Psalm 45:12
And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift; even the rich among the people shall entreat your favor.
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(12) And the daughter of Tyrei.e., Tyre itself and the Tyrians. (See Note Psalm 9:14.) Render,

The Tyrians with a gift entreat thy favour,

The rich ones of the people.

The objection that Tyre was never subject to Israel is not conclusive, since the gifts may be complimentary presents, such as Hiram sent to Solomon, not tribute. (See next Note.)

Entreat thy favour.—Literally, stroke thy face (comp. Job 11:19, Proverbs 19:6); or since the root-idea is one of polishing or making bright, we may render “makes thy face bright or joyful,” i.e., with pleasure at the splendid gifts.

Psalm 45:12. The daughter of Tyre shall be there — That is, the people of Tyre; as the daughter of Zion or Jerusalem, is put for their inhabitants: he mentions the Tyrians, because they, among others, and before many others, were to be converted to Christ, Matthew 11:21; Mark 3:8; Mark 7:24; Acts 21:3-5; but they are here put for all the Gentiles, whom that city fitly represented as being the mart of the nations, as she is called Isaiah 23:3. With a gift — To testify their homage, which was done by gifts or presents; and to procure thine and thy Lord’s favour. Even the rich — Of other nations. 45:10-17 If we desire to share these blessings, we must hearken to Christ's word. We must forget our carnal and sinful attachments and pursuits. He must be our Lord as well as our Saviour; all idols must be thrown away, that we may give him our whole heart. And here is good encouragement, thus to break off from former alliances. The beauty of holiness, both on the church and on particular believers, is, in the sight of Christ, of great price, and very amiable. The work of grace is the workmanship of the Spirit, it is the image of Christ upon the soul, a partaking of the Divine nature. It is clear of all sin, there is none in it, nor any comes from it. There is nothing glorious in the old man or corrupt nature; but in the new man, or work of grace upon the soul, every thing is glorious. The robe of Christ's righteousness, which he has wrought out for his church, the Father imputes unto her, and bestows upon her. None are brought to Christ, but those whom the Father brings. This notes the conversion of souls to him. The robe of righteousness, and garments of salvation, the change of raiment Christ has put upon her. Such as strictly cleave to Christ, loving him in singleness of heart, are companions of the bride, who partake of the very same grace, enjoy the same privileges, and share in one common salvation. These, every one, shall be brought to the King; not one lost or left behind. Instead of the Old Testament church, there shall be a New Testament church, a Gentile church. In the believing hope of our everlasting happiness in the other world, let us always keep up the remembrance of Christ, as our only way thither; and transmit the remembrance of him to succeeding generations, that his name may endure for ever.And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift - On the situation of Tyre, and its ancient splendor, see the notes at Matthew 11:21; the introduction to Isaiah 23; and the notes at that chapter. In the time of the psalmist it was probably the most wealthy and luxurious commercial town then existing; and it is referred to here as meaning that persons of highest rank, and of the greatest riches, and those who were surrounded most by affluence and luxury, would come to honor the king. Even the daughter of the magnificent prince of Tyre would deem it an honor to be present with a gift becoming her exalted station, and properly representing the wealth of a king of so much magnificence. This is the imagery. As applied to the Messiah, it is a description of the honor which would be shown to "him" by those of highest rank and largest wealth. Compare Isaiah 60:5-7, note; Isaiah 60:9, note; Isaiah 60:11, note; Isaiah 60:13 note.

Even the rich among the people - Rich men scattered among the people. Compare the notes at Psalm 22:29.

Shall entreat thy favor - Margin, as in Hebrew, "thy face." Shall desire thy smile; the light of thy countenance; thy friendship. The word rendered "entreat" - חלה châlâh - means properly to be rubbed; then, to be polished; and then, in the form used here (Piel) to rub, or stroke the face of anyone; to soothe or caress; to flatter, to court; and the idea is literally that of one who caresses or soothes, or seeks to conciliate. The sense here is, "the richest of the nations shall make court to thee with gifts." Gesenius, Lexicon. Ultimately, this will be true in regard to the Messiah. Compare as above, Isaiah 60. The wealth of the world will yet be laid at his feet, and, placed at his disposal. The effect of true conversion is always to make people willing to consecrate to the Saviour all that they possess.

12. daughter of Tyre—(Ps 9:14); denotes the people. Tyre, celebrated for its great wealth, is selected to represent the richest nations, an idea confirmed by the next clause. These gifts are brought as means to conciliate the royal parties, representing the admitted subjection of the offerers. This well sets forth the exalted position of the Church and her head, whose moral qualities receive the homage of the world. The contribution of material wealth to sustain the institutions of the Church may be included (compare "riches of the Gentiles," Ps 72:10; Isa 60:5-10). The daughter of Tyre, i.e. the people or citizens of Tyre; as the daughter of Zion, or Jerusalem, or Babel, &c., are put for their inhabitants, 2 Kings 19:21 Psalm 137:8 Zechariah 9:9. He mentioneth the Tyrians, partly because they did give presents to Solomon, 1 Kings 5:1, &c., to whom here is a continued allusion through the whole Psalm; and partly because they among others, and before many others, were to be converted to Christ, as they were. See Matthew 11:21,22 Mr 3:8 7:24 Acts 21:3-5. But they are here put synecdochically for all the Gentiles, whom that city fitly represents, as being the mart of the nations, as she is called, Isaiah 23:3. And being a very rich and proud, and therefore a self-conceited and a stiffnecked people, their merchants being princes, Isaiah 23:8 they may in a particular manner represent all those great and proud princes and stubborn people of the Gentile world, which should be subdued to Christ by the preaching of the gospel.

With a gift; partly to testify their homage, which was done by gifts or presents, as appears from 1 Samuel 10:27 2 Samuel 8:2, &c.; and partly to procure thine, and consequently thy husband’s, favour, as it here follows.

The rich among the people of other nations. And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift,.... That is, among the honourable women in the king's court and palace: it is a prophecy of the conversion of the Tyrians, and their admission into a Gospel church, state, which had its accomplishment in the times of Christ and his apostles, Mark 7:24; compare with this Psalm 87:4; and though Tyre is only mentioned, it being, as Kimchi on this place observes, near to the land of Judea; yet all other Gentiles are meant, to whom the Gospel should come to the conversion of them, and thereby become members of churches; where they are "with a gift", of themselves to the churches; see 2 Corinthians 8:5; joining themselves to them, to walk with them, and serve the Lord with one consent; and with the gift or offering of praise and thanksgiving, for the grace and blessings of it bestowed upon them; and with a free donation out of their substance, to support a Gospel church state, its ministers, and the interest, of religion; see Isaiah 23:18; the allusion may be to Exodus 23:15;

even the rich among the people shall entreat thy favour; either such as are rich, in a literal sense, both among the inhabitants of Tyre, who were a very wealthy people, Isaiah 23:8; and among other Gentiles, especially in the latter day, when kings shall be the church's nursing fathers, and bow down to her, Isaiah 49:23; or such who are so in a spiritual sense, enriched by Christ with all spiritual blessings, and who are particularly rich in faith, and heirs of a kingdom; these shall "entreat the favour" of the queen the church; not pray unto her, or worship her in a religious way; for God is only the object of such worship; but do those things by which they would show that they valued her friendship, and would gain her good will; as also acknowledge any former injury done her by them, and entreat her forgiveness; and particularly desire to have communion with her, and share in her prayers.

And the {k} daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift; even the rich among the people shall intreat thy favour.

(k) He signifies that many of those who are rich will be benefactors to the Church, although they do not give perfect obedience to the Gospel.

12. The words shall be there are not in the Heb., and it has been proposed to render, And, O daughter of Tyre, with a gift shall the rich of the people intreat thy favour, making the bride a Tyrian princess. But apart from other objections, the daughter of Tyre should mean, according to the analogy of the similar phrases, daughter of Zion, daughter of Babylon, not an individual Tyrian woman, but the city and people of Tyre personified as a woman: and the A.V. no doubt gives the sense correctly, though some verb has probably been lost. The express mention of the wealthy merchant city of Tyre as the representative of the neighbouring nations which would send their greetings to the new queen is most naturally accounted for if the Psalm refers to Solomon, who was in close alliance with Tyre.

even the rich &c.] Render, Yea, the richest of people: i.e. as the LXX paraphrases, the people of the earth; or perhaps, of the land: wealthy nobles of the country as well as foreigners.Verse 12. - And the daughter of Tyro shall be there with a gift. Heathen nations shall be attracted to Christ and his Church, shall bring their offerings, and make submission, and humbly sue for favour. Tyro is taken as a type of heathen states and cities generally (comp. Isaiah 49:18-23; Isaiah 56:6-8; Isaiah 60:3-14). Even the rich among the people shall intreat thy favour. (On the wealth of Tyre, see Isaiah 23:2-8; Ezekiel 26:12, 16; Ezekiel 27:3-33; Ezekiel 28:13, etc.) (Heb.: 45:7-8) In order to avoid the addressing of the king with the word Elohim, Psalm 45:6 has been interpreted, (1) "Thy throne of God is for ever and ever,", - a rendering which is grammatically possible, and, if it were intended to be expressed, must have been expressed thus (Nagelsbach, 64, g); (2) "Thy throne is God ( equals divine) for ever and ever;" but it cannot possibly be so expressed after the analogy of "the altar of wood equals wooden" (cf. Psalm 45:9), or "the time is showers of rain equals rainy" (Ezra 10:13), since God is neither the substance of the throne, nor can the throne itself be regarded as a representation or figure of God: in this case the predicative Elohim would require to be taken as a genitive for אלהים כּסּא, which, however, cannot possibly be supported in Hebrew by any syntax, not even by 2 Kings 23:17, cf. Ges. 110, 2, b. Accordingly one might adopt the first mode of interpretation, which is also commended by the fact that the earthly throne of the theocratic king is actually called יהוה כסא in 1 Chronicles 29:23. But the sentence "thy throne of God is an everlasting one" sounds tautological, inasmuch as that which the predicate asserts is already implied in the subject; and we have still first of all to try whether אלהים cannot, with the lxx ὁ θρόνος σου, ὁ Θεὸς, εἰς αἰῶνα αἰῶνος, be taken as a vocative. Now, since before everything else God's throne is eternal (Psalm 10:16; Lamentations 5:19), and a love of righteousness and a hatred of evil is also found elsewhere as a description of divine holiness (Psalm 5:5; Psalm 61:8), אלהים would be obliged to be regarded as addressed to God, if language addressed to the king did not follow with על־כּן. But might אלהים by any possibility be even addressed to the king who is here celebrated? It is certainly true that the custom with the Elohim-Psalms of using Elohim as of equal dignity with Jahve is not favourable to this supposition; but the following surpassing of the אלהים by אלהים אלהיך renders it possible. And since elsewhere earthly authorities are also called אלהים, Exodus 21:6; Exodus 22:7., Psalm 82:1-8, cf. Psalm 138:1, because they are God's representatives and the bearers of His image upon earth, so the king who is celebrated in this Psalm may be all the more readily styled Elohim, when in his heavenly beauty, his irresistible doxa or glory, and his divine holiness, he seems to the psalmist to be the perfected realization of the close relationship in which God has set David and his seed to Himself. He calls him אלהים, just as Isaiah calls the exalted royal child whom he exultingly salutes in Psalm 9:1-6, אל־גּבּור. He gives him this name, because in the transparent exterior of his fair humanity he sees the glory and holiness of God as having attained a salutary of merciful conspicuousness among men. At the same time, however, he guards this calling of the king by the name Elohim against being misapprehended by immediately distinguishing the God, who stands above him, from the divine king by the words "Elohim, thy God," which, in the Korahitic Psalms, and in the Elohimic Psalms in general, is equivalent to Jahve, thy God" (Psalm 43:4; Psalm 48:15; Psalm 50:7); and the two words are accordingly united by Munach.

(Note: The view that the Munach is here vicarius Tiphchae anterioris (Dachselt in his Biblia Accentuata) is erroneous, vid., Accentuationssystem, xviii. 4. It is the conjunctive to אלהיך, which, in Heidenheim and Baer, on the authority of the Codices, has Tiphcha anterior, not Athnach as in the editions heretofore published. The proper place for the Athnach would at first be by שׁשׁון; but according to Accentuationssystem, xix. 6, it cannot stand there.)

Because the king's sceptre is a "sceptre of uprightness" (cf. Isaiah 11:4), because he loves righteousness and consequently (fut. consec.) hates iniquity, therefore God, his God, has anointed him with the oil of joy (Isaiah 61:3; cf. on the construction Amos 6:6) above his fellows. What is intended is not the anointing to his office (cf. Psalm 89:21 with Acts 10:38) as a dedication to a happy and prosperous reign, but that God has poured forth upon him, more especially on this his nuptial day, a superabundant joy, both outwardly and in his spirit, such as He has bestowed upon no other king upon the face of the earth. That he rises high above all those round about him is self-evident; but even among his fellows of royal station, kings like himself, he has no equal. It is a matter of question whether the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Hebrews 1:8) has taken the first ὁ Θεὸς of the expression ὁ Θεὸς ὁ Θεὸς σου as a vocative. Apollinaris does not seem so to have understood him; for he renders it τοὔνεκά σοι Θεὸς αὐτὸς ἑὴν περίχηευεν ἀλοιφήν χηρίσας τερπωλῆς μετόχηοις παρὰ πάντας ἐλαίῳ, and the Greek expositors also take ὁ Θεὸς here as a nominative.

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