Genesis 1:14
Parallel Verses
New International Version
And God said, "Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years,

New Living Translation
Then God said, "Let lights appear in the sky to separate the day from the night. Let them be signs to mark the seasons, days, and years.

English Standard Version
And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years,

New American Standard Bible
Then God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years;

King James Bible
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Then God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night. They will serve as signs for festivals and for days and years.

International Standard Version
Then God said, "Let there be lights across the sky to distinguish day from night, to act as signs for seasons, days, and years,

NET Bible
God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them be signs to indicate seasons and days and years,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Then God said, "Let there be lights in the sky to separate the day from the night. They will be signs and will mark religious festivals, days, and years.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and for appointed times and for days and years;

King James 2000 Bible
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

American King James Version
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

American Standard Version
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years:

Douay-Rheims Bible
And God said: Let there be lights made in the firmament of heaven, to divide the day and the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years:

Darby Bible Translation
And God said, Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens, to divide between the day and the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;

English Revised Version
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years:

Webster's Bible Translation
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven, to divide the day from the night: and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years.

World English Bible
God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of sky to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;

Young's Literal Translation
And God saith, 'Let luminaries be in the expanse of the heavens, to make a separation between the day and the night, then they have been for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years,
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

1:14-19 In the fourth day's work, the creation of the sun, moon, and stars is accounted for. All these are the works of God. The stars are spoken of as they appear to our eyes, without telling their number, nature, place, size, or motions; for the Scriptures were written, not to gratify curiosity, or make us astronomers, but to lead us to God, and make us saints. The lights of heaven are made to serve him; they do it faithfully, and shine in their season without fail. We are set as lights in this world to serve God; but do we in like manner answer the end of our creation? We do not: our light does not shine before God, as his lights shine before us. We burn our Master's candles, but do not mind our Master's work.

Pulpit Commentary

Verses 14, 15. - Day four. With this day begins the second half of the creative week, whose works have a striking correspondence with the labors of the first. Having perfected the main structural arrangements of the globe by the elimination from primeval chaos of the four fundamental elements of light, air, water, and land, the formative energy of the Divine word reverts to its initial point of departure, and, in a second series of operations, carries each of these forward to completion - the light by permanently settling it in the sun, the air and water by filling therewith fowl and fish, and the land by making animals and man. The first of these engaged the Divine Artificer's attention on the fourth creative day. And God said, Let there be lights (literally, places where light is, light-holders, Psalm 64:16; φωστῆρες, LXX.; luminaria, Vulgate; spoken of lamps and candlesticks, Exodus 25:6: Numbers 4:9, 16) in the firmament (literally the expanse) of the heaven. יִהִי in the singular with מְאֹרֹת in the plural is explained by Gesenius on the ground that the predicate precedes the subject (vid. 'Gram.,' §147). The scientific accuracy of the language here used to describe the celestial luminaries relieves the Mosaic cosmogony of at least one supposed irreconcilable contradiction, that of representing light as having an existence independent of the sun. Equally does it dispense exegesis from the necessity of accounting for what appears a threefold creation of the heavenly bodies - in the beginning (ver. 1), on the first day (ver. 3), and again on the fourth (ver. 14). The reference in the last of these verses is not to the original creation of the matter of the supra mundane spheres (Gerlach), which was performed in the beginning, nor to the first production of light, which was the specific work of day one; but to the permanent appointment of the former to be the place, or center of radiation, for the latter. The purpose for which this arrangement was designed, so far, at least, as the earth was concerned, was threefold: -

1. To divide the day from the night. Literally, between the day and the night; or, as in ver. 18, to divide the light from the darkness to continue and render permanent the separation and distinction which was effected on the first day.

2. And let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years. The celestial lights were to serve -

(1) For signs. Othoth, from oth, anything engraved, hence a mark (Genesis 4:15; 2 Kings 20:8), is employed to designate a portent, or sign of wanting or instruction (Psalm 61:8; Isaiah 8:18; Isaiah 20. g; LXX., σημεῖον; cf. Luke 21:25; Acts if. 19), and here probably refers to the subsequent employment of the heavenly bodies "as marks or signs of important changes and occurrences in the kingdom of Providence" (Macdonald). "That they may have been designed also to subserve important purposes in the -various economy of human life, as in affording signs to the mariner and husbandman, is not improbable, though this is not so strictly the import of the original" (Bush). Still less, of course, does the word refer to mediaeval astrology or to modern meteorology.

(2) For seasons. Moradhim, set times, from ya'ad, to indicate, define, fix, is used of yearly returning periods (Genesis 17:21; Genesis 18:14) - the time of the migration of birds (Jeremiah 8:7), the time of festivals (Psalm 104:19; Zechariah 8:19).

(3) For days and years, i.e. for the calculation of time. Luther, Calvin, Mercer, Piscator, Delitzsch, Murphy, Macdonald, et alii regard the three phrases as co-ordinate; Rosenmüller, Gesenius, Do Wette, Baumgarten take the first two as a hendiadys for "signs of the seasons;" Kalisch considers the second to be in opposition to the first; Tuch translates, "for signs, as well for the times as also for the days and years." The first, which accords with the English version, is the simplest, and, most probably, the correct interpretation.

3. And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth. Not to introduce light for the first time to this lower world, but to serve as a new and permanent arrangement for the distribution of the light already called into existence. And it was so. Like every other command which Elohim issued, this was in due time followed by complete realization.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

And God said, let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven,.... In the upper part of it, commonly called the starry heaven: some writers, both Jewish and Christian, and even modern astronomers, understand this only of the appearance of them, and not of the formation of them; they suppose they were made on the first day, but did not appear or shine out so clearly and visibly as now on the fourth day: but it seems rather, that the body of fire and light produced on the first day was now distributed and formed into several luminous bodies of sun, moon, and stars, for these were "from light"; lights produced from that light, or made out of it; or were instruments of communicating and letting down that light upon the earth (h), which was collected and put together in them, especially in the sun: and the uses of them wero divide the day from the night; which is the peculiar use of the sun, which by its appearance and continuance makes the day, and by withdrawing itself, or not appearing for a certain time, makes the night; as the light by its circular motion did for the first three days, or the diurnal motion of the earth on its axis, then and now:

and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years; for "signs" of good and bad weather; for the times of ploughing, sowing, reaping, &c. and for the "seasons" of summer and winter, spring and autumn; for "days" by a circular motion for the space of twenty four hours; and for "years" by annual motion for the space of three hundred sixty five days and odd hours. The Targum of Jonathan is,

and let them be for signs and the times of the feasts, and to reckon with them the number of days, and, sanctify the beginnings of the months, and the beginnings of the years, and the intercalations of months and years, the revolutions of the sun, and the new moons, and cycles. And so Jarchi interprets "seasons" of the solemn festivals, that would hereafter be commanded the children of Israel; but those uses were not for a certain people, and for a certain time, but for all mankind, as long as the world should stand.

(h) "significat lucem illam primam per sese lucentem"; "vero corpus per quod lux illa prima splendorem suum demittit". Nachmanides, apud Fagium in loc.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

Ge 1:14-19. Fourth Day.

14. let there be lights in the firmament—The atmosphere being completely purified, the sun, moon, and stars were for the first time unveiled in all their glory in the cloudless sky; and they are described as "in the firmament" which to the eye they appear to be, though we know they are really at vast distances from it.

Genesis 1:14 Additional Commentaries
Context
The Fourth Day: Sun, Moon, Stars
14Then God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years; 15and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth"; and it was so.…
Cross References
Genesis 1:13
And there was evening, and there was morning--the third day.

Genesis 1:15
and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth." And it was so.

Psalm 19:1
For the director of music. A psalm of David. The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands.

Psalm 74:16
The day is yours, and yours also the night; you established the sun and moon.

Psalm 104:19
He made the moon to mark the seasons, and the sun knows when to go down.

Psalm 136:7
who made the great lights-- His love endures forever.

Psalm 150:1
Praise the LORD. Praise God in his sanctuary; praise him in his mighty heavens.

Jeremiah 10:2
This is what the LORD says: "Do not learn the ways of the nations or be terrified by signs in the heavens, though the nations are terrified by them.

Jeremiah 31:35
This is what the LORD says, he who appoints the sun to shine by day, who decrees the moon and stars to shine by night, who stirs up the sea so that its waves roar-- the LORD Almighty is his name:

Ezekiel 32:8
All the shining lights in the heavens I will darken over you; I will bring darkness over your land, declares the Sovereign LORD.
Treasury of Scripture

And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

Let there.

Deuteronomy 4:19 And lest you lift up your eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun, …

Job 25:3,5 Is there any number of his armies? and on whom does not his light arise…

Job 38:12-14 Have you commanded the morning since your days; and caused the dayspring …

Psalm 8:3,4 When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon …

Psalm 19:1-6 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows his handiwork…

Psalm 74:16,17 The day is yours, the night also is yours: you have prepared the …

Psalm 104:19,20 He appointed the moon for seasons: the sun knows his going down…

Psalm 119:91 They continue this day according to your ordinances: for all are your servants.

Psalm 136:7-9 To him that made great lights: for his mercy endures for ever…

Psalm 148:3,6 Praise you him, sun and moon: praise him, all you stars of light…

Isaiah 40:26 Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who has created these things, …

Jeremiah 31:35 Thus said the LORD, which gives the sun for a light by day, and the …

Jeremiah 33:20,25 Thus said the LORD; If you can break my covenant of the day, and …

lights. Or, rather, luminaries or light-bearers; being a different world from that rendered light, in ver

Genesis 1:3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

between the day and between the night. and let.

Genesis 8:22 While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, …

Genesis 9:13 I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant …

Job 3:9 Let the stars of the twilight thereof be dark; let it look for light, …

Job 38:31,32 Can you bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion…

Psalm 81:3 Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our …

Ezekiel 32:7,8 And when I shall put you out, I will cover the heaven, and make the …

Ezekiel 46:1,6 Thus said the Lord GOD; The gate of the inner court that looks toward …

Joel 2:10,30,31 The earth shall quake before them; the heavens shall tremble: the …

Joel 3:15 The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw …

Amos 5:8 Seek him that makes the seven stars and Orion, and turns the shadow …

Amos 8:9 And it shall come to pass in that day, said the Lord GOD, that I …

Matthew 2:2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen …

Matthew 16:2,3 He answered and said to them, When it is evening, you say, It will …

Matthew 24:29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be …

Mark 13:24 But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, …

Luke 21:25,26 And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the …

Luke 23:45 And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the middle.

Acts 2:19,20 And I will show wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath; …

Revelation 6:12 And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, see, there was …

Revelation 8:12 And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, …

Revelation 9:2 And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of …

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