Jeremiah 25:24
And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert,
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(24) All the kings of Arabia.—The same phrase occurs in 1Kings 10:15, and is used for the nomadic tribes bordering on Palestine rather than in the wider sense of classical geographers.

25:15-29 The evil and the good events of life are often represented in Scripture as cups. Under this figure is represented the desolation then coming upon that part of the world, of which Nebuchadnezzar, who had just began to reign and act, was to be the instrument; but this destroying sword would come from the hand of God. The desolations the sword should make in all these kingdoms, are represented by the consequences of excessive drinking. This may make us loathe the sin of drunkenness, that the consequences of it are used to set forth such a woful condition. Drunkenness deprives men of the use of their reason, makes men as mad. It takes from them the valuable blessing, health; and is a sin which is its own punishment. This may also make us dread the judgments of war. It soon fills a nation with confusion. They will refuse to take the cup at thy hand. They will not believe Jeremiah; but he must tell them it is the word of the Lord of hosts, and it is in vain for them to struggle against Almighty power. And if God's judgments begin with backsliding professors, let not the wicked expect to escape.Arabia - That part which bordered on Palestine, and was inhabited mainly by Ishmaelites.

The mingled people - Compare the Jeremiah 25:20 note. In Arabia there seem to have been many tribes of Cushite origin, who by intermarriage with other tribes had become of mixed blood.

24. mingled people—not in the same sense as in Jer 25:20; the "motley crowd," so called in contempt (compare Jer 49:28, 31; 50:37). By a different pointing it may be translated the "Arabs"; but the repetition of the name is not likely. Blaney thinks there were two divisions of what we call Arabia, the west (Araba) and the east. The west included Arabia-Petræa and the parts on the sea bordering on Egypt, the land of Cush; the east, Arabia-Felix and Deserta. The latter are "the mixed race" inhabiting the desert. All the kings of Arabia; there were several kings in Arabia, 2 Chronicles 9:14.

All the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert; people of several nations that were got together in the desert, and had made to themselves several kings or chief rulers. And all the kings of Arabia,.... Of Arabia Petraea;

and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert; the other Arabians or mixed people, that dwell in Arabia Deserta, as the Scenites, Nomades, Kedarenes, and others; and so the Targum,

"and all the kings of the Arabians, that dwell in tents in the desert.''

Of these, see the prophecy in Jeremiah 49:28.

And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mixed people that dwell in the {t} desert,

(t) For there were two countries so named, the one called plentiful and the other barren, or desert.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
24. and all the kings of Arabia] LXX omit.

Arabia] lit. dwellers in the steppes (ărâbâh), “a tribe (or group of tribes) somewhere in N. Arabia; cf. Isaiah 21:13 … after Old Testament times it was gradually extended so as to denote the whole of what we now know as ‘Arabia.’ But in the Old Testament the rend. ‘Arabia’ suggests far more than what is really meant.” Dr.

the mingled people] See note on Jeremiah 25:20, but in the unvocalised Hebrew the clause is identical with the preceding. Thus one of them only is genuine.Verse 24. - All the kings of Arabia. Not "Arabia" in our sense (which is never found in the Old Testament), but the desert region to the east and south-east of Palestine, occupied by nomad or "Ishmaelitish" tribes. The mingled people; rather, the intermingled people (see on ver. 20); i.e. probably in this passage populations of a different race interspersed among the Aramaic tribes to which most of the inhabitants of the desert belonged. This duty imposed by the Lord Jeremiah performs; he takes the cup and makes all peoples drink it. Here the question has been suggested, how Jeremiah performed this commission: whether he made journeys to the various kings and peoples, or, as J. D. Mich. thought, gave the cup to ambassadors, who were perhaps then in Jerusalem. This question is the result of an imperfect understanding of the case. The prophet does not receive from god a flagon filled with wine which he is to give, as a symbol of divine wrath, to the kings and peoples; he receives a cup filled with the wrath of God, which is to intoxicate those that drink of it. As the wrath of God is no essence that may be drunk by the bodily act, so manifestly the cup is no material cup, and the drinking of it no act of the outer, physical reality. The whole action is accordingly only emblematical of a real work of God wrought on kings and peoples, and is performed by Jeremiah when he announces what he is commanded. And the announcement he accomplished not by travelling to each of the nations named, but by declaring to the king and his princes in Jerusalem the divine decree of judgment.

The enumeration begins with Judah, Jeremiah 25:18, on which first judgment is to come. Along with it are named Jerusalem, the capital, and the other cities, and then the kings and princes; whereas in what follows, for the most part only the kings, or, alternating with them, the peoples, are mentioned, to show that kings and peoples alike must fall before the coming judgment. The plural "kings of Judah" is used as in Jeremiah 19:3. The consequence of the judgment: to make them a desolation, etc., runs as in Jeremiah 25:9, Jeremiah 25:11, Jeremiah 19:8; Jeremiah 24:9. כּיּום הזּה has here the force: as is now about to happen.

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