorious cherubim", where the Shechinah, or divine glory, dwelt, Psalm 80:1. These were over the ark, and were in number two, as were the cherubim which God placed at the garden of Eden, Genesis 3:24 according to the opinion of the ancient Jews (u); and very likely these were made after the form of them. Some have thought them to be birds of a very terrible aspect, which were set there to deter Adam and Eve from coming to the tree of life; and both Philo (w) and Josephus (x) say, they were winged fowls; but the generality of the Jewish writers take them for angels (y); and some of them say they were destroying angels, or noxious spirits (z), which is not probable; but why angels should be so called, and what was their appearance, there are different opinions. Jerom says (a) the word signifies a multitude of knowledge; and indeed Philo the Jew (b) observes, that the Greeks would interpret the Hebrew word, much knowledge and understanding; and another Jewish writer (c) affirms, that the word "cherubim" is a name for separate intelligences, as if angels were so called from their great knowledge, and that the word is the same as "cerabbim", as "Rabbins", doctors, or teachers; but for the most part they interpret it, "as young men" (d), because that angels have appeared in the form of young men. So in the Talmud (e) it is asked,

"what does cherub signify?" says R. Abhu, "as a young man", for so in Babylon they call a young man ''

Some think that the word "cherub" is the same with "Recub", the letters transposed, which signifies "a chariot", because God is said to ride upon a "cherub" and the angels are called the chariots of the Lord, Psalm 18:10 to which may be added, that Ezekiel's vision of the "cherubim" is frequently, by the Jews (f), called "Mercabah", or "the chariot"; and mention is made of the chariot of the cherubim, in 1 Chronicles 28:18 to which reference may be had in Habakkuk 3:8 though I rather think, with others, that the word is derived from "Carab", which in the Syriac and Arabic languages signifies "to plough", and so in the Talmud (g); and a cherub took its name from hence, because of the ox, whose face it had, that being a creature made use of in ploughing; and that the face of an ox, and the face of a cherub, is the same, may easily be concluded from Ezekiel 1:10. And now because that Ezekiel's cherubim had four faces, the face of a man, the face of a lion, the face of an ox, and the face of an eagle; and the "cherubim" in the temple were in the same form, as may be gathered from Ezekiel 41:18 those that were placed at the garden of Eden may be thought to be in the same form also: and some of late have fancied, that they were an hieroglyphic of the trinity of persons in the Godhead, signified by the ox, the lion, and eagle; and of the incarnation of the Son of God, the face of a man being added to them; to support which notion it is further observed, that the word should be pronounced "ce-rubbim", and interpreted, "as the mighty ones". But it should be known, that the word is also used in the singular number, Psalm 18:10 and every single cherub had these four faces, so that each of them must be a representative of the Trinity, and of the incarnate Saviour, of which only the word in the singular number can be used; and then it can only be said of it, "cerub", as "the mighty one" which observation greatly weakens what is brought to support the fancy: besides, if the cherubim were an emblem of a plurality of persons in the Godhead, they would rather be an emblem of a quaternity, and not of a trinity of persons, since each had four faces, and those distinct from each other; for the face of a man is as much a distinct face as any of the rest. Now the human nature of Christ is no distinct person, much less one in the Godhead; and besides is the inferior nature of Christ, whereas the face of the man, in the "cherubim", is superior to the rest, which are the faces of irrational animals. Moreover, this would give us a similitude of the divine Being, and of that in him which is most incomprehensible by us, the trinity of persons in the Godhead; and so an answer may be given to such questions, the sense of which suggests, that no answer can be returned to them, Isaiah 40:18 and though the second Person often appeared in human form, and in the fulness of time became incarnate, and the Holy Ghost once descended as a dove, yet the Father's shape was never seen at any time, John 5:37 to which may be added, that this notion seems contrary to the second command, "thou shall not make unto thee any likeness of anything that is in heaven above", Exodus 20:4 for allowing that the cherubim at the garden of Eden were figures made by the Lord himself, it is not credible he should make such, he afterwards forbid others to make; besides, the "cherubim" in the tabernacle and temple were the same figures with those in Eden, as is owned; and these were ordered of God to be made by men, and therefore surely cannot be thought to be figures, emblems, and representations of God himself in his three divine persons; likewise the cherubim are not only distinguished from him, but instead of being figures of him, they are always represented as vehicles on which he sits or rides, Exodus 25:22. Once more, it may deserve some little consideration, that the prince of Tyre, a type of antichrist, the man of sin, is called a "cherub", Ezekiel 28:14 which surely cannot be in allusion to the divine Being, and the persons in the Godhead, but very well in allusion to angels, the sons of God, as civil magistrates, good and bad, are sometimes called. No doubt there was something signified by the "cherubim" in the tabernacle and temple; but that this should be the mystery of them, is not easy of belief. Philo the Jew makes the "cherubim" to signify the two powers of God, his creative and governing powers (h); and the Jews frequently speak of , "the mystery of the cherubim" (i): the "cherubim" over the ark, here spoken of, are sometimes allegorized of the two Testaments, the Old and New; the matter of them being of gold may denote the excellency, purity, simplicity, and duration of them; their number is two, as were the "cherubim"; and as they were alike, and of one measure and size, this may intend the agreement between them; the doctrines, promises, prophecies, types, and figures of the Old Testament agree with the New; and the account that the one gives of the person and offices, and grace of Christ, agrees with the other; their situation and position, being placed at the two ends of the mercy seat, and looking towards it, may denote their being full of Christ, from one end to the other, and their pointing at him, and bearing witness to him; here God also reveals himself, as he did between the "cherubim"; and these are glorious as they were, full of glory, containing the glorious Gospel of the blessed God: though rather the "cherubim" on the mercy seat were symbols and representations of angels, since to these the Apostle Peter seems to allude, in 1 Peter 1:12, their being made of gold may denote their excellency, purity, and simplicity; their being on the mercy seat shows their dependence on Christ, their confirmation by him, and ministration to him; their having wings, expresses their readiness to do his will; and their looking one to another, signifies their unity and concord among themselves; and their looking to the mercy seat, their inspection into the mysteries of grace; and their being over the ark, and God being in the midst of them, declares the presence of God with them, whose face they always behold; and as these "cherubim" of glory, they are very glorious creatures, and in the glory of them will Christ come a second time:

shadowing the mercy seat; that is, with their wings, as in Exodus 25:20 which was typical of Christ; its name agrees with him, a mercy seat; for in him God shows himself merciful to his people; all the stores of mercy are laid up in him; the mission of him into this world is owing to the mercy of God; and the mercy of God was glorified by him in the redemption of his people; and he himself is the way through which they obtain and receive mercy; and he is also a merciful high priest to them: the Hebrew word for the mercy seat, signifies "a covering": nor is our English word in sound very different from it; and it was so called, as Kimchi (k) observes, because it covered the ark: Christ is a covering to his people; their persons are clothed with his righteousness, and all their sins are covered by it; and they are secured from the curse and condemnation of the law, and wrath to come: the Septuagint interpreters render it by the word used here by the Apostle Paul, in Romans 3:25, there rendered "propitiation", and applied to Christ, who has made reconciliation for sin, and through whom God is propitious to his people. The matter, of which the mercy seat was made, was pure gold, denoting the excellency and preciousness of Christ; the make of it, in its length and breadth, was just the same with the ark, in which the two tables were, Exodus 25:10. Christ is the fulfilling end of the law, and exactly answers to all its requirements; his nature, to the holiness and spirituality of it; his righteousness, to all the obedience it commands; and his sufferings and death, to the penalty it enjoins: its situation above the ark shows that there is no mercy but in a way of righteousness, and that Christ stands between God and the law, and, by fulfilling it, covers all the transgressions of it; and being above it, is able to suppress all its accusations and charges: from off the mercy seat, God communed with his people; the way to communion with God is by Christ; the encouragement to go to God is from him; and the enjoyment of him is through him: on the day of atonement the mercy seat was sprinkled with blood, typical of the blood of Christ, whereby peace is made, and a way opened into the holiest of all:

of which we cannot now speak particularly; not only of the mercy seat, but of all the things before mentioned; for the word "which" is in the plural number, and refers to all the preceding things; to discourse of which, largely and particularly, required more time than the apostle had, and must have exceeded the bounds of an epistle. The Ethiopic version renders it in the singular number; "of this".

(u) Targum Jon. &. Hieros. in Genesis 3.24. (w) De Vita Mosis, l. 3. p. 668. (x) Antiqu. l. 3. c. 6. sect. 5. (y) Bereshit Rabba, sect. 21. fol. 19. 1. & Mattanot Cehunah in ib. Aben Ezra in Genesis 3.24. (z) Jarchi & Baal Hatturim in loc. (a) Ep. Paulino, Tom. III. fol. 3. F. (b) Ut supra. (De Vita Mosis, l. 3. p. 668.) (c) R. Samuel Tzartzah, Sepher Meker Chayim, fol. 8. 3.((d) Zohar in Gen. fol. 122. 3. & Imre Binah in ib. Aben Ezra in Genesis 3.24. Kimchi Sepher Shorash. in rad. & R. Sol. Urbin. Ohel Moed, fol. 58. 2.((e) T. Bab. Chagiga, fol. 13. 2. & Succa, fol. 5. 2.((f) T. Bab. Chagiga, fol. 14. 2.((g) T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 32. 2. Bava Kama, fol. 96. 2.((h) De Cherubim, p. 112. de Profugis, p. 465. & de Vita Mosis, l. 3. p. 669. (i) Zohar in Gen. fol. 99. 1. & 122. 4. (k) Sopher Shorash. rad.

And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the {d} mercyseat; of which we cannot now speak particularly.

(d) The Hebrews call the cover of the ark of the covenant the mercy seat, which both the Greeks and we do also.

Hebrews 9:5. The author turns from the objects to be found within the ark of the covenant to that which is above the same.

ὑπεράνω δὲ αὐτῆς] sc. τῆς κιβωτοῦ.

Χερουβίμ] comp. Exodus 25:18 ff; Exodus 37:7 ff.; Winer, Bibl. Realwörterb. I. 2 Aufl. p. 262 ff.; Bähr, Symbolik des Mob. Cultus, Bd. I. p. 311 ff. There existed two of them, of fine gold, one at each end of the cover or lid of the ark of the covenant, upon which, with faces turned towards each other, they looked down, and which they covered with their outspread wings. In the midst of the cherubim was the glory of God enthroned (1 Samuel 4:4; 2 Samuel 6:2; 2 Kings 19:15; Isaiah 37:16), and from this place God would speak to Moses (Exodus 25:22; comp. Numbers 7:89).

Χερουβίμ is here treated as a neuter, as likewise generally with the LXX., with whom the masculine οἱ Χερουβ. occurs but rarely (e.g. Exodus 25:20; Exodus 37:7). The neuter is not, however, to be explained by the supposition that πνεύματα is to be supplied to it in thought (comp. Drusius on our passage), but from the fact that the cherubim were regarded as ζῶα. Comp. Josephus, Antiq. iii. 6. 5, where the Mosaic cherubim are described as ζῶα πετεινά, μορφὴν, δʼ οὐδενὶ τῶν ὑπʼ ἀνθρώπων ἑωραμένων παραπλήσια. Comp. also Ezekiel 10:15 : καὶ τὰ Χερουβὶμ ἦσαν τοῦτο τὸ ζῶον, ὃ ἴδον κ.τ.λ. Ibid. Hebrews 9:20.

The cherubim are called Χερουβὶμ δόξης. That may mean cherubim of glory or brightness, to whom glory or brightness is proper (so Camerarius, Estius, Schlichting, Jac. Cappellus, Stuart, Kuinoel, al.), or the cherubim which pertain to the divine glory, the כְּבֹוד יְהֹוָה, i.e. who are the bearers of the divine glory (so the majority). Grammatically the former is easier (on account of the absence of the article before δόξης). But the latter is to be preferred as yielding a more appropriate thought, and the omission of the article is to be justified from the usage of the LXX. Exodus 40:34; 1 Samuel 4:22; Ezekiel 9:3; Ezekiel 10:18, al.

κατασκιάζοντα τὸ ἱλαστήριον] which overshadow the propitiatory (or mercy-seat). κατασκιάζειν in the N. T. only here. Comp. συσκιάζειν, Exodus 25:20; σκιάζειν, Exodus 37:9; 1 Chronicles 28:18. A more choice verb than περικαλύπτειν, 1 Kings 8:7. τὸ ἱλαστήριον (כַּפֹּרֶת), the cover of the ark of the covenant, which on the great day of atonement was sprinkled with the sacrificial blood for the expiation of the sins of the people. Comp. Leviticus 16:14 f.

περὶ ὧν] goes back not merely to the cherubim (Ebrard, p. 294), but also to all the objects before enumerated.

οὐκ ἔστιν] it concerns us not, or: is not the place, or: is impossible. Comp. 1 Corinthians 11:20. Of the same meaning as the more definite οὐκ ἔξεστιν. With Kurtz to supply τόπος is inadmissible.

κατὰ μέρος] in detail. The author does not design to set forth the typical significance of every single object enumerated; the indication of the typical significance of the two main divisions of the Jewish sanctuary is that which he at present aims at, and to this task he now addresses himself in that which immediately follows, comp. Hebrews 9:8.

5. the cherubims] Rather, “the Cherubim,” since im is the Hebrew plural termination.

of glory] Not “the glorious Cherubim” but “the Cherubim of the Shechinah” or cloud of glory. This was regarded as the symbol of God’s presence, and was believed to rest between their outspread wings (see 1 Samuel 4:22; 2 Kings 19:15; Haggai 2:7-9; Sir 49:8). They were emblems of all that was highest and best in animated nature—the grandest products of creation combined in one living angelic symbol (Ezekiel 10:4)—upholding the throne of the Eternal as on “a chariot” and bending in adoring contemplation of the moral law as the revelation of God’s will.

the mercy-seat] The Greek word “hilasterion” or “propitiatory” is the translation used by the LXX. for the Hebrew Cappôreth or “covering.” The word probably meant no more than “lid” or “cover;” but the LXX. understood it metaphorically of the covering of sins or expiation, because the blood of the expiatory offering was sprinkled upon it.

of which we cannot now speak particularly] Rather, “severally,” “in detail.” It was no part of the writer’s immediate purpose to enter upon an explanation of that symbolism of the Tabernacle which has largely occupied the attention of Jewish historians and Talmudists as well as of modern writers. Had he done so he would doubtless have thrown light upon much that is now obscure. But he is pressing on to his point, which is to shew that even the most solemn and magnificent act of the whole Jewish ritual—the ceremony of the Day of Atonement—bears upon its face the signs of complete transitoriness and inefficiency when compared with the work of Christ.

Hebrews 9:5. Χερουβὶμ, the Cherubim) Exodus 25:20; Exodus 37:9.—δόξης, of glory) They were formed of the most precious materials, and represented the Glory of GOD riding upon the Cherubim; Ezekiel 10:4.—κατασκιάζοντα) LXX., συσκιάζοντες, in the passages quoted above.—περὶ ἇν concerning which) The pronoun relates to the whole enumeration, from Hebrews 9:2.—οὐκ ἔστι νῦν λέγειν, we cannot now speak) The apostle had determined to treat, not so much of the sanctuary and its furniture, as of the sacrifices; and he does not say, we cannot afterwards, but we cannot now, implying, that each of these things also might be profitably discussed.

Hebrews 9:5Cherubim of glory (χερουβεὶν δόξης)

Setting forth or exhibiting the divine glory. The word signifies living creatures, and they are described as ζῶα. Hence usually with the neuter article τὰ. See Isaiah 6:2, Isaiah 6:3; Ezekiel 1:5-10; Ezekiel 10:5-20, and comp. Revelation 4:6-8. Nothing could be more infelicitous than the A.V. rendering of ζῶα beasts.

Shadowing the mercy-seat (κατασκιάζοντα τὸ ἱλαστήριον)

Κατασκιάζειν, N.T.o, olxx, occasionally in Class. Throwing their shadow down upon the mercy-seat. For, ἱλασρήριον, see on Romans 3:25. Used in lxx to translate כַּפֹרֶט, the place of covering sin, the throne of mercy above the ark.

Particularly (κατὰ μέρος)

In detail; his main point being the twofold division of the tabernacle. The phrase N.T.o. Note the completeness of the list of articles of furniture in the tabernacle, even to the inclusion of things which had no connection with worship; also the emphasis on the costliness of the articles - gold. The writer will say all that can be said for this transitory, shadowy tabernacle; but all that he can say about the costliness of the apparatus only emphasizes the inferior and unspiritual character of the worship. The vessels are superior to the service.

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