Philippians 2:15
That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world;
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(15) Blameless and harmless.—“Blameless” as to external law and judgment (as in Luke 1:6; 1Thessalonians 2:10); “harmless” in internal purity and simplicity (as in Matthew 10:16, “harmless as doves;” and Romans 16:19).

The sons of God, without rebuke.—The word “without rebuke” is, according to the best MSS., the same as that which is used in Ephesians 1:4 (where see Note), and elsewhere, to signify “unblemished.” The whole passage seems certainly a reminiscence of Deuteronomy 32:5, as it runs in the Greek version, speaking of the Israelites as “no children of God, full of blemish, a crooked and perverse generation.” The word “crooked” is similarly applied to the unbelieving Jews by St. Peter in Acts 2:40, and the epithet “faithless and perverse generation” used by our Lord in Matthew 17:17; Luke 9:41.

Lights.—Properly, luminaries; so used in the Old Testament, and probably in Revelation 21:11. Christians are as the lesser lights of heaven, dim in comparison with the Sun of Righteousness, perhaps shining by His reflected light, and seen only in the night of this life, till He shall rise on us again in the “day of Christ” spoken of in the next verse. The word, therefore, stands half-way between “light” itself, as in Matthew 5:14, and the merely artificial “light” (or, candle) of John 5:35.

2:12-18 We must be diligent in the use of all the means which lead to our salvation, persevering therein to the end. With great care, lest, with all our advantages, we should come short. Work out your salvation, for it is God who worketh in you. This encourages us to do our utmost, because our labour shall not be in vain: we must still depend on the grace of God. The working of God's grace in us, is to quicken and engage our endeavours. God's good-will to us, is the cause of his good work in us. Do your duty without murmurings. Do it, and do not find fault with it. Mind your work, and do not quarrel with it. By peaceableness; give no just occasion of offence. The children of God should differ from the sons of men. The more perverse others are, the more careful we should be to keep ourselves blameless and harmless. The doctrine and example of consistent believers will enlighten others, and direct their way to Christ and holiness, even as the light-house warns mariners to avoid rocks, and directs their course into the harbour. Let us try thus to shine. The gospel is the word of life, it makes known to us eternal life through Jesus Christ. Running, denotes earnestness and vigour, continual pressing forward; labouring, denotes constancy, and close application. It is the will of God that believers should be much in rejoicing; and those who are so happy as to have good ministers, have great reason to rejoice with them.That ye may be blameless - That you may give no occasion for others to accuse you of having done wrong.

And harmless - Margin, "sincere." The Greek word (ἀκέραιος akeraios) means properly that which is unmixed; and then pure, sincere. The idea here is, that they should be artless, simple, without guile. Then they would injure no one. The word occurs only in Matthew 10:16; Philippians 2:15, where it is rendered "harmless," and Romans 16:19, where it is rendered "sincere"; see the Matthew 10:16 note, and Romans 16:19 note.

The sons of God - The children of God; a phrase by which true Christians were denoted; see the Matthew 5:45 note; Ephesians 5:1 note.

Without rebuke - Without blame; without giving occasion for anyone to complain of you.

In the midst of a crooked and perverse nation - Among those of perverted sentiments and habits; those who are disposed to complain and find fault; those who will take every occasion to pervert what you do and say, and who seek every opportunity to retard the cause of truth and righteousness. It is not certainly known to whom the apostle refers here, but it seems not improbable that he had particular reference to the Jews who were in Philippi. The language used here was employed by Moses Deuteronomy 32:5, as applicable to the Jewish people, and it is accurately descriptive of the character of the nation in the time of Paul. The Jews were among the most bitter foes of the gospel, and did perhaps more than any other people to embarrass the cause of truth and prevent the spread of the true religion.

Among whom ye shine - Margin, "or, shine ye." The Greek will admit of either construction, and expositors have differed as to the correct interpretation. Rosenmuller, Doddridge and others regard it as imperative, and as designed to enforce on them the duty of letting their light shine. Erasmus says it is doubtful whether it is to be understood in the indicative or imperative. Grotius, Koppe, Bloomfield, and others regard it as in the indicative, and as teaching that they did in fact shine as lights in the world. The sense can be determined only by the connection; and in regard to it different readers will form different opinions. It seems to me that the connection seems rather to require the sense of duty or obligation to be understood. The apostle is enforcing on them the duty of being blameless and harmless; of holding forth the word of life; and it is in accordance with his design to remind them that they ought to be lights to those around them.

As lights in the world - The comparison of Christians with light, often occurs in the Scriptures; see at Matthew 5:14, note, 16, note. The image here is not improbably taken from light-houses on a seacoast. The image then is, that as those light-houses are placed on a dangerous coast to apprise vessels of their peril, and to save them from shipwreck, so the light of Christian piety shines on a dark world, and in the dangers of the voyage which we are making; see the note of Burder, in Ros. Alt. u. neu. Morgenland, in loc.

15. blameless and harmless—without either the repute of mischief, or the inclination to do it [Alford].

sons—rather as Greek, "the children of God" (Ro 8:14-16). Imitation of our heavenly Father is the instinctive guide to our duty as His children, more than any external law (Mt 5:44, 45, 48).

without rebuke—"without (giving handle for) reproach." The whole verse tacitly refers by contrast to De 32:5, "Their spot … not … of His children … a perverse and crooked generation" (compare 1Pe 2:12).

ye shine—literally, "appear" [Trench]. "Show yourselves" (compare Mt 5:14-16; Eph 5:8-13).

as lights in the world—The Greek expresses "as luminaries in the world," as the sun and moon, "the lights," or "great lights," in the material world or in the firmament. The Septuagint uses the very same Greek word in the passage, Ge 1:14, 16; compare Note,, see on [2387]Re 21:11.

That ye may be blameless and harmless; that ye behave yourselves so that none can justly reproach you, Luke 1:6 and though you cannot altogether put to silence foolish men, John 15:25 1 Peter 2:15, yet they cannot have any just cause to stain your reputation; but you may be found sincere, simple, void of guile, Matthew 10:16 John 1:47 Romans 16:19 1 Peter 2:1, with 1 Peter 1:14.

The sons of God, without rebuke; without such spots and blemishes as are inconsistent with your adoption, or sonship, Ephesians 5:27. Sons of God, in regard of their relation, should be careful, as much as may be, that they do not expose themselves to the biting reproofs of those carping neighbours who are not of their Father’s family, Song of Solomon 4:7 Matthew 5:48 Ephesians 1:4 Judges 1:24.

In the midst of a crooked and perverse nation; who show by their lying in wickedness, 1Jo 5:19, and the uncured spots, yea, even plague sores, upon them who have notoriously corrupted themselves, that they are a perverse, crooked, untoward, and adulterous generation, Deu 32:5 Psalm 125:5 Matthew 12:39 Acts 13:8,10.

Among whom ye shine as lights in the world; in conversing with such a sort of men, ye either do, or ought, unanimously to show yourselves to be light in the Lord, Matthew 5:14,16 Eph 5:8,15; enlightened by the Sun of righteousness, Malachi 4:2, to give a more clear light, that however the uncivil wicked would bespatter you, and cast reproach upon you in the necessary exercises of religion; yet, you not suffering as murderers, thieves, busybodies, &c., 1 Peter 4:4,15,16, you will then, especially if Christ’s faithful ambassadors, show yourselves to be not such lantern or torchbearers as accompanied treacherous Judas, John 18:3, (however the ill men you live among may reckon you no better), but such light-bearers under Christ, (the Seventy use the word for stars, Genesis 1:16 Daniel 12:3 Revelation 1:16,20), as irradiate the world; not a house, as a candle doth, but the world, as stars do, Revelation 12:1.

That ye may be blameless,.... This, and what follows, show the end to be answered, by observing the above exhortation. This respects not their being blameless in the sight of God, which the saints are not in themselves, being not without sin, though they are, as considered in Christ, clothed with his righteousness, and washed in his blood; but their being blameless before men: and this may be understood both actively and passively; actively, that they might be without blaming others; some are so unhappy in their disposition and conduct, as to be always finding fault with, and blaming all persons they are concerned with, and all things in them, and done by them, right or wrong, without any just reason; and this ought not to be, and may be prevented by doing all things, as before directed: or passively, that they might not be blamed by others justly; for no man can escape the blame and censure of everyone; our Lord himself did not, nor this our apostle; but doing, as before exhorted to, will, in a great measure, preclude any just reason for blame and complaint: it is added,

and harmless; that is, that they might be, and appear to be so; harmless as doves, in imitation of Christ, who was holy in his nature, and harmless in his conversation, as his followers should be; doing no injury to any man's person or property, behaving in an inoffensive manner to all men, to Jew and Gentile, and to the church of God: it follows,

the sons of God; not that they might be sons by so doing; but be "as the sons of God", as the Syriac version renders it, be like them, and behave as such; for they were the sons of God already; not by creation only, as angels, and all men are, not merely by profession of religion, but by adopting grace; they were predestinated to the adoption of children, and were taken into this relation in the covenant of grace, Christ had redeemed them from under the law, that they might receive this blessing, and it was actually bestowed upon them by him in conversion: but the sense is, that they might appear to be the children of God, by acting as becomes such; not that they might appear so to themselves, for they were openly and manifestly to themselves the children of God, by faith in Christ Jesus, and through the testimony of the Spirit, witnessing to their spirits that they were in such a relation to God; but that they might appear so to others, that they were the adopted sons of God, and also begotten again by him, and made partakers of the divine nature; by their being followers of God as dear children, and by their being obedient ones to him in all holiness and godly conversation, yielding a ready and cheerful obedience to his will, without repining at it, or disputing about it; and to be

without rebuke; not without the rebuke of their heavenly Father, for whom he loves he rebukes, and every son that he receives into his family he scourges and chastises, not in wrath and anger, or with rebukes of fury, but of love; but without the rebuke of men, both of the churches and ministers of Christ, whose business it is to reprove and rebuke, publicly and privately, as cases and their circumstances require; and of the men of the world, who when they have any occasion, make use of it to speak reproachfully, as a railing Rabshakeh did, when it is a time of rebuke and blasphemy, and to be shunned and guarded against as much possible: especially since the saints live

in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation: or age and generation, as every age is; saints are like lilies in the valleys, liable to be trampled upon by the foot of every wild beast; like roses among thorns, to be scratched and torn; and like Lots in the midst of Sodom, vexed with the filthy conversation of the wicked: the whole world lies in sin, and the saints are enclosed on every side with wicked men. Philippi, where these saints lived, was a place of wickedness, and so no doubt was the whole region of Macedonia; the inhabitants were evil for the most part; their ways were crooked, and their works perverse, being contrary to the law of God, and Gospel of Christ; and therefore the following exhortation to the saints there was very suitable,

Among whom ye shine; or "shine ye", as it may be rendered,

as lights in the world. This world is, in a moral sense, what the original chaos was in a natural sense, covered with darkness; the darkness of ignorance and unbelief, of impiety and superstition, has spread itself over the far greater part of the world; the men of it are children of the night, and of darkness; their works are works of darkness, and they are going on in darkness, not knowing where they are going. The saints are the lights of the world, they were once darkness itself, but are made light in and by the Lord; they are called into marvellous light, and are filled with light spiritual and evangelical; they are like the moon and stars, that give light to the world in the night; and as they receive their light from the sun, and communicate it to the world, so do the saints receive theirs from Christ, the sun of righteousness, and show it forth to others, both by doctrine and practice: or rather the churches of Christ are as candlesticks, in which the light of the Gospel is put, and held forth to men, as follows, see Matthew 5:14.

{7} That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world;

(7) To be short, he requires a life without fault, and pure, so that being enlightened with the word of God, they may shine in the darkness of this world.

Php 2:15. If to their obedience of the admonitions given down to Php 2:13 there is added the manner of obedience prescribed in Php 2:14, they shall be blameless, etc. This, therefore, must be the high aim, which they are to have in view in connection with what is required in Php 2:14.

ἄμεμπτοι κ. ἀκέραιοι] blameless and sincere; the former represents moral integrity as manifesting itself to the judgment of others; the latter represents the same as respects its inner nature (comp. on Matthew 10:16 and Romans 16:19).

τέκνα Θεοῦ ἀμώμ.] comprehending epexegetically the two former predicates. Children of God (in virtue of the υἱοθεσία that took place in Christ, Romans 8:15; Romans 8:23; Galatians 4:5; Ephesians 1:5) they are (Romans 8:16; Romans 9:8). They are to become such children of God, as have nothing with which fault can be found; which in children of God presupposes the inward moral ἀκεραιότης, since they are led by the Spirit of God (Romans 8:14). This ethical view of the υἱοθεσία, prominent throughout the N. T., and already implied in the mode of contemplating Israel as the people of adoption (Romans 9:4) in the O. T. and Apocrypha, necessarily involves, in virtue of the ideal character of the relation, the moral development towards the lofty aim—implies, therefore, in the being the constant task of the becoming; and hence the sense of showing themselves is as little to be given, with Hofmann, to the γένησθε here as in Matthew 10:16, John 15:8, et al.; comp. also on Galatians 4:12. Ἀμώμητος, qui vituperari non potest, occurring elsewhere in the N. T. only at 2 Peter 3:14 (not equivalent to ἄμωμος or ἄμεμπτος), but see Hom. Il. xii. 109; Herod. iii. 82; frequently in the Anthol. Its opposite is: τέκνα μώμητα, Deuteronomy 32:5; the recollection of this latter passage has suggested the subsequent words, which serve as a recommendation of the condition to be striven for by contrasting it with the state of things around.

μέσον (see the critical remarks) is adverbial, in the midst of (Hom. Il. xii. 167; Od. xiv. 300; Eur. Rhes. 531 (μέσα); LXX. Numbers 35:5).

σκολιᾶς κ. διεστραμμ.]crooked and perverted, a graphic figurative representation of the great moral abnormity of the generation. Comp. on σκολιός, Acts 2:40; 1 Peter 2:18; Proverbs 4:24; Wis 1:3; Plat Legg. xii. p. 945 B, Gorg. p. 525 A; and on διεστρ., Matthew 17:17; Deuteronomy 32:20; Polyb. viii. 24. 3, v. 41. 1, ii. 21. 8; also διάστροφος, Soph. Aj. 442.

ἐν οἷς i.e. among the people of this γενεά; see Buttmann, Neut. Gr. p. 242 [E. T. p. 282]; Bremi, ad Isocr. I. p. 213 f.; Kühner, II. 1, p. 49 f.

φαίνεσθε] not imperative (Cyprian, Pelagius, Ambrosiaster, Theophylact, Erasmus, Vatablus, Calvin, Grotius, and others, including Storr, Flatt, Rheinwald, Baumgarten-Crusius), but the existing relation, which constitutes the essential distinctive character of the Christian state as contrasted with the non-Christian, Ephesians 5:8, al. The aim of the ἐν οἷς φαίνεσθε κ.τ.λ. is, by means of an appeal to the true Christian sense of honour (the consciousness of their high Christian position towards them that are without), to assist the attainment of the end in view; this is misunderstood by Bengel, when he suggests the addition of “servata hac admonitione,” a view in which he is followed by Hofmann. The meaning is not lucetis (so usually), but (comp. also Weiss, Schenkel, and J. B. Lightfoot): ye appear,[128] come into view, apparetis (Matthew 2:7; Matthew 24:27; Jam 4:14; Revelation 18:23; Hom. Il. 1:477, 24:785, 788, Od. ii. 1, Il. ix. 707; Hes. Oper. 600; Plat. Rep. p. 517 B; Xen. Hell. iv. 3. 10; Polyb. ix. 15. 7; Lucian, D. D. iv. 3; also Xen. Symp. i. 9, Anab. vii. 4. 16; hence τὰ φαινόμενα, the heavenly appearances). Lucetis (Vulgate) would be φαίνετε, John 1:5; John 5:35; 1 John 2:8; 2 Peter 1:19; Revelation 1:16; Revelation 21:23; 1Ma 4:40; Plat. Tim. p. 39 B; Arist. Nub. 586; Hes. Oper. 528; Theoc. ii. 11.

φωστῆρες] light-givers (Revelation 21:11), here a designation, not of torches (Beza, Cornelius a Lapide) or lamps (Hofmann), which would be too weak for ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ, and without support of linguistic usage; but, in accordance with the usage familiar to the apostle in the LXX, Genesis 1:14; Genesis 1:16, of the shining heavenly bodies; Wis 13:2; Sir 43:7; Heliod. 87; Anthol. xv. 17; Constant. Rhod. ep. in Paralip. 205.

Php 2:15. γένησθε. “That ye may become.” A high ideal before Paul’s mind to be reached by a gradual process.—ἄμεμπτοι. οὐ μικρὰν γὰρ προσάγει κηλῖδα ὁ γογγυσμός (Chr[9]). Perhaps ἄμεμ. refers to the judgment of others, while ἀκέραιοι denotes their intrinsic character (so Lft[10]). Cf. Matthew 10:16, where Christ exhorts the disciples to be ἀκέραιοι ὡς αἱ περιστεραί.—τέκνα Θεοῦ. This whole clause is a reminiscence, not a quotation, of Deuteronomy 32:5, ἡμάρτοσαν, οὐκ αὐτῷ τέκνα, μωμητά· γενεὰ σκολιὰ καὶ διεστραμμένη. It is impossible to say whether Paul uses τ. Θ. in the strict sense common in N.T., or whether he employs the term more loosely as in Ephesians 5:8.—The best authorities read ἄμωμα, the more usual N.T. word. ἀμωμητά may be due to μωμητά of LXX.—μέσον is certainly to be read instead of ἐν μέσῳ, with all leading authorities. It is one of those adverbial expressions which, in the later language, perhaps under the influence of Semitic usage, took the place of prepositions. Cf. Hatz., Einl, p. 214, where several exx. are quoted from Porphyrogenitus, de Caer.—σκολ. κ. διεστραμ. The latter epithet is precisely = the Scotch expression “thrawn,” “having a twist” in the inner nature.—ἐν οἷς. Sense-construction.—φαίν. Commentators differ as to whether φ. means here “appear” or “shine”. Surely the appearing of a φωστήρ, a luminary, must be, at the same time, a shining. Both interpretations really converge in this context. [Calv. takes φαίν. as imperative, and compares Isaiah 60:2. This is by no means unlikely.] Probably κόσμος (= the whole universe of things) goes closely with φωστῆρες, emphasising the contrast, while nothing is said as to their influence on others. Christ Himself is τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου (John 8:12). His followers are φωστῆρες ἐν κόσμῳ. For κόσμος see Evans’ excellent note on 1 Corinthians 2:12.

15. be] Better, with the true reading, become, prove; a gentle intimation that a change was needed.

blameless] Secure against true charges of inconsistency of temper and conduct.

harmless] So too R.V. But this can be only a derived rendering. The literal and ordinary meaning of the Greek is “unmixed, unadulterated, pure.” The character denoted is simple as against double; single-hearted in truth and love. It occurs elsewhere, in N.T., only Matthew 10:16; Romans 16:19; but often in secular writers.

the sons of God] More exactly, with R.V., children of God. The Greek word rendered “children” points more specially than the other to the nature and character of the family of God; the family-likeness. The precise phrase “children of God,” occurs elsewhere (in the Greek) John 1:12; John 11:52; Romans 8:16-17; Romans 8:21; Romans 9:8; 1 John 3:1-2; 1 John 3:10; 1 John 5:2. Here the evident meaning is, “that you may prove the fact of your spiritual sonship to God by your spiritual likeness to Him, which is its one true proof.” As a rule, Scripture tends to use the words “Father,” “son,” “child,” as between God and man, to indicate not the connexion of creation but that of new-creation, as here.

without rebuke] One Greek adjective; the same word (in the best attested reading here) as that in Ephesians 1:4; Ephesians 5:27; Colossians 1:22; passages in this same Roman group of St Paul’s Epistles.

This word is closely connected with the preceding words; we may paraphrase, “children of God, blameless as such.”—There is an implicit reference in the phrase to Deuteronomy 32:5, where the LXX. reads, “They sinned; they were not children to Him, but blameworthy children; a generation crooked and perverse.” The “true Israelites” of Philippi were to be the antithesis of the ancient rebels.

in the midst of &c.] A continued allusion to the words (see last note) of Moses; a beautiful inversion of them. “A crooked and distorted generation” is still in view, but it is now not the Lord’s Israel, but “they which are without” (Colossians 4:5), whose moral contrariety was both to bring out the power and beauty of grace in the saints, and at length to yield to its blessed charm.

“In the midst of”:—not in selfish or timid isolation from the duties and difficulties of life. The Gospel has no real sanction for the monastic idea. Cp. John 17:15; and the tenor of the Epistles at large.

ye shine] Better, ye appear, ye are seen (R.V.). The Greek verb is used of the rising and setting of the stars, the “phœnomena” of the heavens. Perhaps this is meant to be remembered here. The saints, in the beautiful light of holiness, were to rise star-like upon the dark sky of surrounding sin. See next note.

lights] Better, light-bearers, luminaries (luminaria, Latin Versions). The word appears in both secular and Biblical Greek as a designation of the heavenly bodies; see e.g. Genesis 1:14; Genesis 1:16. It occurs again, in N.T., only Revelation 21:11, apparently in the very rare sense of “radiance.”

Cp. Isaiah 60:1; Matthew 5:14; Matthew 5:16; Ephesians 5:8.

Php 2:15. Θεοῦ, of God) who is good.—σκολιᾶς) crooked.—φαίνεσθε) ye shine, namely, by having kept this exhortation. Of life follows, as the mention of light and life is frequently joined.—ἐν κόσμῳ, in the world) among the human race, of whom many are yet to be converted, others are to be reproved.

Verse 15. - That ye may be blameless and harmless; read, with the best manuscripts, that ye may become; an exhortation to continued progress. "Harmless;" rather, pure, simple; literally, unmixed. The sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation; rather, children, without the article. "The slave may murmur," says Chrysostom, "but what son will murmur, who, while working for his father, works also for himself?" Substitute "blameless" for "without rebuke," and "generation" for "nation." There is a close resemblance bore, especially in the Greek, and an evident reference to Deuteronomy 32:5. The Philippians are exhorted to exhibit in their lives a contrast to the behaviour of the rebellious Israelites. Among whom ye shine as lights in the world; not "shine," but, as R.V., are seen or appear. Lights; literally, luminaries. The word is used in Genesis 1:14, 16 of the sun and moon. Comp. Ecclus. 43:7 and Wisd. 13:2, "where φεστῆρες ὀυρανοῦ is exactly equivalent to φωστῆρες ἐν κοσμῷ here, the κοσμός of this place being the material world, the firmament; not the ethical world, which has been already expressed by the crooked and perverse nation" (Trench, 'Synonyms of the New Testament'). Philippians 2:15May be - harmless (γένησθε - ἀκέραιοι)

May be is rather may prove or show yourselves to be. Harmless, lit., unmixed. See on Matthew 10:16. Better, guileless. Blameless in the sight of others, guileless in your own hearts.

Sons of God (τέκνα)

Rev., better, children. See on John 1:12. Compare Deuteronomy 32:5.

Without rebuke (ἄμωμα)

Rev., correctly, without blemish. See on Colossians 1:22. The word is epexegetical of the two preceding epithets, unblemished in reputation and in reality.

Crooked and perverse (σκολίας - διεστραμμένης)

Crooked, see on untoward, Acts 2:40; see on froward, 1 Peter 2:18. Perverse, lit., warped, twisted. See on Matthew 17:17; see on Luke 23:14.

Ye shine (φαίνεσθε)

Rev., more correctly, ye are seen. Compare Matthew 24:27; Revelation 18:23, A.V., where the same error occurs. Shine would require the verb in the active voice, as John 1:5; John 5:35.

Lights (φωστῆρες)

Only here and Revelation 21:11, see note. Properly, luminaries. So Rev., in margin. Generally of the heavenly bodies. See Genesis 1:14, Genesis 1:16, Sept.

In the world

Connect with ye are seen, not with luminaries. The world, not only material, but moral. For the moral sense of κόσμος world, see on John 1:9.

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