Greeks
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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
GRECIANS; GREEKS

gre'-shanz, greks: In the Old Testament the word "Grecians" occurs but once (Joel 3 (4):6). For references to Greece in the Old Testament see JAVAN. In the King James Version of the Old Testament Apocrypha "Grecians" and "Greeks" are used without distinction, e.g. 1 Maccabees 1:10; 6:02; 8:09; 2 Maccabees 4:15, 36. Thus, in 1 Maccabees 1:1, Alexander the Great is spoken of as king of Greece, and in 1 Maccabees 1:10 the Macedonian empire is called "the kingdom of the Greeks" (basileia Hellenon). In 2 Maccabees 13:2 the army of Antiochus, king of Syria, is called "Grecian" (dunamis Hellenike), and in 2 Maccabees 6:8 the "Greek cities" (poleis Hellenides) are Macedonian colonies. Reference is made in 2 Maccabees 6:1 to an aged Athenian who was sent by Antiochus the king charged with the duty of Hellenizing the Jews; in 2 Maccabees 9:15 Antiochus vows that he will make the Jews equal to the Athenians; in 1 Maccabees 12-14, reference is made to negotiations of Jonathan, the high priest, with the Spartans, whom he calls brethren, seeking the renewal of a treaty of alliance and amity against the Syrians. With the spread of Greek power and influence, everything not specifically Jewish was called Greek; thus in 2 Maccabees 4:36; 11:02; 3 Maccabees 3:3, 1 the "Greeks" contrasted with the Jews are simply non-Jews, so called because of the prevalence of Greek institutions and culture, and "Greek" even came to be used in the sense of "anti-Jewish" (2 Maccabees 4:10, 15; 6:09; 11:24).

In Isaiah 9:12 the Septuagint reads tous Hellenas, for Pelishtim, "Philistines"; but we are not therefore justified in assuming a racial connection between the Philistines and the Greeks. Further light on the ethnography of the Mediterranean

basin may in time show that there was actually such a connection; but the rendering in question proves nothing, since "the oppressing sword" of Jeremiah 46:16 and 50:16 is likewise rendered in the Septuagint with "the sword of the Greeks" (machaira Hellenike). In all these cases the translators were influenced by the conditions existing in their own day, and were certainly not disclosing obscure relations long forgotten and newly discovered.

In the New Testament, English Versions of the Bible attempts to distinguish between (Hellenes), which is rendered "Greeks," and (Hellenistai), which is rendered "Grecians" or "Grecian Jews," or in the Revised Version, margin "Hellenists," e.g. Acts 6:1; Acts 9:29. These latter were Jews of the Dispersion, who spoke Greek (see HELLENISM; HELLENIST), as distinguished from Palestinian Jews; but since many of the latter also spoke Greek by preference, the distinction could in no sense be absolute. Indeed in John 7:35, "the Dispersion among (the Revised Version, margin, Greek "of") the Greeks," can hardly refer to any but "Grecian Jews" (Hellenistai), although Hellenes is used, and in John 12:20 the "Greeks" (Hellenes) who went up to worship at the feast of the Passover were almost certainly "Grecian Jews" (Hellenistai). Thus, while English Versions of the Bible consistently renders Hellenes with "Greeks," we are not by that rendering apprised of the real character of the people so designated. This difficulty is aggravated by the fact, already noted in connection with the Old Testament Apocrypha, that, in consequence of the spread of Hellenism, the term Hellenes was applied not only to such as were of Hellenic descent, but also to all those who had appropriated the language of Greece, as the universal means of communication, and the ideals and customs collectively known as Hellenism. The latter were thus in the strict sense Hellenists, differing from the "Grecians" of English Versions of the Bible only in that they were not of Jewish descent. In other words, Hellenes (except perhaps in John 7:35 and 12:20, as noted above) is, in general, equivalent to ta ethne, "Gentiles" (see GENTILES). The various readings of the manuscripts (and hence the difference between the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American)) in 1 Corinthians 1:23 well illustrate this. There is consequently much confusion, which it is quite impossible, with our limited knowledge of the facts in particular cases, to clear up. In general, it would seem probable that where "Greeks" are comprehensively contrasted with "Jews," the reference is to "Gentiles," as in Acts 14:1; Acts 17:4; Acts 18:4; 19:10, 17; 20:21 Romans 1:16; Romans 10:12 1 Corinthians 1:22-24 (the Revised Version (British and American) "Gentiles," representing ethnesin; Galatians 3:28 Colossians 3:11. In Mark 7:26 the woman of Tyre, called "a Greek (the Revised Version, margin "Gentile") a Syrophoenician," was clearly not of Hellenic descent. Whether Titus (Galatians 2:3) and the father of Timothy; (Acts 16:1, 3) were in the strict sense "Greeks," we have no means of knowing. In Romans 1:14, "I am debtor both to Greeks and to Barbarians," there is an undoubted reference to Greeks strictly so called; possibly, though by no means certainly, the "Greeks" of Acts 21:28, alluding to Trophimus the Ephesian (Acts 21:29), are to be taken in the same sense. References to the Greek language occur in John 19:20 (Luke 23:38 is properly omitted in the Revised Version (British and American)); Acts 21:37 Revelation 9:11.

In Acts 11:20 the manuscripts vary between Hellenistas, and Hellenas (the King James Version "Grecians," the Revised Version (British and American) "Greeks"), with the preponderance of authority in favor of the former; but even if one adopts the latter, it is not clear whether true Greeks or Gentiles are intended.

William Arthur Heidel

GREEKS

See GRECIANS.

Greek
3625. oikoumene -- the inhabited earth
... 3625 () literally means " ()." It was "originally used by the Greeks to denote the
land inhabited by , in contrast with countries; afterward, when the Greeks ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3625.htm - 7k

2203. Zeus -- Zeus, the greatest of the pagan Gk. gods
... a (probably cognate) name; Dis (deece), which is otherwise obsolete; Zeus or Dis
(among the Latins, Jupiter or Jove), the supreme deity of the Greeks -- Jupiter ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2203.htm - 6k

1404. drakon -- a dragon (a mythical monster)
... accomplishing his hellish agenda from ".". [The ancient Greeks classified
a "dragon" (1404 ) as a type of . 1404 ("a dragon") was ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1404.htm - 7k

2176. euonumos -- of good name, euph. for left
... From eu and onoma; properly, well-named (good-omened), ie The left (which was the
lucky side among the pagan Greeks); neuter as adverbial, at the left hand ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2176.htm - 6k

4027. perikatharma -- that which is cleaned off, refuse
... [4027 () literally refers to the rubbish left-over after "cleansing all ." The Greeks
used 4027 () "of criminals kept at the public expense, to be thrown into ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4027.htm - 7k

1672. Hellen -- a Greek, usually a name for a Gentile
... Word Origin from Hellas Definition a Greek, usually a name for a Gentile
NASB Word Usage Greek (9), Greeks (17). Gentile, Greek. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1672.htm - 7k

Strong's Hebrew
3125. Yevani -- descendant of Javan
... Yevani. 3126 . descendant of Javan. Transliteration: Yevani Phonetic Spelling:
(yev-aw-nee') Short Definition: Greeks. ... of Javan NASB Word Usage Greeks (1). ...
/hebrew/3125.htm - 6k

3120. Yavan -- a son of Japheth, also his desc. and their land
... Probably from the same as yayin; effervescing (ie Hot and active); Javan, the name
of a son of Joktan, and of the race (Ionians, ie Greeks) descended from him ...
/hebrew/3120.htm - 6k

3794. Kitti -- a son of Javan, also his desc. and their land
... kit-tee-ee'}; patrial from an unused name denoting Cyprus (only in the plural);
a Kittite or Cypriote; hence, an islander in general, ie The Greeks or Romans ...
/hebrew/3794.htm - 6k

Library

Tatian's Address to the Greeks
Tatian's Address to the Greeks. <. Tatian's Address to the Greeks Tatian.
Translated by JE Ryland Table of Contents. Title Page. Introductory Note. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/tatian/tatians address to the greeks/

Justin's Hortatory Address to the Greeks
Justin's Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <. Justin's Hortatory Address
to the Greeks Justin Martyr. Translated by the Rev. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/justin/justins hortatory address to the greeks/

Discourse to The Greeks Concerning Hades
Discourse to The Greeks Concerning Hades. <. Discourse to The Greeks Concerning
Hades Flavius Josephus. Produced by David Reed Table of Contents. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/josephus/discourse to the greeks concerning hades/

Reasons for Addressing the Greeks.
Justin's Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <. ... Chapter I."Reasons
for addressing the Greeks. As I begin this hortatory ...
/.../chapter i reasons for addressing the.htm

Appeal to the Greeks.
Justin's Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <. ... Chapter XXXV."Appeal
to the Greeks. The time, then, ye men of Greece, is ...
/.../justins hortatory address to the greeks/chapter xxxv appeal to the greeks.htm

Doctrines of the Christians and Greeks Respecting God Compared.
Tatian's Address to the Greeks. <. ... Chapter XXI."Doctrines of
the Christians and Greeks Respecting God Compared. We ...
/.../tatians address to the greeks/chapter xxi doctrines of the christians.htm

The Greeks Claim, Without Reason, the Invention of the Arts.
Tatian's Address to the Greeks. <. ... Chapter I."The Greeks Claim,
Without Reason, the Invention of the Arts. Be not, O ...
/.../tatian/tatians address to the greeks/chapter i the greeks claim without.htm

A Warning Appeal to the Greeks.
Justin's Hortatory Address to the Greeks. <. ... Chapter XIV."A warning
appeal to the Greeks. It is therefore necessary ...
/.../justins hortatory address to the greeks/chapter xiv a warning appeal to.htm

Errors of the Greeks About the Deluge.
... Theophilus to Autolycus: Book III. Chapter XVIII."Errors of the Greeks
About the Deluge. For Plato, as we said above, when he ...
/.../theophilus/theophilus to autolycus/chapter xviii errors of the greeks.htm

Justin's Discourse to the Greeks
Justin's Discourse to the Greeks. <. Justin's Discourse to the Greeks Justin
Martyr. Translated by the Rev. M. Dods, MA Table of Contents. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/justin/justins discourse to the greeks/

Thesaurus
Greeks (22 Occurrences)
... Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia GRECIANS; GREEKS. gre'-shanz, greks: In
the Old Testament the word "Grecians" occurs but once (Joel ...
/g/greeks.htm - 19k

Non-greeks (1 Occurrence)
Non-greeks. Non-existent, Non-greeks. Nonimmersionist .
Multi-Version Concordance Non-greeks (1 Occurrence). Romans ...
/n/non-greeks.htm - 6k

Grecians (4 Occurrences)
... of their own in Jerusalem. Joel 3:6 =Greeks. Int. Standard Bible
Encyclopedia. GRECIANS; GREEKS. gre'-shanz, greks: In the ...
/g/grecians.htm - 14k

Tammuz (1 Occurrence)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary A corruption of Dumuzi, the Accadian sun-god (the
Adonis of the Greeks), the husband of the goddess Ishtar. ...
/t/tammuz.htm - 10k

Greek (19 Occurrences)
... The word "Grecians" in Acts 11:20 should be "Greeks," denoting the heathen Greeks
of that city, as rendered in the Revised Version according to the reading of ...
/g/greek.htm - 13k

Japheth (12 Occurrences)
... 10] has in his account of the sons of Japheth classed together the Cymry or Celts
(Gomer), the Medes (Madai), and the Ionians or Greeks (Javan), thereby ...
/j/japheth.htm - 15k

Antioch (21 Occurrences)
... Seleucus Nicator had settled numbers of Jews in it, granting them equal rights with
the Greeks (Ant., XII, iii, 1). Syrians, Greeks, Jews, and in later days ...
/a/antioch.htm - 27k

Hellenism
... 2. (n.) The type of character of the ancient Greeks, who aimed at culture, grace,
and amenity, as the chief elements in human well-being and perfection. Int. ...
/h/hellenism.htm - 26k

Hellenist
... 1. (n.) One who affiliates with Greeks, or imitates Greek manners; esp., a person
of Jewish extraction who used the Greek language as his mother tongue, as did ...
/h/hellenist.htm - 26k

Javan (12 Occurrences)
... 19 Ezekiel 27:13 Septuagint Hellas, Greece); Daniel 8:21 m; 10:20; 11:02; Zechariah
9:13 Joel 3:6 (Hebrew 4:6) Septuagint hoi Hellenes, ie "Greeks"), "son" of ...
/j/javan.htm - 12k

Concordance
Greeks (22 Occurrences)

John 7:35
The Jews therefore said among themselves, "Where will this man go that we won't find him? Will he go to the Dispersion among the Greeks, and teach the Greeks?
(WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 12:20
Now there were certain Greeks among those that went up to worship at the feast.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 11:20
But some of them were Cyprians and Cyrenaeans, who, on coming to Antioch, spoke to the Greeks also and told them the Good News concerning the Lord Jesus.
(WEY ASV BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 14:1
It happened in Iconium that they entered together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spoke that a great multitude both of Jews and of Greeks believed.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Acts 17:4
Some of them were persuaded, and joined Paul and Silas, of the devout Greeks a great multitude, and not a few of the chief women.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 17:12
Therefore many of them believed; also of honourable women which were Greeks, and of men, not a few.
(KJV WEY WBS)

Acts 17:17
So he reasoned in the synagogue with the Jews and the devout persons, and in the marketplace every day with those who met him.
(See NIV)

Acts 18:4
He reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath, and persuaded Jews and Greeks.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 18:17
Then all the Greeks laid hold on Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue, and beat him before the judgment seat. Gallio didn't care about any of these things.
(WEB KJV WBS YLT)

Acts 19:10
This continued for two years, so that all those who lived in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 19:17
This became known to all, both Jews and Greeks, who lived at Ephesus. Fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 20:21
testifying both to Jews and to Greeks repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 21:28
crying out, "Men of Israel, help! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, and the law, and this place. Moreover, he also brought Greeks into the temple, and has defiled this holy place!"
(WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Romans 1:14
I am debtor both to Greeks and to foreigners, both to the wise and to the foolish.
(WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Romans 3:9
What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously warned both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin.
(WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV)

1 Corinthians 1:22
For Jews ask for signs, Greeks seek after wisdom,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Corinthians 1:23
but we preach Christ crucified; a stumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks,
(WEB KJV WBS YLT)

1 Corinthians 1:24
but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Corinthians 10:32
Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks, or to the assembly of God;
(WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Corinthians 12:13
For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink into one Spirit.
(WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Ezekiel 27:19
Vedan and Javan traded with yarn for your wares: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were among your merchandise.
(See NIV)

Joel 3:6
and have sold the children of Judah and the children of Jerusalem to the sons of the Greeks, that you may remove them far from their border.
(WEB BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)

Subtopics

Greeks

Greeks Greece Grecians

Related Terms

Non-greeks (1 Occurrence)

Grecians (4 Occurrences)

Tammuz (1 Occurrence)

Greek (19 Occurrences)

Japheth (12 Occurrences)

Antioch (21 Occurrences)

Hellenism

Hellenist

Javan (12 Occurrences)

Drachma (2 Occurrences)

Pisidia (2 Occurrences)

Cremation

Corinth (13 Occurrences)

Artaxerxes (14 Occurrences)

Augury (5 Occurrences)

Sons (2429 Occurrences)

Philip (37 Occurrences)

Precious (128 Occurrences)

Lystra (6 Occurrences)

Tahpanhes (7 Occurrences)

Stones (244 Occurrences)

Rhodes (2 Occurrences)

Andrew (12 Occurrences)

Tarsus (5 Occurrences)

Graecia

Darius (26 Occurrences)

Thessalonica (8 Occurrences)

Divination (25 Occurrences)

Macedonia (23 Occurrences)

Cyprus (12 Occurrences)

Banquet (58 Occurrences)

Burial (25 Occurrences)

Lacedaemonians

Gethsemane (2 Occurrences)

Gentlewomen (3 Occurrences)

Gallio (3 Occurrences)

Won't (144 Occurrences)

Inhabited (64 Occurrences)

Intend (30 Occurrences)

Intending (24 Occurrences)

Fact (98 Occurrences)

Town (861 Occurrences)

Result (73 Occurrences)

Residents (9 Occurrences)

Ethiopic

Desire (565 Occurrences)

Diana (5 Occurrences)

Devout (13 Occurrences)

Dwelt (307 Occurrences)

Melita (1 Occurrence)

Persuaded (40 Occurrences)

Palm (49 Occurrences)

Beroea (4 Occurrences)

Clerk (1 Occurrence)

Coelesyria

Chios (1 Occurrence)

Coele-syria

Ablution

All (60349 Occurrences)

Atargatis

Sosthenes (2 Occurrences)

Smyrna (2 Occurrences)

Scattered (122 Occurrences)

Stumbling (51 Occurrences)

Syria (73 Occurrences)

Hair (135 Occurrences)

Iconium (6 Occurrences)

Pergamos (1 Occurrence)

Whether (239 Occurrences)

Dwelling (340 Occurrences)

Apocalyptic

Eden (19 Occurrences)

Great (10383 Occurrences)

Foolish (259 Occurrences)

Literature (2 Occurrences)

Seized (118 Occurrences)

Ephesus (20 Occurrences)

Syrians (63 Occurrences)

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