1 Samuel 19:13
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New International Version
Then Michal took an idol and laid it on the bed, covering it with a garment and putting some goats' hair at the head.

New Living Translation
Then she took an idol and put it in his bed, covered it with blankets, and put a cushion of goat's hair at its head.

English Standard Version
Michal took an image and laid it on the bed and put a pillow of goats’ hair at its head and covered it with the clothes.

New American Standard Bible
Michal took the household idol and laid it on the bed, and put a quilt of goats' hair at its head, and covered it with clothes.

King James Bible
And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Then Michal took the household idol and put it on the bed, placed some goat hair on its head, and covered it with a garment.

International Standard Version
Then Michal took the household idol and laid it on the bed with a cover of goat hair placed at its head. Then she covered it with clothes.

NET Bible
Then Michal took a household idol and put it on the bed. She put a quilt made of goat's hair over its head and then covered the idol with a garment.

New Heart English Bible
Michal took the teraphim, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair at its head, and covered it with the clothes.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Then Michal took some idols, laid them in the bed, put a goat-hair blanket at its head, and covered the idols with a garment.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And Michal took the teraphim, and laid it in the bed, and put a quilt of goats' hair at the head thereof, and covered it with a cloth.

New American Standard 1977
And Michal took the household idol and laid it on the bed, and put a quilt of goats’ hair at its head, and covered it with clothes.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Then Michal took an image and laid it in the bed and put a pillow of goats' hair at his head and covered it with a cloth.

King James 2000 Bible
And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair for his head, and covered it with a cloth.

American King James Version
And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.

American Standard Version
And Michal took the teraphim, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats hair at the head thereof, and covered it with the clothes.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And Michol took an image and laid it on the bed, and put a goat's skin with the hair at the head of it, and covered it with clothes.

Darby Bible Translation
And Michal took the image, and laid it in the bed, and put the net of goats' [hair] at its head, and covered it with the coverlet.

English Revised Version
And Michal took the teraphim, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair at the head thereof, and covered it with the clothes.

Webster's Bible Translation
And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goat's hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.

World English Bible
Michal took the teraphim, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' [hair] at its head, and covered it with the clothes.

Young's Literal Translation
and Michal taketh the teraphim, and layeth on the bed, and the mattress of goats' hair she hath put for his pillows, and covereth with a garment.
Study Bible
Michal Saves David
12So Michal let David down through a window, and he went out and fled and escaped. 13Michal took the household idol and laid it on the bed, and put a quilt of goats' hair at its head, and covered it with clothes. 14When Saul sent messengers to take David, she said, "He is sick."…
Cross References
Genesis 31:19
When Laban had gone to shear his flock, then Rachel stole the household idols that were her father's.

Judges 18:14
Then the five men who went to spy out the country of Laish said to their kinsmen, "Do you know that there are in these houses an ephod and household idols and a graven image and a molten image? Now therefore, consider what you should do."

Judges 18:17
Now the five men who went to spy out the land went up and entered there, and took the graven image and the ephod and household idols and the molten image, while the priest stood by the entrance of the gate with the six hundred men armed with weapons of war.

1 Samuel 19:16
When the messengers entered, behold, the household idol was on the bed with the quilt of goats' hair at its head.
Treasury of Scripture

And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.

an image [heb] teraphim

Genesis 31:19 And Laban went to shear his sheep: and Rachel had stolen the images …

Judges 17:5 And the man Micah had an house of gods, and made an ephod, and teraphim, …

Judges 18:14,17 Then answered the five men that went to spy out the country of Laish, …

Hosea 3:4 For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, …

a pillow. Rather, `the net-work of goat's hair at its (the Teraphim's) pillow;' for the kevir, (whence the Chaldee and Syriac kavreetho, a honey-comb, form its net-like form), seems to have been a kind of mosquito-net, which, says Dr. Shaw, is `a close curtain of gauze, used all over the East, by people of fashion, to keep out the flies.' That they had such anciently cannot be doubted. Thus when Judith had beheaded Holofernes in his bed, (ch

1 Samuel 13:9,15 And Saul said, Bring here a burnt offering to me, and peace offerings. …

(13) An image.--An image in the Hebrew is teraphim--a plural form, but used as a singular. We have no instance of the singular. The Latin equivalent, "penates," singularly enough, is also only found in the plural form. In this case, probably, it was a life-size figure or bust. The word has been discussed above (1Samuel 15:23). It is singular how, in spite of the stern command to avoid idolatry, the children of Israel seemed to love to possess these lifeless images. The teraphim were probably a remnant of the idolatry originally brought by some of Abraham's family from their Chaldaean home. These idols, we know, varied in size, from the diminutive image which Rachel (Genesis 31:34) was able to conceal under the camel saddle to the life-size figure which the Princess Michal here used to make her father's guards believe that her sick husband, David, was in bed. They appear to have been looked on as tutelary deities, the dispensers of domestic and family good fortune. It has been suggested, with some probability, that Michal, like Rachel, kept this teraphim in secret, because of her barrenness.

A pillow of goats' hair.--More accurately, a goat's skin about its head. So render the Syriac and Vulgate Versions. The reason of this act apparently was to imitate the effect of a man's hair round the teraphim's head. Its body, we read in the next clause, was covered "with a cloth." Some scholars have suggested that this goat's skin was a net-work of goat's hair to keep off the flies from the supposed sleeper. The LXX., instead of k'vir (skin), read in their Hebrew copies keaved (liver). As the vowel points were introduced much later, such a confusion (especially as the difference between d and r in Hebrew is very slight) would be likely enough to occur in the MSS.

Josephus, adopting the LXX. reading, explains Michal's conduct thus--"Michal put a palpitating goat's liver into the bed, to represent a breathing sick man."

With a cloth.--Heb., beged. This was David's every-day garment, which he was in the habit of wearing. This, loosely thrown over the image, would materially assist the deception. The fifty-ninth Psalm bears the following title--"A michtam(or song of deep import) of David, when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him." The internal evidence, however, is scarcely confirmatory of the accuracy of the title. The sacred song in question is very probably one of David's own composition, and it is likely enough that the danger he incurred on this occasion was in his mind when he wrote the solemn words; but there are references in this psalm which must apply to other events in his troubled, anxious life.

Verse 13. - Michal took an image. Literally, "the teraphim," a plural word, but used here as a singular. Probably, like the corresponding Latin word penates, it had no singular in common use. It was a wooden block with head and shoulders roughly shaped to represent a human figure. Laban's tera-phim were so small that Rachel could hide them under the camel's furniture (Genesis 31:34), but Michal's seems to have been large enough to pass in the bed for a man. Though the worship of them is described as iniquity (1 Samuel 15:23), yet the superstitious belief that they brought good luck to the house over which they presided, in return for kind treatment, seems to have been proof against the teaching of the prophets; and Hosea describes the absence of them as on the same level as the absence of the ephod (Hosea 3:4). A pillow of goats' hair for his bolster. More correctly, "a goat's skin about its head." So the Syriac and Vulgate. The object of it, would be to look at a distance like a man s hair. The Septuagint has a goat's liver, because this was supposed to palpitate long after the animal's death, and so would produce the appearance of a person's breathing. But this involves a different reading, for which there is no authority; nor was Michal's deception intended for close observation. She would of course not let any one disturb David, and all she wanted was just enough likeness to a man to make a person at a distance suppose that David was there. Soon or later her artifice would be found out, but her husband would have had the intervening time for effecting his escape. As the word rendered pillow, and which is found only here, comes from a root signifying "to knot together," "to intertwine," some commentators think that it means a network of goats' hair, perhaps to keep off flies. But this is a mere guess, and not to be set against the combined authority of the two versions. With a cloth. Hebrew, beged. This beged was David's every day dress, and would greatly aid Michal in her pious artifice. It was a loose mantle, worn over the close-fitting meil (see 1 Samuel 2:19). Thus Ezra (Ezra 9:3, 5) says, "I rent my beged and my meil," which the A.V. with characteristic inexactness translates "my garment and my mantle." In Genesis 28:20, where it is rendered raiment, Jacob speaks of it as the most indispensable article of dress; and in Genesis 39:12, where it is rendered garment, we find that it was a loose plaid or wrapper. In those simple days it was used for warmth by night as well as for protection by day, and it is interesting to find David in his old age still covered up for warmth in bed by his beged (1 Kings 1:1), where it is translated clothes. And Michal took an image,.... Or "teraphim", as the word is; which, if the same with those that Rachel stole from her father, they seem to be of the same sort with the penates or household gods of the Heathens, which were privately kept by Michal; for, had David known of them, he would not have suffered them to have been in his house. Aben Ezra supposes they were images made in the form of men under such a constellation, a sort of talismans, to receive the heavenly influences, and which being consulted, foretold things to come; and R. Isaiah is of opinion, that Michal chose and placed these in the bed, that her father might conclude, when he should hear of them, that David had found them; and by thus means know that his intention was to kill him, and therefore fled; but to consult such images was very far from David, and without it he knew Saul's intention. Abarbinel makes mention of several sorts of teraphim, some for idolatry, some to draw down the heavenly influences, some to know the time of the day, a sort of dials; some were made after the form of a man known, and like him in his form and features; and women, he says, used to have the forms or statues of their husbands, that they might have them continually before them, because of the great love they had to them; and of this sort he supposes were the teraphim of Michal, and which is approved of by Abendana; and that this image had the likeness of an human face is very probable, or it could not have so well answered her purpose:

and laid it in the bed; where David used to lie, that it might seem to be he himself:

and put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster; she took the finest of the goats' hair, which she had in the house, women being used to spin in those days, even great personages, and put it into a pillow, and made a bolster of it, and put it under the head or block of the image, which would sink it, being soft, and so look like a sick man, whose face could not easily be discerned; though some think this goats' hair was put about the head of the image, to make it look the more like an human head; goats' hair being very much like human hair (e), and of different colours, and such a colour might be chosen as was most like David's, see Sol 4:1; the Targum interprets it, a bottle of goats skins, that is, a leathern bottle or bag made of goats skins, such as they used to put wine into; hence the conceit in the Midrash (f), that a bottle of wine was put instead of David: but the pillow or bolster had the form of a leathern bag or bottle; the Septuagint version is very odd,"and put the liver of goats at his head;''and so Josephus says (g); and it is observed (h), that the liver of a goat will move a long time after it is taken out, and so make a show of the palpitation of the heart: but then this was put, not within the bed, but at the head of the image:

and covered it with a cloth; to keep her sick husband warm, as she would have it understood.

(e) Vid. Stockium, p. 509. (f) Apud Kimchium & Abarbinel. in loc. (g) Ut supra. (Antiqu. l. 6. c. 11. sect. 4.) (h) Vid. Hudson. not. in ib. 13, 14. And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed—"an image," literally, "the teraphim," and laid, not in the bed, but literally on the "divan"; and "the pillows," that is, the cushion, which usually lay at the back of the divan and was stuffed with "goat's hair," she took from its bolster or heading at the upper part of the divan. This she placed lower down, and covered with a mantle, as if to foster a proper warmth in a patient; at the same time spreading the goat's hair skin, so as to resemble human hair in a dishevelled state. The pretext was that David lay there sick. The first messengers of Saul, keeping at a respectable distance, were deceived; but the imposition was detected on a closer inspection.19:11-24 Michal's stratagem to gain time till David got to a distance was allowable, but her falsehood had not even the plea of necessity to excuse it, and manifests that she was not influenced by the same spirit of piety which had dictated Jonathan's language to Saul. In flying to Samuel, David made God his refuge. Samuel, as a prophet, was best able to advise him what to do in this day of distress. He met with little rest or satisfaction in Saul's court, therefore went to seek it in Samuel's church. What little pleasure is to be had in this world, those have who live a life of communion with God; to that David returned in the time of trouble. So impatient was Saul after David's blood, so restless against him, that although baffled by one providence after another, he could not see that David was under the special protection of God. And when God will take this way to protect David, even Saul prophesies. Many have great gifts, yet no grace; they may prophesy in Christ's name, yet are disowned by him. Let us daily seek for renewing grace, which shall be in us as a well of water springing up into everlasting life. Let us cleave to truth and holiness with full purpose of heart. In every danger and trouble, let us seek protection, comfort, and direction in God's ordinances.
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OT History: 1 Samuel 19:13 Michal took the teraphim and laid it (1Sa iSam 1 Sam i sa) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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