Homilies of Chrysostom
Therefore, my brethren dearly beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so stand fast in the Lord, my dearly beloved.
I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche, that they be of the same mind in the Lord.
Ver. 2, 3. "I exhort Euodia, and exhort Syntyche, to be of the same mind in the Lord. Yea, I beseech thee also, true yokefellow, help these women."
Some say Paul here exhorts his own wife; but it is not so, but some other woman, or the husband of one of them. "Help these women, for they labored with me in the Gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow-workers whose names are in the book of life." Seest thou how great a testimony he beareth to their virtue? For as Christ saith to his Apostles, "Rejoice not that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in the book of life" (Luke 10:20.); so Paul testifieth to them, saying, "whose names are in the book of life." These women seem to me to be the chief of the Church which was there, and he commendeth them to some notable man whom he calls his "yokefellow," to whom perchance he was wont to commend them, as to a fellow-worker, and fellow-soldier, and brother, and companion, as he doth in the Epistle to the Romans, when he saith, "I commend unto you Phebe our sister, who is a servant of the Church that is at Cenchrea." (Romans 16:1.) "Yokefellow;" either some brother of theirs, or a husband of hers; as if he had said, Now thou art a true brother, now a true husband, because thou hast become a Member. "For they labored with me in the Gospel." This protection  came from home, not from friendship, but for good deeds. "Labored with me." What sayest thou? Did women labor with thee? Yes, he answereth, they too contributed no small portion. Although many were they who wrought together with him, yet these women also acted with him amongst the many. The Churches then were no little edified, for many good ends are gained where they who are approved, be they men, or be they women, enjoy from the rest such honor. For in the first place the rest were led on to a like zeal; in the second place, they also gained  by the respect shown; and thirdly, they made those very persons more zealous and earnest. Wherefore thou seest that Paul hath everywhere a care for this, and commendeth such men for consideration. As he saith in the Epistle to the Corinthians: "Who are the first-fruits of Achaia," (1 Corinthians 16:15.) Some say that the word "yokefellow," (Syzygus,) is a proper name. Well, what? Whether it be so, or no, we need not accurately enquire,  but observe that he gives his orders, that these women should enjoy much protection.
All we have, saith he, is in the heavens, our Saviour, our city, whatever a man can name: "whence," saith he, "we wait for a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ." And this is an act of His kindness and love toward man. He Himself again cometh to us, he doth not drag us thither, but takes us, and so departs with us. And this is a mark of great honor; for if He came to us when we were enemies, much rather doth He now when we are become friends. He doth not commit this to the Angels, nor to servants, but Himself cometh to call us to His royal mansion. See, we also "shall be caught up in the clouds" (1 Thess. iv. 17.), doing him honor.
Who then is to be found "the faithful and wise servant"? Who are they that are deemed worthy of such good things? How miserable are those who fail! For if we were forever to weep, should we do aught worthy of the occasion? For were you to make mention of hells innumerable, you would name nothing equal to that pain which the soul sustaineth, when all the world is in confusion, when the trumpets are sounding, when the Angels are rushing forward, the first, then the second, then the third, then ten thousand ranks, are pouring forth upon the earth; then the Cherubim, (and many are these and infinite;) the Seraphim; when He Himself is coming, with His ineffable glory; when those meet Him, who had gone to gather the elect into the midst; when Paul and his companions, and all who in his time had been approved, are crowned, are proclaimed aloud, are honored by the King, before all His heavenly host. For if hell did not exist, how fearful a thing it is, that the one part should be honored, and the other dishonored! Hell, I confess, is intolerable, yea, very intolerable, but more intolerable than it is the loss of the Kingdom. Consider; if any king, or the son of a king, having taken his departure, and been successful in innumerable wars, and become the object of admiration, should with his army entire, return to any city, in his chariot, with his trophies, with his innumerable ranks of golden shields, with his spearmen, his body-guard all about him, whilst the whole city was adorned with crowns, whilst all the rulers of the world accompanied him, and all the soldiery of foreign nations followed him as captives, then pr?fects, satraps, and in the presence of all the rulers, and all that splendor, he should receive the citizens who meet him, and kiss them, and stretch forth his hand, and give them freedom of access, and converse with them, all standing around, as with friends, and tell them that all that journey was undertaken for their sake, and should lead them into his palace, and give them a share of it, even if the rest should not be punished, to how great punishment would not this be equal? But if in the case of men it were a bitter thing to fall away from this glory, much more is it so with God, when all the heavenly Powers are present with the King, when the demons, bound, and bowing down their heads, and the devil himself is led along in chains, and all military force that opposeth itself, when the Powers of the heavens, when He Himself, cometh upon the clouds.
Believe me, I am not even able to finish my words, from the grief which lays hold of my soul at this relation. Consider of how great glory we shall be deprived, when it is in our power not to be deprived of it. For this is the misery, that we suffer these things, when it is in our power not to suffer them. When he receiveth the one part and leadeth them to His Father in heaven, and rejecteth the other, whom Angels take and drag against their will, weeping, and hanging down their heads, to the fire of hell, when they have first been made a spectacle to the whole world, what grief, think you, is there? Let us then make haste, while there is time, and take great thought of our own salvation. How many things have we to say like the rich man? If any one would now suffer us, we would take counsel of the things that are profitable! But no one doth suffer us. And that we shall so say, is clear, not from him alone, but from many others. And that you may learn this, how many men have been in fevers, and said, if we recover, we shall never again fall into the same state. Many such words we shall then say, but we shall be answered as the rich man was, that there is a gulf, that we have received our good things here. (Luke 16:25, 26.) Let us groan then, I entreat you, bitterly, rather let us not only groan, but pursue virtue too; let us lament now, for salvation, that we may not then lament in vain. Let us weep now, and not weep then, at our evil lot. This weeping is of virtue, that of unprofitable repentance; let us afflict ourselves now, that we may not then; for it is not the same thing to be afflicted here and there. Here, thou art afflicted for a little time, or rather thou dost not perceive thy affliction, knowing that thou art afflicted for thy good. But there, the affliction is more bitter, because it is not in hope,  nor for any escape, but without limit, and throughout.
But may we all be freed from this, and obtain remission. But let us pray and be diligent, that we may obtain the remission. Let us be diligent, I entreat; for if we are diligent, we prevail even through our prayer: if we pray earnestly, God grants our request; but if we neither ask Him, nor do earnestly aught of this sort, nor work, how is it possible that we should ever succeed? By sleeping? Not at all. For it is much if even by running, and stretching forth, and being conformed to His death, as Paul said, we shall be able to succeed, not to say sleeping. "If by any means I may attain," saith he. But if Paul said, "If by any means I may attain," what shall we say? For it is not possible by sleeping to accomplish even worldly business, not to say spiritual. By sleeping, not even from friends can anything be received, far less from God. Not even fathers honor them who sleep, far less doth God. Let us labor for a little time, that we may have rest for ever. We must at all events be afflicted. If we are not afflicted here, it awaits us there. Why choose we not to be afflicted here, that there we may have rest, and obtain the unspeakable blessings, in Christ Jesus, with whom, to the Father together with the Holy Spirit, be glory, power, and honor, now and ever, world without end. Amen.
 There is some false reading here. Old. Lat. has "What is their God? This, Let us eat and drink!'"
 [Chrys. strangely overlooks the fact that in the Epistle "the Lord" usually means Christ. Standing in the Lord may be readily understood if we contrast it with efforts to stand outside of Christ, apart from him. Compare (Meyer) 1 Thess. iii. 8, and often in Paul's writings.--J.A.B.]
 prostasia, he means the recommendation to protection.
 i. e. a reward, see on 1 Timothy 5:6, Hom. xv.
 [Upon this whole passage, ver. 2, 3, nothing is really known to this day beyond what Chrys. here says. The view that Syzygus is a proper name is preferred by Meyer and Grimm (Thayer), and Westcott and Hort so print in the margin. A complete discussion may be found in Lightfoot.--J.A.B.]
 It is worth observing, that, although he has referred to the rich man in Hades, he is here speaking of Gehenna, and of present self-denial as a means of escaping eternal punishment after Judgment.
And I intreat thee also, true yokefellow, help those women which laboured with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and with other my fellowlabourers, whose names are in the book of life.
Rejoice in the Lord alway: and again I say, Rejoice.
"Rejoice in the Lord alway: again I will say, Rejoice. Let your forbearance be known unto all men. The Lord is at hand. In nothing be anxious; but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall guard your hearts and your thoughts through Christ Jesus."
"Blessed  are they that mourn," and "woe unto them that laugh" (Matthew 5:4; Luke 6:25.), saith Christ. How then saith Paul, "Rejoice in the Lord alway"? "Woe to them that laugh," said Christ, the laughter of this world which ariseth from the things which are present. He blessed also those that mourn, not simply for the loss of relatives, but those who are pricked at heart, who mourn their own faults, and take count of their own sins, or even those of others. This joy is not contrary to that grief, but from that grief it too is born. For he who grieveth for his own faults, and confesseth them, rejoiceth. Moreover, it is possible to grieve for our own sins, and yet to rejoice in Christ. Since then they were afflicted by their sufferings, "for to you it is given not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him" (Philip. i. 29.), therefore he saith, "Rejoice in the Lord." For this can but mean, If you exhibit such a life that you may rejoice. Or when your communion with God is not hindered, rejoice. Or else the word "in" may stand for "with":  as if he had said, with the Lord. "Alway; again I will say, Rejoice." These are the words of one who brings comfort; as, for example, he who is in God rejoiceth alway. Yea though he be afflicted, yea whatever he may suffer, such a man alway rejoiceth. Hear what Luke saith, that "they returned from the presence of the Council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to be scourged for His name." (Acts 5:41.) If scourging and bonds, which seem to be the most grievous of all things, bring forth joy, what else will be able to produce grief in us?
"Again I will say, Rejoice." Well hath he repeated. For since the nature of the things brought forth grief, he shows by repeating, that they should by all means rejoice.
"Let your forbearance be known unto all men." He said above, "Whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame," and that they "mind earthly things." (Philip. iii. 19.) It was probable that they would be at enmity with the wicked; he therefore exhorted them to have nothing in common with them, but to use them with all forbearance, and that not only their brethren, but also their enemies and opposers. "The Lord is at hand,  in nothing be anxious." For why, tell me? do they ever rise in opposition? And if ye see them living in luxury, why are ye in affliction? Already the judgment is nigh; shortly will they give account of their actions. Are ye in affliction, and they in luxury? But these things shall shortly receive their end. Do they plot against you, and threaten you? "In nothing be anxious." The judgment is already at hand, when these things shall be reversed. "In nothing be anxious." If ye are kindly affected toward those who prepare evil against you, yet it shall not at last turn out to their profit. Already the recompense is at hand, if poverty, if death, if aught else that is terrible be upon you. "But in everything, by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known unto God." There is this for one consolation, "the Lord is at hand." And again, "I will be with you alway, even unto the end of the world." (Matthew 28:20.) Behold another consolation, a medicine which healeth grief, and distress, and all that is painful. And what is this? Prayer, thanksgiving in all things. And so He wills that our prayers should not simply be requests, but thanksgivings too for what we have. For how should he ask for future things, who is not thankful for the past? "But in everything by prayer and supplication." Wherefore we ought to give thanks for all things, even for those which seem to be grievous, for this is the part of the truly thankful man. In the other case the nature of the things demands it; but this springs from a grateful soul, and one earnestly affected toward God. God acknowledgeth these prayers, but others He knoweth not. Offer up such prayers as may be acknowledged; for He disposeth all things for our profit, though we know it not. And this is a proof that it greatly profiteth, namely, that we know it not. "And the peace of God which passeth all understanding shall guard your hearts and your thoughts in Christ Jesus." What meaneth this? "The peace of God" which He hath wrought toward men, surpasseth all understanding. For who could have expected, who could have hoped, that such good things would have come? They exceed all man's understanding, not his speech alone. For His enemies, for those who hated Him, for those who determined to turn themselves away, for these, he refused not to deliver up His Only Begotten Son, that He might make peace with us. This peace then, i. e. the reconciliation, the love of God, shall guard your hearts and your thoughts.
For this is the part of a teacher, not only to exhort, but also to pray, and to assist by supplication, that they may neither be overwhelmed by temptations, nor carried about by deceit. As if he had said, May He who hath delivered you in such sort as mind cannot comprehend, may He Himself guard you, and secure you, so that you suffer no ill. Either he means this, or that that peace of which Christ saith, "Peace I leave with you, My peace I give unto you" (John 14:27.): this shall guard you, for this peace exceedeth all man's understanding. How? When he tells us to be at peace with our enemies, with those who treat us unjustly, with those who are at war and enmity toward us; is it not beyond man's understanding? But rather let us look to the former. If the peace surpasseth all understanding, much more doth God Himself, who giveth peace, pass all understanding, not ours only, but also that of Angels, and the Powers above. What meaneth "in Christ Jesus"? Shall guard us in Him, so that ye may remain firm, and not fall from His faith.
Let your moderation be known unto all men. The Lord is at hand.
Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God.
And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.
Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.
Ver. 8. "Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are honorable, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are just." What is "Finally"? It stands for, "I have said all." It is the word of one that is in haste, and has nothing to do with present things.
"Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are honorable, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report, if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things."
Those things, which ye have both learned, and received, and heard, and seen in me, do: and the God of peace shall be with you.
Ver. 9. "The things which ye both learned and received, and heard and saw in me."
What meaneth, "whatsoever things are lovely"? Lovely to the faithful, lovely to God. "Whatsoever things are true." Virtue is really true, vice is falsehood. For the pleasure of it is a falsehood, and its glory is falsehood, and all things of the world are falsehood. "Whatsoever things are pure." This is opposed to the words "who mind earthly things." "Whatsoever things are honorable." This is opposed to the words "whose god is their belly." "Whatsoever things are just," i. e. saith he,  "whatsoever things are of good report." "If there be any virtue, if there be any praise." Here he willeth them to take thought of those things too which regard men. "Think on these things," saith he. Seest thou, that he desires to banish every evil thought from our souls; for evil actions spring from thoughts. "The things which ye both learned and received." This is teaching, in all his exhortations to propose himself for a model: as he saith in another place, "even as ye have us for an ensample." (Philip. iii. 17.) And again here, "What things ye learned and received," i. e. have been taught by word of mouth, "and heard and saw in me": both in respect of my words and actions and conduct. Seest thou, how about everything he lays these commands on us? For since it was not possible to make an accurate enumeration of all things, of our coming in, and going out, and speech, and carriage, and intercourse (for of all these things it is needful that a Christian should have thought), he said shortly, and as it were in a summary, "ye heard and saw in me." I have led you forward both by deeds and by words.  "These things do," not only in words, but do them also. "And the God of peace shall be with you," i. e. ye shall be in a calm, in great safety, ye shall suffer nothing painful, nor contrary to your will. For when we are at peace with Him, and we are so through virtue, much more will He be at peace with us. For He who so loved us, as to show favor to us even against our will, will He not, if He sees us hastening toward Him, Himself yet much more exhibit His love toward us?
Nothing is such an enemy of our nature as vice. And from many things it is evident, how vice is at enmity with us, and virtue friendly toward us. What will ye? That I should speak of fornication? It makes men subject to reproach, poor, objects of ridicule, despicable to all, just as enemies treat them. Ofttimes it hath involved men in disease and danger; many men have perished or been wounded in behalf of their mistresses. And if fornication produces these things, much rather doth adultery. But doth almsgiving so? By no means. But as a loving mother setteth her son in great propriety, in good order, in good report, and gives him leisure to engage in necessary work, thus alms-giving doth not release us nor lead us away from our necessary work, but even renders the soul more wise. For nothing is more foolish than a mistress.
But what willest thou? To look upon covetousness? It too treats us like an enemy. And how? It makes us hated by all. It prepareth all men to vaunt themselves against us; both those who have been treated unjustly by us, and those who have not, who share the grief of the former, and are in fear for themselves. All men look upon us as their common foes, as wild beasts, as demons. Everywhere are there innumerable accusations, plots against us, envyings, all which are the acts of enemies. But justice, on the contrary, makes all men friends, all men sociable, all men well disposed towards us, by all men prayers are made in our behalf; our affairs are in perfect safety, there is no danger, there is no suspicion. But sleep also fearlessly comes over us with perfect safety, no care is there, no lamenting.
How much better this sort of life is! And what? Is it best to envy, or to rejoice with one another? Let us search out all these things, and we shall find that virtue, like a truly kind mother, places us in safety, while vice is a treacherous thing, and full of danger. For hear the prophet, who saith, "The Lord is a stronghold of them that fear Him, and His covenant is to show them." (Psalm 25:14, Sept.) He feareth no one, who is not conscious to himself of any wickedness; on the contrary, he who liveth in crime is never confident, but trembles at his domestics, and looks at them with suspicion. Why say, his domestics? He cannot bear the tribunal of his own conscience. Not only those who are without, but his inward thoughts affect him likewise, and suffer him not to be in quiet. What then, saith Paul? Ought we to live dependent on praise? He said not, look to praise, but do praiseworthy actions, yet not for the sake of praise.
"Whatsoever things are true," for the things we have been speaking of are false. "Whatsoever things are honorable." That which is "honorable" belongs to external virtue, that which is "pure" to the soul. Give no cause of stumbling, saith he, nor handle of accusation. Because he had said, "Whatsoever things are of good report," lest you should think that he means only those things which are so in the sight of men, he proceeds, "if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things"--do these things. He wills us ever to be in these things, to care for these things, to think on these things. For if we will be at peace with each other, God too will be with us, but if we raise up war, the God of peace will not be with us. For nothing is so hostile to the soul as vice. That is, peace and virtue place it in safety. Wherefore we must make a beginning on our part, and then we shall draw God toward us.
God is not a God of war and fighting. Make war and fighting to cease, both that which is against Him, and that which is against thy neighbor. Be at peace with all men, consider with what character God saveth thee. "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God." (Matthew 5:9.) Such always imitate the Son of God: do thou imitate Him too. Be at peace. The more thy brother warreth against thee, by so much the greater will be thy reward. For hear the prophet who saith, "With the haters of peace I was peaceful." (Psalm 120:7, Sept.) This is virtue, this is above man's understanding, this maketh us near God; nothing so much delighteth God as to remember no evil. This sets thee free from thy sins, this looseth the charges against thee: but if we are fighting and buffeting, we become far off from God: for enmities are produced by conflict, and from enmity springs remembrance of evil.
Cut out the root, and there will be no fruit. Thus shall we learn to despise the things of this life, for there is no conflict, none, in spiritual things, but whatever thou seest, either conflicts or envy, or whatever a man can mention, all these spring from the things of this life. Every conflict hath its beginning either in covetousness, or envy, or vainglory. If therefore we are at peace, we shall learn to despise the things of the earth. Hath a man stolen our money? He hath not injured us, only let him not steal our treasure which is above. Hath he hindered thy glory? Yet not that which is from God, but that which is of no account. For this is no glory, but a mere name of glory, or rather a shame. Hath he stolen thy honor? Rather not thine but his own. For as he who committeth injustice doth not so much inflict as receive injustice, thus too he who plots against his neighbor, first destroyeth himself.
For "he who diggeth a pit for his neighbor, falleth into it." (Proverbs 26:27.) Let us then not plot against others, lest we injure ourselves. When we supplant the reputation of others, let us consider that we injure ourselves, it is against ourselves we plot. For perchance with men we do him harm, if we have power, but we injure ourselves in the sight of God, by provoking Him against us. Let us not then harm ourselves. For as we injure ourselves when we injure our neighbors, so by benefiting them we benefit ourselves. If then thy enemy harm thee, he hath benefited thee if thou art wise, and so requite him not with the same things, but even do him good. But the blow, you say, remains severe. Consider then that thou dost not benefit, but punishest him, and benefitest thyself, and quickly you will come to do him good. What then? Shall we act from this motive? We ought not to act on this motive, but if thy heart will not hear other reason, induce it, saith he,  even by this, and thou wilt quickly persuade it to dismiss its enmity, and wilt for the future do good to thine enemy as to a friend, and wilt obtain the good things which are to come, to which God grant that we may all attain in Christ Jesus. Amen.
 ["Happy" would be more exact, but "blessed" has a fixed association with the passage quoted from the Sermon on the Mount.--J.A.B.]
 [Chrys. had little notion of scientific precision in the use or interpretation of language. The word en, "in," sometimes introduces the instrument, where we in English say "with"; but it would be hard to find any passage in which it is clearly equivalent to sun, "with," i. e. in company with, in connection with.--J.A.B.]
 [It is evident from the connection that Chrys. connects "the Lord is at hand" with what follows, and not (as Meyer wrongly states) with what precedes. Yet recent commentators generally connect it with what precedes, and are pretty certainly right.--J.A.B.]
 [These are hasty jottings by Chrys. or a reporter, and might easily be altered in copying. He can hardly have meant to define "just" by "of good report," yet so the Greek stands; or else (as in some documents) he defines "of good report" by "if there be any virtue," etc. The abridgment in the Catena may have caught the real meaning. It omits "whatsoever thing are just," and puts together the three remaining clauses as the occasion of the remark which follows. Or perhaps "i. e. saith he" is a corrupt addition, and all four clauses should be simply taken together; for the remark applies to them all.--J.A.B.]
 [All of Field's mss. here insert "For nothing is such an enemy of our nature as vice," which, however, seems here out of place, and fits well below, where it is placed by the altered text.--J.A.B.]
 i. e. St. Paul, Romans 12:20, on which passage see St. Chrys., who there fully states this view, perhaps the only one that fully explains the difficulty.
But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at the last your care of me hath flourished again; wherein ye were also careful, but ye lacked opportunity.
"But I rejoice in the Lord greatly, that now at length ye have revived your thought for me; wherein ye did indeed take thought, but ye lacked opportunity. Not that I speak in respect of want: for I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therein to be content. I know how to be abused, and I know also how to abound: in everything and in all things have I learned the secret both to be filled and to be hungry, both to abound and to be in want. I can do all things in him that strengtheneth me. Howbeit, ye did well, that ye had fellowship with my affliction."
I have ofttimes said, that almsgiving hath been introduced not for the sake of the receivers, but of the givers, for the latter are they which make the greatest gain. And this Paul shows here also. In what way? The Philippians had sent him somewhat, after a long time, and had committed the same to Epaphroditus. See then, how when he is about to send Epaphroditus as the bearer of this Epistle, he praises them, and shows that this action was for the need, not of the receiver, but of the givers. This he doth, both that they who benefited him may not be lifted up with arrogance, and that they may become more zealous in well-doing, since they rather benefit themselves; and that they who receive may not fearlessly rush forward to receive, lest they meet with condemnation. For "it is more blessed," He saith, "to give than to receive." (Acts 20:35.) Why then does he say, "I rejoice in the Lord greatly"? Not with worldly rejoicing, saith he, nor with the joy of this life, but in the Lord. Not because I had refreshment, but because ye advanced; for this is my refreshment. Wherefore he also saith "greatly"; since this joy was not corporeal, nor on account of his own refreshment, but because of their advancement.
And see how, when he had gently rebuked them on account of the times that were passed, he quickly throweth a shadow over this, and teacheth them constantly and always to remain in well doing. "Because at length," saith he. The words, "at length," show long time to have elapsed. "Ye have revived," as fruits which have shot forth, dried up, and afterwards shot forth. Here he showeth, that being at first blooming, then having faded, they again budded forth. So that the word "flourished again," has both rebuke and praise. For it is no small thing, that he who hath withered should flourish again. He showeth also, that it was from indolence all this had happened to them. But here he signifies, that even in former time they were wont to be zealous in these things. Wherefore he addeth, "your thought for me, wherein ye did indeed take thought." And lest you should think, that in other things too they had been more zealous, and had then withered, but in this thing alone, behold how he has added, "your thought for me." I apply the words, "now at length," only to this; for in other things it is not so.
Here some one may enquire, how when he had said, "It is more blessed to give than to receive" (Acts 20:25, 34.); and, "These hands ministered to my necessities, and to them that were with me"; and again when writing to the Corinthians, "For it were good for me rather to die, than that any man should make my glorying void" (1 Corinthians 9:15.); he suffereth his glorying to be made void? And how? By receiving. For if his glorying was, that he received not, how doth he now endure so to do? What is it then? Probably, he then did not receive on account of the false Apostles, "that wherein they glory" (2 Corinthians 11:12.), saith he, "they may be found even as we." And he said not "are," but "glory"; for they received but secretly. Wherefore he said, "wherein they glory." Wherefore he also said, "No man shall stop me of this glorying." (2 Corinthians 11:10.) And he said not simply, shall not stop me, but what? "in the regions of Achaia." And again, "I robbed other Churches, taking wages of them that I might minister unto you." (2 Corinthians 11:8.) Here he showed that he did receive. But Paul indeed received rightly, having so great a work; if in truth he did receive. But they who work not, how can they receive? "Yet I pray," saith one. But there is no work. For this may be done together with work. "But I fast." Neither is this work. For see this blessed one, preaching in many places, and working too. "But ye lacked opportunity." What meaneth lacked opportunity? It came not; saith he, of indolence, but of necessity.  Ye had it not in your hands, nor were in abundance. This is the meaning of, "Ye lacked opportunity." Thus most men speak, when the things of this life do not flow in to them abundantly, and are in short supply.
"Not that I speak in respect of want." I said, saith he, "now at length," and I rebuked you, not seeking mine own, nor censuring you on this account, as if I were in want: for I sought it not on this account. Whence is this, O Paul, that thou makest no vain boasting? To the Corinthians he saith, "For we write none other things unto you, than what ye read or even acknowledge." (2 Corinthians 1:13.) And in this case he would not have spoken to them so as to be convicted, he would not, had he been making boasts, have spoken thus. He was speaking to those who knew the facts, with whom detection would have been a greater disgrace. "For I have learnt," saith he, "in whatsoever state I am, therein to be content." Wherefore, this is an object of discipline, and exercise, and care, for it is not easy of attainment, but very difficult, and a new thing. "In whatsoever state I am," saith he, "therein to be content. I know how to be abased, and I know also how to abound. In everything and in all things have I learned the secret." That is, I know how to use little, to bear hunger and want. "Both to abound, and to suffer need." "But, says one, there is no need of wisdom or of virtue in order to abound." There is great need of virtue, not less than in the other case. For as want inclines us to do many evil things, so too doth plenty. For many ofttimes, coming into plenty, have become indolent, and have not known how to bear their good fortune. Many men have taken it as an occasion of no longer working. But Paul did not so, for what he received he consumed on others, and emptied himself for them. This is to know. He was in nowise relaxed, nor did he exult at his abundance; but was the same in want and in plenty, he was neither oppressed on the one hand, nor rendered a boaster on the other. "Both to be filled," saith he, "and to be hungry, both to abound, and to be in want." Many know not how to be full, as for example, the Israelites, "ate, and kicked" (Deuteronomy 32:15.), but I am equally well ordered in all. He showeth that he neither is now elated, nor was before grieved: or if he grieved, it was on their account, not on his own, for he himself was similarly affected.
"In everything," saith he, "and in all things I have learned the secret," i. e. I have had experience of all things in this long time, and these things have all succeeded with me. But since boasting might seem to have a place here, see how quickly he checks up, and says, "I can do all things in Christ  that strengtheneth me." The success is not mine own, but His who has given me strength. But since they who confer benefits, when they see the receiver not well affected toward them, but despising the gifts, are themselves rendered more remiss, (for they considered themselves as conferring a benefit and refreshment,) if therefore Paul despises the refreshment, they must necessarily become remiss, in order then that this may not happen, see how he healeth it again. By what he hath said above, he hath brought down their proud thoughts, by what followeth he maketh their readiness revive, by saying, "Howbeit ye did well, that ye had fellowship with my affliction." Seest thou, how he removed himself, and again united himself to them. This is the part of true and spiritual friendship. Think not, saith he, because I was not in want, that I had no need of this act of yours. I have need of it for your sake. How then, did they share his afflictions? By this means. As he said when in bonds, "Ye all are partakers with me of grace." (Philip. i. 7.) For it is grace to suffer for Christ, as he himself saith in another place, "For to you it is given from God not only to believe on Him, but also to suffer for Him." (Philip. i. 29.) For since those former words by themselves might have made them regardless, for this cause he consoleth them, and receiveth them, and praiseth them again. And this in measured words. For he said not, "gave," but "had fellowship," to show that they too were profited by becoming partakers of his labors. He said not, ye did lighten, but ye did communicate with my affliction, which was something more elevated. Seest thou the humility of Paul? seest thou his noble nature? When he has shown that he had no need of their gifts on his own account, he afterward uses freely such lowly words as they do who make a request; "since thou art wont to give." For he refuseth neither to do, nor say anything. That is, "Think not that my words show want of shame, wherein I accuse you, and say, Now at length ye have revived,' or are those of one in necessity; I speak not thus because I am in need, but why? From my exceeding confidence in you, and of this also ye yourselves are the authors."
Seest thou how he sootheth them? How are ye the authors? In that ye hasted to the work before all the others; and have given me confidence to remind you of these things. And observe his elevation; he accuseth them not while they did not send, lest he should seem to regard his own benefit, but when they had sent, then he rebuked them for the time past, and they received it, for he could not seem after that to regard his own benefit.
Not that I speak in respect of want: for I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content.
I know both how to be abased, and I know how to abound: every where and in all things I am instructed both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer need.
I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me.
Notwithstanding ye have well done, that ye did communicate with my affliction.
Now ye Philippians know also, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no church communicated with me as concerning giving and receiving, but ye only.
Ver. 15. "Ye yourselves also know, ye Philippians, that in the beginning of the Gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no Church had communicated with me, as concerning giving and receiving, but ye only."
Lo, how great is his commendation! For the Corinthians and Romans are stirred up by hearing these things from him, whilst the Philippians did it without any other Church having made a beginning. For "in the beginning of the Gospel," saith he, they manifested such zeal towards the holy Apostle, as themselves first to begin, without having any example, to bear this fruit. And no one can say that they did these things because he abode with them, or for their own benefit; for he saith, "When I departed from Macedonia, no Church had fellowship with me, in the matter of giving and receiving, but ye only." What meaneth "receiving," and what "had fellowship"? Wherefore said he not, "no Church gave to me," but "had fellowship with me, in the matter of giving and receiving"? Because it is a case of communication. He saith, "If we sowed unto you spiritual things, is it a great matter if we shall reap your carnal things." (1 Corinthians 9:11.) And again, "That your abundance may be a supply to their want." (2 Corinthians 8:14.) How did they communicate? In the matter of giving carnal things, and receiving spiritual. For as they who sell and buy communicate with each other, by mutually giving what they have, (and this is communication,) so too is it here. For there is not anything more profitable than this trade and traffic. It is performed on the earth, but is completed in heaven. They who buy are on the earth, but they buy and agree about heavenly things, whilst they lay down an earthly price.
But despond not; heavenly things are not to be bought with money, riches cannot purchase these things, but the purpose of him who giveth the money, his true wisdom, his superiority to earthly things, his love toward man, his mercifulness. For if money could purchase it, she who threw in the two mites would have gained nothing great. But since it was not the money, but the purpose that availed, she received everything, who exhibited a full purpose of mind. Let us not then say, that the Kingdom can be bought with money; it is not by money, but by purpose of mind which is exhibited by the money. Therefore, will one answer, there is no need of money? There is no need of money, but of the disposition; if thou hast this, thou wilt be able even by two mites to purchase Heaven; where this is not, not even ten thousand talents of gold will be able to do that, which the two mites could. Wherefore? Because if thou who hast much throwest in but a small portion, thou gavest an alms indeed, but not so great as the widow did; for thou didst not throw it in with the same readiness as she. For she deprived herself of all she had, or rather she deprived not, but gave it all as a free gift to herself. Not for a cup of cold water hath God promised the kingdom, but for readiness of heart; not for death, but for purpose of mind. For indeed it is no great thing. For what is it to give one life? that is giving one man; but one man is not of worth enough.
For even in Thessalonica ye sent once and again unto my necessity.
Ver. 16. "For even in Thessalonica, ye sent once and again unto my need."
Here again is great praise, that he, when dwelling in the metropolis,  should be nourished by a little city. And lest, by always withdrawing himself from the supposition of want, he should, as I said at first, render them amiss, having previously shown by so many proofs that he is not in want, he here does it by one word only, by saying "needs." And he said not "my,"  but absolutely,--having a care of dignity. And not this only, but what followeth too, for since he was conscious that it was a very lowly thing, he again secures it, by adding as a correction,
Ver. 17. "Not that I seek for the gift."
As he said above, "Not that I speak in respect of want"; that is stronger than this. For it is one thing, that he who is in want, should not seek, and another that he who is in want should not even consider himself to be in want. "Not that I seek for the gift," he says, "but I seek for the fruit, that increaseth to your account." Not mine own. Seest thou, that the fruit is produced for them? This say I for your sake, says he, not for my own, for your salvation. For I gain nothing when I receive, but the grace belongeth to the givers, for the recompense is yonder in store for givers, but the gifts are here consumed by them who receive. Again even his desire is combined with praise and sympathy.
When he had said, I do not seek, lest he should again render them remiss, he adds,
Ver. 18. "But I have all things and abound," i. e. through this gift ye have filled up what was wanting, which would make them more eager. For benefactors, the wiser they are, the more do they seek gratitude from the benefited. That is, ye have not only filled up what was deficient in former time, but ye have gone beyond. For lest by these words he should seem to accuse them, see how he seals up all. After he had said, "Not that I seek for the gift," and "Now at length"; and had shown that their deed was a debt, for this is meant by, "I have all," then again he showeth, that they had acted above what was due, and saith, "I have all things and abound, I am filled." I say not this at hazard, or only from the feeling of my mind, but why? "Having received of Epaphroditus the things that came from you, an odor of a sweet smell; a sacrifice acceptable, well pleasing to God." Lo, whither he hath raised their gift; not I, he saith, received, but God through me. Wherefore though I be not in need, regard it not, for God had no need, and He received at their hands in such sort, that the Holy Scriptures shrunk not from saying, "God smelled a sweet savor" (Genesis 8:21.), which denotes one who was pleased. For ye know, indeed ye know, how our soul is affected by sweet savors, how it is pleased, how it is delighted. The Scriptures therefore shrunk not from applying to God a word so human, and so lowly, that it might show to men that their gifts are become acceptable. For not the fat, not the smoke, made them acceptable, but the purpose of mind which offered them. Had it been otherwise, Cain's offering too had been received. It saith then, that He is even pleased, and how He is pleased. For men could not without this have learned. He then, who hath no need, saith that He is thus pleased, that they may not become remiss by the absence of need. And afterward, when they had no care for other virtues, and trusted to their offerings alone, behold, how again he setteth them right by saying, "Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?" (Psalm 50.13.) This Paul also saith. "Not that I seek," saith he, "for the gift."
Ver. 19. "And may  my God fulfill every need of yours, according to His riches in glory, in Christ Jesus."
Behold how he invokes blessings upon them, as poor men do. But if even Paul blesseth those who give, much more let us not be ashamed to do this when we receive. Let us not receive as though we ourselves had need, let us not rejoice on our own account, but on that of the givers. Thus we too who receive shall have a reward, if we rejoice for their sake. Thus we shall not take it hardly, when men do not give, but rather shall grieve for their sake. So shall we render them more zealous, if we teach them, that not for our own sake do we so act; "but may my God" fulfill every need of yours, or every grace, or every joy.  If the second be true, "every grace," he meaneth not only the alms, which are of earth, but every excellency. If the first, "your every need," which I think too should rather be read, this is what he means to show. As he had said, "ye lacked opportunity," he here maketh an addition, as he doth in the Epistle to the Corinthians, saying, "And He that supplieth seed to the sower, may He supply bread for food, and multiply your seed for sowing, and increase the fruits of your righteousness." (2 Corinthians 9:10.) He invokes blessings upon them, that they may abound, and have wherewith to sow. He blesseth them too, not simply that they might abound, but "according to His riches," so that this too is done in measured terms. For had they been as he was, so truly wise, so crucified, he would not have done this; but since they were men that were handicraftsmen, poor, having wives, bringing up children, ruling their families, and who had given these very gifts out of small possessions, and had certain desires of the things of this world, he blesseth them appropriately. For it is not unseemly to invoke sufficiency and plenty upon those who thus use them. See too what he said. He said not, May He make you rich, and to abound greatly; but what said he? "May He fulfill every need of yours," so that ye may not be in want, but have things for your necessities. Since Christ too, when He gave us a form of prayer, inserted also this in the prayer, when He taught us to say,
"Give us this day our daily bread." (Matthew 6:11.)
"According to His riches." That is, according to His free gift, i. e. it is easy to Him, and possible, and quickly. And since I have spoken of need, do not think that he will drive you into straits. Wherefore he added, "according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus." So shall all things abound to you, that you may have them to His glory. Or, ye are wanting in nothing; (for it is written, "great grace was upon them all, neither was there any that lacked.") (Acts 4:33.) Or, so as to do all things for His glory, as if he had said, that ye may use your abundance to His glory.
Ver. 20. "Now unto our God and Father be the glory for ever and ever. Amen." For the glory of which he speaks belongs not only to the Son, but to the Father too, for when the Son is glorified, then is the Father also. For when he said, This is done to the glory of Christ, lest any one should suppose that it is to His glory alone, he continued, "Unto our God and Father be the glory," that glory which is paid to the Son.
Ver. 21. "Salute every saint in Christ Jesus." This also is no small thing. For it is a proof of great good will, to salute them through letters. "The brethren which are with me salute you." And yet thou saidst that thou hast "no one like-minded, who will care truly for your state." How then sayest thou now, "The brethren which are with me"? He either saith, "The brethren which are with me," because he hath no one like-minded of those who are with him, (where he doth not speak of those in the city, for how were they constrained to undertake the affairs of the Apostles?) or that he did not refuse to call even those brethren.
Ver. 22, 23. "All the saints salute you, especially they that are of C?sar's household. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit."
He elevated them and strengthened them, by showing that his preaching had reached even to the king's  household. For if those who were in the king's palace despised all things for the sake of the King of Heaven, far more ought they to do this. And this too was a proof of the love of Paul, and that he had told many things of them, and said great things of them, whence he had even led those who were in the palace to a longing for them, so that those who had never seen them saluted them. Especially because the faithful were then in affliction, his love was great. And those who were absent from each other were closely conjoined together as if real limbs. And the poor man was similarly disposed toward the rich, and the rich toward the poor, and there was no pre?minence, in that they were all equally hated and cast out, and that for the same cause. For as, if captives taken from divers cities should arise and come to the same towns, they eagerly embrace each other, their common calamity binding them together; thus too at that time they had great love one toward another, the communion of their afflictions and persecutions uniting them.
Moral. For affliction is an unbroken bond, the increase of love, the occasion of compunction and piety. Hear the words of David, "It is good for me that I have been afflicted, that I might learn Thy statutes." (Psalm 119:71.) And again another prophet, who saith, "It is good for a man that he bear the yoke in his youth." (Lamentations 3:27.) And again, "Blessed is the man whom Thou chastenest, O Lord." (Psalm 94:12.) And another who saith, "Despise not the chastening of the Lord." (Proverbs 3:11.) And "if thou come near to serve the Lord, prepare thy soul for temptation." (Ecclus. xi. 1.) And Christ also said to His disciples, "In the world ye shall have tribulation, but be of good cheer." (John 16:33.) And again, "Ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice." (John 16:20.) And again, "Narrow and straitened is the way." (Matthew 7:14.) Dost thou see how tribulation is everywhere lauded, everywhere assumed as needful for us? For if in the contests of the world, no one without this receiveth the crown, unless he fortify himself by toil, by abstinence from delicacies, by living according to rule, by watchings, and innumerable other things, much more so here. For whom wilt thou name as an instance? The king? Not even he liveth a life free from care, but one burdened with much tribulation and anxiety. For look not to his diadem, but to his sea of cares, by which the crown is produced for him. Nor look to his purple robe, but to his soul, which is darker than that purple. His crown doth not so closely bind his brow, as care doth his soul. Nor look to the multitude of his spearmen, but to the multitude of his disquietudes. For it is not possible to find a private house laden with so many cares as a king's palace. Violent deaths are each day expected, and a vision of blood is seen as they sit down to eat and drink. Nor can we say how oft he is disturbed in the night season, and leaps up, haunted with visions. And all this in peace; but if war should overtake him, what could be more piteous than such a life as this! What evils has he from those that are his own, I mean, those who are under his dominion. Nay, and of a truth the pavement of a king's house is always full of blood, the blood of his own relations. And if ye will, I will also relate some instances, and ye will presently know; chiefly old occurrences--but also some things that have happened in our own times--yet still preserved in memory. One,  it is said, having suspected his wife of adultery, bound her naked upon mules, and exposed her to wild beasts, though she had already been the mother to him of many princes. What sort of life, think ye, could that man have lived? For he would not have broken out into such vengeance, had he not been deeply affected with that distress. Moreover, this same man slew his own son,  or rather his brother did so. Of his sons, the one indeed slew himself when seized by a tyrant,  and another put to death his cousin, his colleague in the kingdom, to which he had appointed him; and  saw his wife destroyed by pessaries, for when she bore not, a certain wretched and miserable woman (for such indeed she was who thought to supply the gift of God by her own wisdom) gave her pessaries, and destroyed the queen, and herself perished with her. And this man is said to have also killed his own brother.  Another again, his successor, was destroyed by noxious drugs, and his cup was to him no longer drink, but death. And his son had an eye put out, from fear of what was to follow, though he had done no wrong. It is not befitting to mention how another ended his life miserably. And after them, one was burnt, like some miserable wretch, amongst horses, and beams, and all sorts of things, and left his wife in widowhood. For it is not possible to relate the woes which he was compelled to undergo in his lifetime, when he rose up in revolt. And hath not he who now rules, from the time he received the crown, been in toil, in danger, in grief, in dejection, in misfortune, exposed to conspiracies? Such is not the kingdom of heaven, but after it is received, there is peace, life, joy, delight. But as I said, life cannot be without pain. For if in the affairs of this world even he who is accounted most happy, if the king is burdened with so many misfortunes, what thinkest thou must be true of private life? I cannot say how many other evils there are! How many stories have ofttimes been woven on these subjects! For nearly all the tragedies of the stage, as well as the mythical stories, have kings for their subjects. For most of these stories are formed from true incidents, for it is thus they please. As for example, Thyestes' banquet, and the destruction to all that family by their misfortunes.
These things we know from the writers  that are without: but if ye will, I will adduce instances from the Scripture too. Saul was the first king, and ye knew how he perished, after experiencing numberless ills. After him, David, Solomon, Abia, Hezekiah, Josiah, in like sort. For it is not possible, without affliction and toil, and without dejection of mind, to pass through the present life. But let us be cast down in mind, not for such things as these, for which kings grieve, but for those things, whence we (thus) have great gain. "For godly sorrow worketh repentance unto salvation, a repentance which bringeth no regret." (2 Corinthians 7:10.) On account of these things we should be grieved, for these things we should be pained, for these things we should be pricked at heart; thus was Paul grieved for sinners, thus did he weep. "For out of much affliction and anguish of heart I wrote unto you in many tears." (2 Corinthians 2:4.) For when he had no cause of grief on his own account, he did so on account of others, or rather he accounted those things too to be his own, at least as far as grief went. Others were offended, and he burned; others were weak, and he was weak: such grief as this is good, is superior to all worldly joy. Him who so grieves I prefer to all men, or rather the Lord Himself pronounces them blessed, who so grieve, who are sympathizing. I do not so much admire him in dangers, or rather I do not admire him less for the dangers by which he died daily, yet this still more captivates me. For it came of a soul devoted to God, and full of affection: from the love which Christ Himself seeketh: from a brotherly and a fatherly sympathy, or rather, of one greater than both these. Thus we should be affected, thus weep; such tears as these are full of great delight; such grief as this is the ground of joy.
And say not to me: What do they for whom I grieve gain by my so doing? Though we no way profit them for whom we grieve, at all events we shall profit ourselves. For he who grieveth thus on account of others, much more will so do for himself; he who thus weepeth for the sins of others will not pass by his own transgressions unwept, or rather, he will not quickly sin. But this is dreadful, that when we are ordered so to grieve for them that sin, we do not even exhibit any repentance for our own sins, but when sinning remain without feeling, and have care for and take account of anything, rather than our own sins. For this cause we rejoice with a worthless joy, which is the joy of the world, and straightway quenched, and which brings forth griefs innumerable. Let us then grieve with grief which is the mother of joy, and let us not rejoice with joy which brings forth grief. Let us shed tears which are the seeds of great joy, and not laugh with that laughter, which brings forth the gnashing of teeth for us. Let us be afflicted with affliction, from which springs up ease, and let us not seek luxury, whence great affliction and pain is born. Let us labor a little time upon the earth, that we may have continual enjoyment in heaven. Let us afflict ourselves in this transitory life, that we may attain rest in that which is endless. Let us not be remiss in this short life, lest we groan in that which is endless.
See ye not how many are here in affliction for the sake of worldly things? Consider that thou also art one of them, and bear thy affliction and thy pain, feeding on the hope of things to come. Thou art not better than Paul or Peter, who never obtained rest, who passed all their life in hunger and thirst and nakedness. If thou wouldest attain the same things with them, why journeyest thou along a contrary road? If thou wouldest arrive at that City, of which they have been deemed worthy, walk along the path which leadeth thither. The way of ease leadeth not thither, but that of affliction. The former is broad, the latter is narrow; along this let us walk, that we may attain eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom, to the Father, together with the Holy Ghost, be honor, might, power, now and ever, and world without end. Amen.
 St. Chrys. understands him to be "partially" excusing them.
 [Chrys. here reads "Christ," the "Syrian" text; but the true text is simply "in him that," as in Rev. Ver.--J.A.B.]
 The difference was probably less marked in St. Paul's time than in St. Chrysostom's.
 The Greek is, "Ye sent to me unto the needs."
 [This is the reading for the N.T. text of a good many documents, but both the best and the majority there read, "And my God shall fulfill," as do also several documents for Chrys. here.--J.A.B.]
 [The words chreian, "need," charin, "grace," and charan, "joy," are similar, and Chrys. indulges in some conjectures. Tisch. gives no evidence of any question as to the reading.--J.A.B.]
 [It must be remembered that "king" was the regular Greek term for the Roman imperator (emperor).--J.A.B.]
 After these words the Greek text is disarranged, and irreconcilable with itself and with the real history. Chrysostom seems, however, to intend to say what follows; that the brother of Crispus, i. e. Constantius Augustus, caused his father's brother, Julius Constantius, and his sons, Dalmatius and Annibalianus, to be put to death. They were in fact slain by the soldiery, and as some thought, at the instigation of Constantius Augustus, son of Constantine. He adds afterwards, that his brother was taken by an usurper, and killed himself. Now Constans Augustus, the brother of Constantius, was taken by the usurper Magnentius, or rather by his generals, and slain, but no writer except Chrysostom says that he killed himself. He adds that Constantius slew his cousin. This was Gallus, who was made his colleague in the Empire by Constantius, and put to death by his order, A.D. 345.--Montf. (Tillemont understands this otherwise, and more according to the Greek which is not difficult to construe as it stands; viz. that Constans killed himself and his children [if he had any, which does not otherwise appear] when taken by Magnentius, and that he [Constans] caused the death of his brother Constantine the younger.)
 Here Chrysostom relates the violent deaths that had occurred within memory in the imperial palace; he goes, however, by common report, which usually varies from the real fact. He mentions the events without the names. There is no doubt, however, that the first example brought forward is Constantine the Great, who caused his son Crispus to be put to death, and afterwards his wife Fausta. Chrysostom says he exposed her to wild beasts; others, however, relate that she was suffocated by his order in a hot bath. Tillemont gives the most accurate of all the accounts of this affair.--Montf.
 [There is no known warrant for translating turannos by "rebel," as the Oxford tr. does. It probably means some local usurping despot. In the Hom. on the return of Bishop Flavian, Chrysostom makes the emperor speak of the Antiochene mob who insulted his statues as "tyrants," just as we say, "the tyranny of a mob."--J.A.B.]
 As for what Chrysostom adds (as usual, without names) of the wife of one of the Augusti who used drugs to cure barrenness, and perished together with the woman who supplied the drugs, also of another Augustus who was poisoned, and whose son had an eye put out, and another who perished in some horrible manner, I have not yet been able to find out to whom it applies. But what follows, of one burnt among beams and horses and all sorts of things, relates to Valens, who after his defeat at Hadrianople retired to a house, and was burnt to ashes with it. The reigning emperor was Arcadius, with respect to whom the history of that age attests the truth of his words.--Montf. Tillemont understands the one poisoned to be Jovian, and says that his son Varronianus was treated as here mentioned, and afterwards put to death; and so Montf., in his Introduction to St. Chrys., "ad Viduam Juniorem," t.i. p. 337.
 [The older text, as here given after Field, may afford some help in these inquiries. The altered text, to which the notes refer, makes the brother of the first-mentioned king slay himself and his children. He whose wife was destroyed is there different from the one just preceding; and he who killed his brother is there the suicide. These differences are stated for the sake of those who are curious about such matters.--J.A.B.]
 The civil historians.
Not because I desire a gift: but I desire fruit that may abound to your account.
But I have all, and abound: I am full, having received of Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you, an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, wellpleasing to God.
But my God shall supply all your need according to his riches in glory by Christ Jesus.
Now unto God and our Father be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
Salute every saint in Christ Jesus. The brethren which are with me greet you.
All the saints salute you, chiefly they that are of Caesar's household.
The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.