Psalm 45:13
The king's daughter is all glorious within: her clothing is of worked gold.
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(13) The king’s daughter is all glorious withini.e., in the interior, in the inner room of the palace. The next clause would alone dismiss the reference to moral qualities from which has sprung such a wealth of mystic interpretation. But what palace is intended? Certainly not that of the royal bridegroom, since the procession (see Psalm 45:14) has not yet reached its destination. We must therefore think of her waiting, in all the splendour of her bridal array, in her own apartments, or in some temporary abode.

Wrought goldi.e., textures woven with gold. The Hebrew word is used also of gems set in gold. The Eastern tales just referred to speak of the custom of repeatedly changing the bride’s dress during the marriage ceremonies, every time presenting her in greater magnificence than before.

Psalm 45:13. The King’s daughter — The spouse, so called, because she was the daughter of one king, and the wife of another: intending the church of Christ; is all glorious within — In internal graces and gifts, with which she is adorned and accomplished. Her clothing is of wrought gold — Her internal perfections do not rest within her, but break forth into virtuous and honourable actions, wherewith she is adorned in the view of the world.45:10-17 If we desire to share these blessings, we must hearken to Christ's word. We must forget our carnal and sinful attachments and pursuits. He must be our Lord as well as our Saviour; all idols must be thrown away, that we may give him our whole heart. And here is good encouragement, thus to break off from former alliances. The beauty of holiness, both on the church and on particular believers, is, in the sight of Christ, of great price, and very amiable. The work of grace is the workmanship of the Spirit, it is the image of Christ upon the soul, a partaking of the Divine nature. It is clear of all sin, there is none in it, nor any comes from it. There is nothing glorious in the old man or corrupt nature; but in the new man, or work of grace upon the soul, every thing is glorious. The robe of Christ's righteousness, which he has wrought out for his church, the Father imputes unto her, and bestows upon her. None are brought to Christ, but those whom the Father brings. This notes the conversion of souls to him. The robe of righteousness, and garments of salvation, the change of raiment Christ has put upon her. Such as strictly cleave to Christ, loving him in singleness of heart, are companions of the bride, who partake of the very same grace, enjoy the same privileges, and share in one common salvation. These, every one, shall be brought to the King; not one lost or left behind. Instead of the Old Testament church, there shall be a New Testament church, a Gentile church. In the believing hope of our everlasting happiness in the other world, let us always keep up the remembrance of Christ, as our only way thither; and transmit the remembrance of him to succeeding generations, that his name may endure for ever.The king's daughter - This evidently refers to the bride, the daughter of the foreign king. The verse contains a description of her beauty - her splendor of attire - before she is brought to the king, her future husband. She is represented here as in the palace or home of her father, before she is conducted forth to be given to her future husband in marriage. Is all "glorious." Is all splendor or beauty; is altogether splendor. There is nothing that is not splendid, rich, magnificent in her appearance, or in her apparel. As seen in Psalm 45:9, she is clad in gold; she is surrounded by honorable women - the daughters of kings Psalm 45:9, and encompassed with the rich, Psalm 45:12. As seen here, she is in her father's house, adorned for the marriage, and to be brought to the king, her future husband, attired in all that could give grace and beauty to her person. The allusion here, as referring to the church - the "bride of the Lamb" - "may be" to that church considered as redeemed, and about to be received to heaven, to dwell with its Husband and Saviour. Compare the notes at Revelation 19:7-8; notes at Revelation 21:2, notes at Revelation 21:9.

Within - This does not refer to herself, as if she was not merely splendid in her attire, but holy and pure - glorious and lovely - in "heart;" it refers to her as seen while yet "within" the palace or home of her father, in her own dwelling. The Hebrew word - פנימה penı̂ymâh - means properly, "at or by the inner wall of a house, room, or court; that is, opposite to or in front of the door, and of those entering." Gesenius, "Lexicon" As seen in her dwelling - within the palace - in the most honored place - she is arrayed in gorgeous apparel, and adorned as becomes a king's daughter about to be married.

Her clothing is of wrought gold - Gold embroidery. See Psalm 45:9. That is, she is arrayed in the richest apparel.

13. the king's daughter—a term of dignity. It may also intimate, with some allusion to the teaching of the allegory, that the bride of Christ, the Church, is the daughter of the great king, God.

within—Not only is her outward raiment costly, but all her apparel is of the richest texture.

wrought gold—gold embroidery, or cloth in which gold is woven.

13 The king's daughter is all glorious within: her clothing is of wrought gold.

14 She shall be brought unto the king in raiment of needlework: the virgins her companions that follow her shall be brought unto thee.

15 With gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought; they shall enter into the king's palace.

Psalm 45:13

"The king's daughter is all glorious within." Within her secret chambers her glory is great. Though unseen of men her Lord sees her, and commends her. "It doth not yet appear what we shall be." Or the passage may be understood as meaning within herself - her beauty is not outward only or mainly; the choicest of her charms are to be found in her heart, her secret character, her inward desires. Truth and wisdom in the hidden parts are what the Lord regards; mere skin-deep beauty is nothing in his eyes. The church is of royal extraction, of imperial dignity, for she is a king's daughter; and she has been purified and renewed in nature, for she is glorious within. Note the word all. The Bridegroom was said to have all his garments perfumed, and now the bride is all glorious within - entireness and completeness are great points. There is no mixture of ill savour in Jesus, nor shall there be alloy of unholiness in his people, his church shall be presented without spot or wrinkle, or any such thing. "Her clothing is of wrought gold." Best material and best workmanship. How laboriously did our Lord work out the precious material of his righteousness into a vesture for his people! No embroidery of golden threads can equal that master-piece of holy art. Such clothing becomes one so honoured by relationship to the Great King. The Lord looks to it that nothing shall be wanting to the glory and beauty of his bride.

Psalm 45:14

"She shall be brought unto the king in raiment of needlework." The day comes when the celestial marriage shall be openly celebrated, and these words describe the nuptial procession, wherein the queen is brought to her royal Husband attended by her handmaidens. In the latter-day glory, and in the consummation of all things, the glory of the bride, the Lamb's wife, shall be seen by all the universe with admiration. While she was within doors, and her saints hidden ones, the church was glorious; what will be her splendour when she shall appear in the likeness of her Lord in the day of his manifestation? The finest embroidery is but a faint image of the perfection of the church when sanctified by the Spirit. This verse tells us of the ultimate rest of the church - the King's own bosom; of the way she comes to it, she is brought by the power of sovereign grace; of the time when this is done - in the future, "she shall be," it does not yet appear; of the state in which she shall come - clad in richest array, and attended by brightest spirits. "The virgins her companions that follow her shall be brought unto thee." Those who love and serve the church for her Lord's sake shall share in her bliss "in that day." In one sense they are a part of the church, but for the sake of the imagery they are represented as maids of honour; and, though the figure may seem incongruous, they are represented as brought to the King with the same loving familiarity as the bride, because the true servants of the church are of the church, and partake in all her happiness. Note that those who are admitted to everlasting communion with Christ, are pure in heart - virgins, pure in company - "her companions," pure in walk - "that follow her." Let none hope to be brought into heaven at last who are not purified now.

Psalm 45:15

"With gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought." Joy becomes a marriage feast. What joy will that be which will be seen at the feasts of paradise when all the redeemed shall be brought home! Gladness in the saints themselves, and rejoicing from the angels shall make the halls of the New Jerusalem ring again with shoutings. "They shall enter into the King's palace." Their peaceful abodes shall be where Jesus the King reigns in state for ever. They shall not be shut out but shut in. Rights of free entrance into the holiest of all shall be accorded them. Brought by grace, they shall enter into glory. If there was joy in the bringing, what in the entering? What in the abiding? The glorified are not field labourers in the plains of heaven, but sons who dwell at home, princes of the blood, resident in the royal palace. Happy hour when we shall enjoy all this and forget the sorrows of time in the triumphs of eternity.

The king’s daughter, i.e. the spouse; so called, either because she was the daughter of one king, and the wife of another; or because the spouse or wife is sometimes called the husband’s daughter; partly because she is supposed to be younger than he; and partly because of that respect and subjection which she oweth to him, and that fatherly care and affection which he oweth to her. See 2 Samuel 12:3 Jeremiah 3:4. So the bridegroom calls his spouse his sister, Song of Solomon 4:9. Thus Livia, the wife of Augustus, is called his sister in ancient coins.

Within; either,

1. Even in her retiring chambers in the king’s palace, and not only when she showeth herself abroad. Or rather,

2. In her mind and soul, or in spiritual endowments, the excellent virtues and graces wherewith she is accomplished. For,

1. This is opposed to her outward clothing.

2. This being so great and so necessary a qualification of a worthy spouse, it is not likely it should be omitted in her description and commendation, especially when the bridegroom is commended for his inward accomplishments as well as for his outward glory, Psalm 45:4,73. The church is this bride, as hath been said and proved before, whose true and chief beauty is inward and spiritual, and not consisting in outward pomp and glory.

Her clothing is of wrought gold; her inward perfections do not rest within her, but break forth into virtuous and honourable actions, wherewith she is adorned in the view of the world. This suits well with the style of the Holy Scriptures, wherein the saints are oft said to be clothed with virtues and virtuous actions. See Psalm 132:9 1 Peter 5:5. The King's daughter is all glorious within,.... The "King's daughter" is the same with the "queen", Psalm 45:9; the church, who is the King's daughter, the daughter of the King of kings, through adopting grace, by marriage to Christ the King's son, and by regeneration, or being born of God: and she is "all glorious within"; within doors, in the inner chamber of the King, where being brought, she enjoys such communion with him as reflects a glory upon her; in his banqueting house, where his banner over her is love, and where her members enjoy fellowship with one another, and this in harmony, unity, and love; which make her look amiable, pleasant, beautiful and glorious: or within the hearts of her members, through the internal graces of the Spirit wrought there; the work of grace is an inward work; it has its seat in the heart or spirit of man, and is a glorious one, in its author, original, and usefulness; it is the workmanship of the Spirit, and a curious piece it is; it is the image of Christ upon the soul, a partaking of the divine nature; it is pure and spotless; it is clear of all sin, there is no sin in it, nor any comes from it; it is the saints' meetness for glory; it is the pledge, earnest, and beginning of it; it is "all glorious", and so are the persons that are the subjects of it, as born of God: there is nothing glorious in the old man, or corrupt nature; but in the new man, or work of grace upon the soul, everything is glorious, and it will issue in eternal glory and happiness: or all glorified within (r); like any house or building, to which the church is sometimes compared, particularly the tabernacle or temple, which were glorious within side being greatly adorned, and having many glorious things therein; as the church is with the graces of the spirit, and with the word and ordinances, and the presence of God in them;

her clothing is of wrought gold; this is different from internal grace, which is sometimes spoken of as a clothing, 1 Peter 5:5; since that is designed in the preceding clause; and yet this does not intend the outward conversation garments of the saints, which, though ornamental, are not so glorious as to be said to be of wrought gold; and yet not the robes of immortality and glory are meant; but the robe of Christ's righteousness, which he has wrought out for his church, the Father imputes unto her, and bestows upon her, and faith receives at his hand, and puts it on as a clothing, to appear in before God; and this may be said to be "of wrought gold"; because rich and valuable, splendid and glorious, substantial and durable.

(r) "honorata", Junius & Tremellius; "glorificata", Gussetius, p. 362.

The king's daughter is all glorious {l} within: her clothing is of wrought gold.

(l) There is nothing feigned or hypocritical but she is glorious both within and without: and even though the Church has not always had this outward glory, the fault is to be imputed only to their own ingratitude.

13. The King’s daughter within (the palace) is all glorious:

Her clothing is inwrought with gold. (R.V.)

The bride is described in all the splendour of her bridal attire. Within the palace, or in the inner part of the palace, may refer to her old home, the Psalmist by poetical licence ignoring intervals of time and place; but, more probably, to the house in Jerusalem to which she had been brought, and from which she is now to be conducted in state to the king’s palace (Psalm 45:14-15).

13–15. Description of the bride adorned for her husband.Verse 13. - The King's daughter is all glorious within. The "King's daughter "of this passage can be no other than the bride herself - the" queen" of ver. 9. As among her attendants some were "kings' daughters" (ver. 9), so she could be no less. She is "glorious," not only without, in her robe of" gold of Ophir," but also and especially within - in the inner chamber of the heart - where she is indeed "glorious," through the sanctifying presence of God's Holy Spirit (Ephesians 5:26, 27). Her clothing is of wrought gold (comp. ver. 9, and the comment ad lee.). (Heb.: 45:7-8) In order to avoid the addressing of the king with the word Elohim, Psalm 45:6 has been interpreted, (1) "Thy throne of God is for ever and ever,", - a rendering which is grammatically possible, and, if it were intended to be expressed, must have been expressed thus (Nagelsbach, 64, g); (2) "Thy throne is God ( equals divine) for ever and ever;" but it cannot possibly be so expressed after the analogy of "the altar of wood equals wooden" (cf. Psalm 45:9), or "the time is showers of rain equals rainy" (Ezra 10:13), since God is neither the substance of the throne, nor can the throne itself be regarded as a representation or figure of God: in this case the predicative Elohim would require to be taken as a genitive for אלהים כּסּא, which, however, cannot possibly be supported in Hebrew by any syntax, not even by 2 Kings 23:17, cf. Ges. 110, 2, b. Accordingly one might adopt the first mode of interpretation, which is also commended by the fact that the earthly throne of the theocratic king is actually called יהוה כסא in 1 Chronicles 29:23. But the sentence "thy throne of God is an everlasting one" sounds tautological, inasmuch as that which the predicate asserts is already implied in the subject; and we have still first of all to try whether אלהים cannot, with the lxx ὁ θρόνος σου, ὁ Θεὸς, εἰς αἰῶνα αἰῶνος, be taken as a vocative. Now, since before everything else God's throne is eternal (Psalm 10:16; Lamentations 5:19), and a love of righteousness and a hatred of evil is also found elsewhere as a description of divine holiness (Psalm 5:5; Psalm 61:8), אלהים would be obliged to be regarded as addressed to God, if language addressed to the king did not follow with על־כּן. But might אלהים by any possibility be even addressed to the king who is here celebrated? It is certainly true that the custom with the Elohim-Psalms of using Elohim as of equal dignity with Jahve is not favourable to this supposition; but the following surpassing of the אלהים by אלהים אלהיך renders it possible. And since elsewhere earthly authorities are also called אלהים, Exodus 21:6; Exodus 22:7., Psalm 82:1-8, cf. Psalm 138:1, because they are God's representatives and the bearers of His image upon earth, so the king who is celebrated in this Psalm may be all the more readily styled Elohim, when in his heavenly beauty, his irresistible doxa or glory, and his divine holiness, he seems to the psalmist to be the perfected realization of the close relationship in which God has set David and his seed to Himself. He calls him אלהים, just as Isaiah calls the exalted royal child whom he exultingly salutes in Psalm 9:1-6, אל־גּבּור. He gives him this name, because in the transparent exterior of his fair humanity he sees the glory and holiness of God as having attained a salutary of merciful conspicuousness among men. At the same time, however, he guards this calling of the king by the name Elohim against being misapprehended by immediately distinguishing the God, who stands above him, from the divine king by the words "Elohim, thy God," which, in the Korahitic Psalms, and in the Elohimic Psalms in general, is equivalent to Jahve, thy God" (Psalm 43:4; Psalm 48:15; Psalm 50:7); and the two words are accordingly united by Munach.

(Note: The view that the Munach is here vicarius Tiphchae anterioris (Dachselt in his Biblia Accentuata) is erroneous, vid., Accentuationssystem, xviii. 4. It is the conjunctive to אלהיך, which, in Heidenheim and Baer, on the authority of the Codices, has Tiphcha anterior, not Athnach as in the editions heretofore published. The proper place for the Athnach would at first be by שׁשׁון; but according to Accentuationssystem, xix. 6, it cannot stand there.)

Because the king's sceptre is a "sceptre of uprightness" (cf. Isaiah 11:4), because he loves righteousness and consequently (fut. consec.) hates iniquity, therefore God, his God, has anointed him with the oil of joy (Isaiah 61:3; cf. on the construction Amos 6:6) above his fellows. What is intended is not the anointing to his office (cf. Psalm 89:21 with Acts 10:38) as a dedication to a happy and prosperous reign, but that God has poured forth upon him, more especially on this his nuptial day, a superabundant joy, both outwardly and in his spirit, such as He has bestowed upon no other king upon the face of the earth. That he rises high above all those round about him is self-evident; but even among his fellows of royal station, kings like himself, he has no equal. It is a matter of question whether the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Hebrews 1:8) has taken the first ὁ Θεὸς of the expression ὁ Θεὸς ὁ Θεὸς σου as a vocative. Apollinaris does not seem so to have understood him; for he renders it τοὔνεκά σοι Θεὸς αὐτὸς ἑὴν περίχηευεν ἀλοιφήν χηρίσας τερπωλῆς μετόχηοις παρὰ πάντας ἐλαίῳ, and the Greek expositors also take ὁ Θεὸς here as a nominative.

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