Titus 1:15
Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled.
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(15) Unto the pure all things are pure.—The spirit of this famous saying of St. Paul, occurring almost in the same language in the Roman Letter (Romans 14:20), was the groundwork of much of the Gentile Apostle’s teaching. The words of the Lord Jesus above referred to (Matthew 15:2; Matthew 15:11) contain the same grand truth. “All things” include much besides mere food—in a word, include all acts connected with every-day life which in themselves are neither right nor wrong, neither good nor evil, but which derive their colouring of good or evil solely from the doer of the act. Bengel well sums this up in his “omnia externa eis, qui intus sunt mundi, munda sunt.”

But unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure.—Here, as so often in these Pastoral Epistles, the last utterance, so to speak, of that grand life of St. Paul’s, purity and sound doctrine are inseparable. Here “the defiled,” “the polluted,” we are told, are the unbelieving; and to these, the Apostle says, nothing is pure. Yet there is nothing in God’s creation impure or evil—the evil and impurity are in the mind and heart of men; these may, and often do, defile and make impure the choicest gifts of God’s creation. One word is still left to be said on the teaching of this memorable verse. Who are the pure to whom all things are pure? Only those in this world who have sought cleansing by faith in the precious blood of Christ.

But even their mind and conscience is defiled.—Here St. Paul defines exactly the sphere over which the moral defilement of these hapless ones, who belong to the Christian company, alas, only in name, extends—the mind and conscience. The first of these—the mind—is the willing as well as the thinking part of man, as it has been well defined the human spirit (pneuma) in one of its aspects, not simply quatenus cogitat et intelligit, but also quatenus vult. Defilement of this mind (nous) means that the thoughts, wishes, purposes, activities, are all stained and debased. The second of these—the conscience (suneidēsis)—is the moral consciousness within, that which is ever bringing up the memory of the past, with its omissions and commissions, its errors, its cruel, heartless unkindness, its selfish disregard of others. When this is defiled, then this last safeguard of the soul is broken down. The man and woman of the defiled conscience is self-satisfied, hard, impenitent to the last.

Titus 1:15-16. Unto the pure — Namely, believers whose hearts are purified by faith, Acts 15:9; all things are pure — All kinds of meats are lawful to be used; but unto them that are defiled — Who are still under the guilt and power of sin; and unbelieving — Destitute of true, saving faith, to purify them; nothing is pure — Nothing they do, enjoy, or possess: they are still defiled with guilt, and are exposed to condemnation and wrath from God. The apostle joins defiled and unbelieving, to intimate that nothing can be clean without true faith. For even their mind — Their understanding, whereby they should distinguish between what is lawful and what is unlawful, and their conscience, whereby they should judge of their own actions; is defiled — Blinded, perverted, and polluted with past guilt and present depravity; and consequently so are they, and all they do. They profess that they know God — And glory in their relation to him as his peculiar people, and boast of having the true knowledge of his will from the Mosaic revelation; see Romans 2:17; but in works they deny him — Live in contradiction to the very law they profess to know, as if they were utterly ignorant of him and it; being abominable — Worthy to be abhorred and avoided by all; and disobedient — To the plainest dictates of duty to God and man; and unto — Or, with respect to; every truly good work reprobate Αδοκιμοι, without discernment; neither judging truly, nor acting rightly: or disapproved and condemned, when brought to the standard of God’s word, though almost among the first to condemn others.

1:10-16 False teachers are described. Faithful ministers must oppose such in good time, that their folly being made manifest, they may go no further They had a base end in what they did; serving a worldly interest under pretence of religion: for the love of money is the root of all evil. Such should be resisted, and put to shame, by sound doctrine from the Scriptures. Shameful actions, the reproach of heathens, should be far from Christians; falsehood and lying, envious craft and cruelty, brutal and sensual practices, and idleness and sloth, are sins condemned even by the light of nature. But Christian meekness is as far from cowardly passing over sin and error, as from anger and impatience. And though there may be national differences of character, yet the heart of man in every age and place is deceitful and desperately wicked. But the sharpest reproofs must aim at the good of the reproved; and soundness in the faith is most desirable and necessary. To those who are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure; they abuse, and turn things lawful and good into sin. Many profess to know God, yet in their lives deny and reject him. See the miserable state of hypocrites, such as have a form of godliness, but are without the power; yet let us not be so ready to fix this charge on others, as careful that it does not apply to ourselves.Unto the pure all things are pure - See the notes at Romans 14:14, Romans 14:20. There is probably an allusion here to the distinctions made in respect to meats and drinks among the Jews. Some articles of food were regarded as "clean," or allowed to be eaten, and some as "unclean," or forbidden. Paul says that those distinctions ceased under the Christian dispensation, and that to those who had a conscience not easily troubled by nice and delicate questions about ceremonial observances, all kinds of food might be regarded as lawful and proper; compare the notes at 1 Timothy 4:4-5. If a man habitually maintains a good conscience in the sight of God, it will be accepted of him whether he do or do not abstain from certain kinds of food; compare the notes at Colossians 2:16. This passage, therefore, should not be interpreted as proving that all things are right and lawful for a Christian, or that whatever he may choose to do will be regarded as pure, but as primarily referring to distinctions in food, and meaning that there was no sanctity in eating one kind of food, and no sin in another, but that the mind was equally pure whatever was eaten.

The phrase has a proverbial cast, though I know not that it was so fused. The principle of the declaration is, that a pure mind - a truly pious mind - will not regard the distinctions of food and drink; of festivals, rites, ceremonies, and days, as necessary to be observed in order to promote its purity. The conscience is not to be burdened and enslaved by these things, but is to be controlled only by the moral laws which God has ordained. But there may be a somewhat higher application of the words - that every ordinance of religion, every command of God, every event that occurs in divine Providence, tends to promote the holiness of one who is of pure heart. He can see a sanctifying tendency in everything, and can derive from all that is commanded, and all that occurs, the means of making the heart more holy. While a depraved mind will turn every such thing to a pernicious use, and make it the means of augmenting its malignity and corruption, to the pure mind it will be the means of increasing its confidence in God, and of making itself more holy. To such a mind everything may become a means of grace.

But unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure - Everything is made the means of increasing their depravity. No matter what ordinances of religion they observe; what distinctions of meats, or drinks, or days they regard, and what events of Providence occur, all are the occasion of augmented depravity. Such distinctions in food they make the means of fostering their pride and producing self-righteousness; the mercies of God they abuse to pamper their own lusts, and the afflictive events of Divine Providence they make the occasion of murmuring and rebellion. Naturally corrupt at heart, no ordinances of religion, and no events of Providence, make them any better, but all tend to deepen their depravity. A sentiment similar to this is found in the classic writers. Thus Seneca, Epis. 98. Malus animus omnia in malum vertit, etiam quae specie optimi venerunt. So again (de Beneficiis v. 12), (Quemadmodum stomachus morbo vitiatus, et colliques bilem, quoscunque acceperit cibos mutat - ita animus caecus, quicquid fill commiseris, id onus suum et perniciem facited.

But even their mind and conscience is defiled - It is not a mere external defilement - a thing which they so much dread - but a much worse kind of pollution, that which extends to the soul and the conscience. Everything which they do tends to corrupt the inner man more and more, and to make them really more polluted and abominable in the sight of God. The wicked, while they remain impenitent, are constantly becoming worse and worse. They make everything the means of increasing their depravity, and even these things which seem to pertain only to outward observances are made the occasion of the deeper corruption of the heart.

15. all things—external, "are pure" in themselves; the distinction of pure and impure is not in the things, but in the disposition of him who uses them; in opposition to "the commandments of men" (Tit 1:14), which forbade certain things as if impure intrinsically. "To the pure" inwardly, that is, those purified in heart by faith (Ac 15:9; Ro 14:20; 1Ti 4:3), all outward things are pure; all are open to, their use. Sin alone touches and defiles the soul (Mt 23:26; Lu 11:41).

nothing pure—either within or without (Ro 14:23).

mind—their mental sense and intelligence.

conscience—their moral consciousness of the conformity or discrepancy between their motives and acts on the one hand, and God's law on the other. A conscience and a mind defiled are represented as the source of the errors opposed in the Pastoral Epistles (1Ti 1:19; 3:9; 6:5).

Unto the pure all things are pure: by the pure here (as appeareth by the terms opposed to it) are meant all those whose hearts are purified by faith, working by love in a holy life. To these he saith all things, that is, all the creatures of God, all meats and drinks, are pure. What God hath cleansed none ought to call common or impure, Acts 10:14; so as, notwithstanding any law of God to the contrary, any believers under the gospel may eat of any meats.

But unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but if men be unbelievers, and so defiled, having not their hearts purified by faith, Acts 15:9, nothing is pure to them.

But even their mind and conscience is defiled; their mind, their notion and understanding, is defiled; and their conscience, which is the practical judgment they make up about things, is defiled: if they forbear to eat, they are defiled through superstition; if they do eat, they sin by acting against the dictate of their conscience, which is the proximate rule of men’s actions.

Unto the pure all things are pure,.... The apostle having made mention of Jewish fables, and the traditions of the elders, takes notice of some darling notions, that these judaizing Christians had imbibed or retained; that there were some things, which being touched, or handled, or tasted, occasioned uncleanness, and which the apostle denies to them that are "pure"; by whom are meant, not such who are so in their own eyes, who yet may not be cleansed from their filthiness; nor do any become pure through ceremonial, moral, or evangelical performances, done by them; they are only pure, who are justified from all sin by Christ's righteousness, and are clean through the word or sentence of absolution spoken by him; and who are washed from their sins in his blood, and have that sprinkled upon their consciences, by which they are purged and cleansed from all sin; and who have the clean water of sanctifying grace sprinkled upon them, and have clean hearts, and right spirits created in them; and whose hearts are purified by faith, and have true principles of grace and holiness formed in them; whose graces are pure and genuine, their faith is unfeigned, their love is without dissimulation, and their hope without hypocrisy; and who, in consequence of all this, love pureness of heart, speak the pure language of Canaan, hold the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience, and follow after purity of life and conversation: to these "all things are pure"; whatever they touch, or handle, or eat, nothing can defile them; for it is not what enters into man that can pollute him; nor is any creature unclean of itself, but good, and to be received with thanksgiving; see Matthew 15:11.

But unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; all mankind are defiled with sin; they are altogether become filthy; there is none good, no, not one; and all of them, or that belong to them, are unclean; the members of their body, and the powers and faculties of their soul, their mind and conscience, understanding, will, and affections; there is no place clean: they are originally so, from their first conception and birth; and they are actually defiled by their own evil thoughts, words, and doings: some are openly impure, like the dog and the swine, who wallow in their impieties, such are the profane part of the world; others are more secretly so, as those of a pharisaical complexion, nominal Christians, and formal professors; and such the apostle has here in view: and who, notwithstanding their profession of the Christian religion, were "unbelieving"; they had not true faith in Christ, though they professed it; they were not indeed unbelieving, as the Jews, who rejected Jesus as the Messiah: yet they did not purely and cordially embrace the doctrines of the Gospel, nor yield a spiritual and cheerful subjection to the ordinances of it; but were for mixing the ceremonies of the law with the institutions of Christ: and to these were "nothing pure"; right and lawful to be done, or not done, even in the case supposed, about eating things forbidden by the ceremonial law; to eat them would be to eat with offence, to their own consciences, on their principles, and so be evil, Romans 14:20 and to abstain from them on account of laws not in force, would be superstition and will worship, and so criminal, Colossians 2:21. There is nothing that defiled persons can do, but what is unclean; as are their persons, so are their offerings and works, Haggai 2:14, and being destitute of true faith, whatever they do is sin, and not anything they do can be acceptable and well pleasing to God, Romans 14:23. There were some things among the Jews, which were prohibited to them that were defiled, and were free to them that were pure: thus, for instance (u),

"the flesh of the most holy things, and the flesh of those which are lightly holy, boiled with flesh of delight, (or common flesh,) are forbidden "to the defiled", but are free "to the pure".''

Which one of their commentators (w) thus explains;

"the flesh of the most holy things is forbidden to strangers, though pure; the flesh of things lightly holy is free to strangers that are pure, but forbidden to them that are defiled.''

Whether there may be any allusion to this, may be considered: however, the reason the apostle gives why nothing is pure to the impure, is, because of the pollution of the superior powers and faculties of their soul:

but even their mind and conscience is defiled; there is nothing in them, or that belongs to them, that is pure; their mind or understanding, which conceives and judges of things, and forms notions of them; and the conscience, which draws conclusions from them, are both defiled with sin; and what then must the thoughts, the words and actions of such persons be? it matters not what they do, or abstain from, what they touch, taste, or handle, or if they do not, they sin in all they do.

(u) Minn. Orla, c. 2. sect. 17. (w) Bartenora, in Misn. Orla, c. 2. sect. 17.

{11} Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their {o} mind and conscience is defiled.

(11) He shows in few words, that purity consists not in any external worship, and that which is according to the old Law (as indifference of meats, and washings, and other such things which are abolished) but in the mind and conscience. And whoever teaches otherwise, does not know what true religion really is, and also is not to be heeded.

(o) If our minds and consciences are unclean, what cleanness is there in us before regeneration?

Titus 1:15. The apostle, bearing in mind the prohibitions of the heretics, opposes to them a general principle which shows their worthlessness.

πάντα καθαρὰ τοῖς καθαροῖς] πάντα quite generally: all things in themselves, with which a man may simply have to do, but not a man’s actions, nor, as Heydenreich thinks, the errors of the heretics. The usual explanation which limits the bearing of the words to the arbitrary rules of the heretics regarding food and other things, is only so far right that Paul lays down his general principle with special reference to these rules; but πάντα itself should be taken quite generally. Even the exposition of Matthies: “all that falls into the sphere of the individual wants of life,” places an unsuitable limitation on the meaning. Chrysostom rightly: οὐδὲν ὁ Θεὸς ἀκάθαρτον ἐποίησεν.

καθαρά as the predicate of πάντα is to be connected with it by supplying ἐστί: “all is pure,” viz. τοῖς καθαροῖς. Bengel: omnia externa iis, qui intus sunt mundi, munda sunt. Many expositors wrongly refer the conception of καθαροί to knowledge, as Jerome: qui sciunt omnem creaturam bonam esse, or as Beza: quibus notum est libertatis per Christum partae beneficium. It should rather be taken as referring to disposition: to those who have a pure heart everything is pure (not: “to them everything passes for pure”), i.e. as to the pure, things outside of them have no power to render them impure. From the same point of view we have in the Testam. XII. Patriarch. test. Benjam. chap. viii.: ὁ ἔχων διάνοιαν καθαρὰν ἐν ἀγάπῃ, οὐχ ὁρᾷ γυναῖκα εἰς πορνείαν· οὐ γὰρ ἔχει μιασμὸν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ. Kindred thoughts are found in Matthew 23:26; Luke 11:41; comp. also the similar expression in Romans 14:20. On καθαροῖς, van Oosterzee remarks: “By nature no one is pure; those here called καθαροί are those who have purified their heart by faith, Acts 15:9.” This is right, except that Paul is not thinking here of the means by which the man becomes καθαρός; the indication of this point is given afterwards in ἀπίστοις. The apostle purposely makes the sentence very emphatic, because it was with the distinction between pure and impure that the heretics occupied themselves so much.

The contrast to the first sentence is given in the words: τοῖς δὲ μεμιαμμένοις καὶ ἀπίστοις οὐδὲν καθαρόν. Regarding the form μεμιαμμένος, see Winer, p. 84 [E. T. p. 108] [also Veitch, Irregular Greek Verbs, s.v.]. The verb forms a simple contrast with καθαροῖς, and stands here not in a Levitical (John 18:28), but in an ethical sense, as in Hebrews 12:15; Judges 1:8. Καὶ ἀπίστοις is not an epexegesis of μεμιαμμ., but adds a new point to it, viz. the attitude of the heretics towards the saving truths of the gospel. The two words do not denote two different classes of men, as the article τοῖς is only used once. To these impure men nothing is pure, i.e. every external thing serves only to awaken within them impure lust

ἀλλὰ μεμίανται αὐτῶν καὶ ὁ νοῦς καὶ ἡ συνείδησις] This sentence expresses positively what οὐδὲν καθαρόν expressed negatively, at the same time furnishing the reason for the preceding thought. De Wette’s opinion therefore is not correct, that “for ἀλλά there should properly have been γάρ; the author, however, makes moral character equivalent to moral action.” The relation of the two sentences is pretty much the same as if, e.g., we were to say: he is not rich, but his father has disinherited him. If Paul had used γάρ, the sentence would simply have furnished the reason for what preceded; ἀλλά, on the other hand, indicates the contrast. Still we must not conclude, with Hofmann, that the second sentence merely says the same thing as the first. It should be interpreted: “but to them everything is impure, because their νοῦς and their συνείδησις are defiled.”

Νοῦς and συνείδησις do not here denote the inner nature of man on the two sides of knowledge and will (so Hofmann). Νοῦς is the spiritual faculty of man acting in both directions; in N. T. usage the reference to action prevails, νοῦς being equivalent to the practical reason. Συνείδησις, on the other hand, is the human consciousness connected with action, and expressing itself regarding the moral value of action; it corresponds to “conscience” (see on 1 Timothy 1:3). The two conceptions are distinguished from each other by καὶκαί, and at the same time closely connected. By this, however, no special emphasis is laid on the second word (formerly in this commentary). In Titus 3:11 (αὐτοκατάκριτος) and 1 Timothy 4:2, the apostle again says as much as that the conscience of the heretics was defiled. Though the thought contained in this verse is quite general in character, Paul wrote it with special reference to the heretics, and is therefore able to attach to it a further description of them.

Titus 1:15. πάντα καθαρὰ κ.τ.λ.: This is best understood as a maxim of the Judaic Gnostics, based on a perversion of the Saying πάντα καθαρὰ ὑμῖν ἐστιν (Luke 11:41. Cf. Romans 14:20; Mark 7:18.). St. Paul accepts it as a truth, but not in the intention of the speaker; and answers, τοῖς δὲ μεμιαμμένοις κ.τ.λ. The passage is thus, as regards its form, parallel to 1 Corinthians 6:12 sqq., where St. Paul cites, and shows the irrelevancy of, two pleas for licence: “All things are lawful for me,” and “Meats for the belly, and the belly for meats”. τοῖς καθαροῖς is of course the dat. commodi, for the use of the pure, in their case, as in the parallels, Luke 11:41, 1 Timothy 4:3; not in the judgment of the pure, as in Romans 14:14.

τοῖς δὲ μεμιαμμένοις, κ.τ.λ.: The order of the words is to be noted: their moral obliquity is more characteristic of them than their intellectual perversion. The satisfaction of natural bodily desires (for it is these that are in question) is, when lawful, a pure thing, not merely innocent, in the case of the pure; it is an impure thing, even when lawful, in the case of “them that are defiled”. And for this reason: their intellectual apprehension (νοῦς) of these things is perverted by defiling associations; “the light that is in them is darkness;” and their conscience has, from a similar cause, lost its sense of discrimination between what is innocent and criminal. That any action with which they themselves are familiar could be pure is inconceivable to them. “When the soul is unclean, it thinks all things unclean” (Chrys.). The statement that the conscience can be defiled is significant. While conscientious scruples are to be respected, yet, if the conscience be defiled, its dictates and instincts are unreliable, false as are the song-efforts of one who has no ear for music.

15. Unto the pure all things are pure] To the same effect as 1 Timothy 4:3-5. Cf. Matthew 15:2; Matthew 15:11 for the ‘wholesome words of Jesus Christ’ on the same point. The true principle of lawful Christian abstinence is given (with the same phrase) Romans 14:20. ‘The “all things” are those which in themselves have no moral character, food, marriage, business, pleasure, daily life, Sabbatic observance, and social freedom; that vast region of conduct to which Jewish pedantry and oriental asceticism had applied the vexatious rules Touch not, taste not, handle not.’ Reynolds.

defiled and unbelieving] As ‘the pure’ here corresponds to ‘them that believe and have full knowledge of the truth’ in 1 Timothy 4:3, so impurity of life and unsound doctrine, go together.

but even their mind and conscience] Rather, nay, there is defilement of both their mind and their conscience. Nothing is pure, and indeed those very organs to which we look for instilling purity are defiled. Cf. Matthew 6:22-23, ‘The lamp of the body is the eye; if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness.’ The ‘mind’ in N.T. is more than ‘reason’ and ‘intellect’ including also ‘the will and ‘the feelings,’ 1 Timothy 6:5; Romans 1:28 ‘God gave them up to a reprobate mind.’ The ‘conscience,’ suneidêsis, is the ‘moral sense,’ or ‘self-consciousness,’ pronouncing intuitively by a spiritual instinct on our acts, 1 Timothy 3:9; Romans 2:15. ‘The two united represent the stream of life in its flowing in and flowing out together. Cf. Appendix, A, iii. 1, and D.

is defiled] R.V. ‘are defiled,’ our modern idiom differing from the Greek, which has the singular verb agreeing with the nearer only of the two nouns. In old English also two substantives when closely allied in meaning not uncommonly are followed by the singular verb, e.g. ‘Destruction and unhappiness is in their ways.’

Titus 1:15. Πάντα μὲν, all things indeed) The defenders of fables and of the commandments of men used this pretext, which Paul sweeps away.—τοῖς καθαροῖς, to the pure) Supply, and to the faithful, taken from the antithesis (unto the unbelieving); 1 Timothy 4:3; Acts 15:9; Romans 14:23. All outward things are pure to those who are pure within.—μεμιασμένοις, to them that are defiled) This is discussed presently.—ἀπίστοις, to the unbelieving) This is discussed in Titus 1:16.—οὐδὲν) nothing, either within, or consequently without.—νοῦς, their intelligence, mind) Romans 14:5.—συνείδησις, conscience) concerning things which are to be done, or that have been done; 1 Corinthians 8:7.

Verse 15. - To for unto, A.V. (twice); nothing is for is nothing, A.V.; both for even, A.V.; their conscience for conscience, A.V.; are for is, A.V. To the pure, etc. This allusion shows dearly that the "commandments of men," here condemned, are of the same kind as those referred to in the above-quoted passage in the Colossians. We learn also from Romans 14; 1 Corinthians 8; and elsewhere, what were the kind of questions which agitated the Judaizing Christians. But St. Paul in a few wise words shows the utter worthlessness of such controversies. "To the pure all things are pure." "There is nothing from without a man," said our Lord, "that entering into him can defile him" (Mark 7:15); "Neither if we cat are we the better, neither if we eat not are we the worse" (1 Corinthians 8:8); "The kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost" (Romans 14:17). But unto those that are defiled by what comes from within them, and have no faith (Romans 14:23), nothing is pure. Their mind and conscience, being defiled, defile everything they do. The words καθαρόν and μιαίνω are the proper words for ceremonial "cleanness" and "defilement" respectively. Titus 1:15Unto the pure (τοῖς καθαροῖς)

The pure in heart and conscience. See 2 Timothy 1:3.

All things are pure

Comp. 1 Timothy 4:4, 1 Timothy 4:5; Acts 10:15; Mark 7:15, Mark 7:18, Mark 7:19; 1 Corinthians 10:26, 1 Corinthians 10:30; Romans 14:20. The aphorism is suggested by the commandments of men, Titus 1:14.

Unto them that are defiled (τοῖς μεμιαμμένοις)

Only here in Pastorals. See also John 18:28 (note); Hebrews 12:15; Jde 1:8. Only in John 18:28 in a ceremonial sense. Elsewhere of moral pollution.

Nothing is pure

Their moral pollution taints everything with its own quality. The purest things become suggestors and ministers of impurity.

Mind and conscience (ὁ νοῦς καὶ ἡ συνείδησις)

For νοῦς see on Romans 7:23 : for συνείδησις, see on 1 Peter 3:16.

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