Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And it came to pass, that on one of those days, as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes came upon him with the elders,Luke 20:1. [Διδάακοντος, as He taught) He walked about, taught, and preached the Gospel in the temple, as in what was altogether His own house.—V. g.]—σὺν τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις, with the elders) These do not recur in Luke 20:19.
And spake unto him, saying, Tell us, by what authority doest thou these things? or who is he that gave thee this authority?
And he answered and said unto them, I will also ask you one thing; and answer me:Luke 20:3. Εἴπατε, tell ye Me) Answering to Εἶπον ἡμῖν, tell us, in Luke 20:2.
The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men?
And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then believed ye him not?
But and if we say, Of men; all the people will stone us: for they be persuaded that John was a prophet.Luke 20:6. Καταλιθάσει, will stone) It was not the province of the people to stone the priests and scribes when rejecting a prophet, however true a one he might be: but often even the perverse zeal of the multitude is by accident subservient to a good cause.
And they answered, that they could not tell whence it was.
And Jesus said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.
Then began he to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a far country for a long time.Luke 20:9. Ἤρξατο, He began) After that the scribes had given Him new cause for speaking.—λαὸν, the people) who needed to be fortified against the cavilling objections of the chief priests; [as also who needed to be fortified against the impending offence of His cross.—V. g.]—χρόνους ἱκανοὺς, during long periods of time) after the people’s entrance into the land of Canaan; [from which event down to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans was a period of more than 1500 years.—V. g.]
And at the season he sent a servant to the husbandmen, that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard: but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty.Luke 20:10. Ἐν καιρῷ, at the proper season) viz. of the fruits.—δείραντες, having beaten) An ascending climax: having beaten, here; having beaten and insulted [“entreated shamefully”], in Luke 20:11; and having wounded, in Luke 20:12. Such as is exhibited also in ἐξαπέστειλαν, they sent away, in both Luke 20:10-11, and ἐξέβαλον, they cast out, in Luke 20:12.
And again he sent another servant: and they beat him also, and entreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty.Luke 20:11. Προσέθετο πέμψαι) A Hebraism often found in the LXX. Version.
And again he sent a third: and they wounded him also, and cast him out.
Then said the lord of the vineyard, What shall I do? I will send my beloved son: it may be they will reverence him when they see him.Luke 20:13. Ἴσως) Ἴσως occurs once in the New Testament, and once in the LXX. for אך, 1 Samuel 25:21. It denotes, humanly speaking, an opinion, conjecture, or hope, which might reasonably be entertained (as also profane authors employ ἴσως for per chance, it may be that); in the present case there is signified the altogether wise frankness (sincerity) of the Divine goodness.
But when the husbandmen saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, This is the heir: come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.Luke 20:14. Λέγοντες, saying) The Scripture in weighty and true language expresses (portrays) the actual and real mind of men, which they themselves often do not think to be so bad as it is. Comp. Luke 20:16 [They said, “God forbid”]. God, who estimates things by the truth, and men, who habitually flatter themselves, weigh sins in very different scales.—ἀποκτείνωμεν, let us kill) Ch. Luke 19:47.
So they cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore shall the lord of the vineyard do unto them?
He shall come and destroy these husbandmen, and shall give the vineyard to others. And when they heard it, they said, God forbid.Luke 20:16. Μὴ γένοιτο) So the LXX. render the Hebrew חלילה. They mean to say this, Far be it from us, God forbid, that we should kill the heir. Comp. the following verse, and John 12:34. [Frequently it happens that men refuse to acknowledge as in them that degree of wickedness which God upbraids them with.—V. g.]
 Comp. John 7:20 : “Who goeth about to kill thee,” with the, “God forbid” here.—E. and T.
And he beheld them, and said, What is this then that is written, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner?Luke 20:17. Ἐμβλέψας, having looked stedfastly upon them) in order to whet (stimulate) the attention of their minds respecting their own selves. The accent or tone, the gesture, and the expression of countenance, often render the force of the words more expressive.—γεγραμμένον, which is written) See Matthew 21:42, note.
Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be broken; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.Luke 20:18. Ἐκεῖνον) that great stone, of which the prediction had been given long ago in the Psalm.
And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they feared the people: for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them.Luke 20:19. Ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρα, in the same hour) The hatred against Him increasing in violence. Comp. ch. Luke 19:47.—καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν) καὶ, but [and yet], they feared.—γὰρ, for) Refer this, for, to ἐζήτησαν, “they sought to lay hands on Him.”—πρὸς αὐτοὺς, in reference to themselves) against themselves.
And they watched him, and sent forth spies, which should feign themselves just men, that they might take hold of his words, that so they might deliver him unto the power and authority of the governor.Luke 20:20. [Δικαίους εἶναι, to be just men) As if they were asking the question under distress of mind on a point of conscience. He who has a concern for conscience on the point, in actual fact carries away with him a clear reply.—V. g.]—λόγου) The same case follows the verb in Luke 20:26, ῥήματος.—τῇ ἀρχῇ) to the power of the Jewish rulers, and afterwards to Pilate.
 Ἐπιλαμβάνομαι governs the Genit. always, expressing the part of the thing laid hold of. So ἄπτομαι, and other such verbs expressing touch or hold.—E. and T.
And they asked him, saying, Master, we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly, neither acceptest thou the person of any, but teachest the way of God truly:Luke 20:21. Ὀρθῶς, rightly) rigidly, with any bending of the truth [to suit a purpose].
Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?
But he perceived their craftiness, and said unto them, Why tempt ye me?
Shew me a penny. Whose image and superscription hath it? They answered and said, Caesar's.
And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.
And they could not take hold of his words before the people: and they marvelled at his answer, and held their peace.
Then came to him certain of the Sadducees, which deny that there is any resurrection; and they asked him,[27. Ἀντιλέγοντες, who deny) The truth is the most ancient: error is a new and upstart contradiction raised against it; although from time to time those in error esteem their own opinion to be even the more ancient.—V. g.]
Saying, Master, Moses wrote unto us, If any man's brother die, having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.[28. The reading ἐξαναστήσει is to be preferred. Very often after a Subjunctive comes an Indicative. See the LXX., Deuteronomy 20:5, μὴ ἀποθάνη ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ καὶ ἓτερος ἐγκαινιεῖ αὐτήν.—Not. Crit.]
 A reads ἐξαναστήσει. But the other best Uncial MSS. and Vulg., etc., read ἐξαναστήση. The former may have come through the Harmonies from Matthew 22:24, ἀναστήσει Indic. In the parallel in Mark the authorities are divided between the Indic. and Subj. as here.—E. and T.
There were therefore seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and died without children.
And the second took her to wife, and he died childless.
And the third took her; and in like manner the seven also: and they left no children, and died.Luke 20:31. Καὶ οἱ ἑπτὰ, the seven also) that is to say, the rest of the seven.
Last of all the woman died also.
Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them is she? for seven had her to wife.
And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage:Luke 20:34. Οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου, the children of this world) who are subject to the law of mortality; not even all the pious being excepted, [who are not now as yet such as they shall be.—V. g.] The antithesis is, the children of God (υἱοὶ—Θεοῦ), in Luke 20:36.
But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage:Luke 20:35. Καταξιωθέντες, who are accounted worthy) Truly a great dignity conferred. So ch. Luke 21:36 [ἴνα καταξιωθῆτε, “that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things—and to stand before the Son of man”].—τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου, καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως, that world, and the resurrection) Therefore even before the resurrection an entrance is given into that world.—ἐκ νεκρῶν, out from the dead) All shall rise again; but the godly shall rise again out from among the ungodly. As to these latter, there is not preached and declared the resurrection, but a more profound death of the soul conjoined with the body. So Acts 4:2.
 In reference to which fact, the term ἐξανάστασις is used by Paul (not merely ἀνάστασις), Php 3:11, to express his great hope.—E. and T.
 Τὴν ἀνάστασιν τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν. However the word resurrection, ἀνάστασιν, is applied to the unjust as well as to the just, Acts 24:15, though not with the addition, ἐκ νεκρῶν, out from the dead.—E. and T.
Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.Luke 20:36. Οὔτε, neither) They have a body so perfect, that they are subject neither to the law of marriage nor to death, which gave occasion to the succession of brothers in the having to wife the one woman. That shall be a state more firm and lasting than the Adamic state.—ἰσάγγελοι γὰρ, for they are like [equal to] the angels) An Ætiology (see Append. on this figure), assigning the reason why there shall then be no marriages.—υἱοὶ τοῦ Θεοῦ, sons of God) Equally as are the angels.—τῆς ἀναστάσεως) of the resurrection, which comprehends under it immortality. An antithesis to die (ἀποθανεῖν), and an instance of the figure Ploce.—ὄντες) Resolve this into, inasmuch as they are.
 See Append. A word employed twice, once to express the simple meaning, and afterwards an attribute of it. Ἀνάστασις first simply, then including immortality in it.—E. and T.
Now that the dead are raised, even Moses shewed at the bush, when he calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.Luke 20:37. Καὶ Μωσῆς) Not merely the rest of the prophets, but even Moses.—λέγει, calleth) In writing out the words of God, speaking concerning Himself.
For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living: for all live unto him.Luke 20:38. Πάντες, all) Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all of whom God is the God, but who are dead to men. To men they are dead; whereas to Him, αὐτῷ, viz. God, they live.—γὰρ, for) This is the very kind of conclusion in which the particle therefore (inferential) might have been expected. But instead of it, for is put down, as in Romans 3:28. The for is used in this sense: Argumentation has been employed [proof has been adduced]: ‘for’ this was the point of the truth which needed to be demonstrated.—αὐτῷ, to Him) To God, not to mortals. Moreover, they so live to God, as to enjoy God. [1 Peter 4:6].—ζῶσιν) all live, viz. with the soul: and so they shall live with soul and body. The whole time of the soul being separated from the body is, as it were, a moment in relation to the union which was originally intended, and which is destined to last for ever: also in relation to God, to whom things future are not in the least remote, nay, are most present and immediate: Romans 4:17 [“God—calleth those things which be not as though they were”].
 This seems to me a misprint, though it is found both in the Quarto Edition of 1759, and the modern Ed. of Steudel. For in Romans 3:28, the inferential particle οὖν is employed, not γὰρ, which Bengel’s argument requires. Probably it should be Romans 2:28, οὐ γὰρ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ Ἰουδᾶιός ἐστιν, etc., “For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly,” etc.; where οὖν, therefore, might have been expected.—E. and T.
Then certain of the scribes answering said, Master, thou hast well said.Luke 20:39. Καλῶς εἶπας, Thou hast well said) On this ground also, as well as on others, the truth should be freely spoken, because, though (when) it offends some, it however is approved of by others.
And after that they durst not ask him any question at all.
And he said unto them, How say they that Christ is David's son?[41. Πῶς λέγουσι, how (in what sense) say they) viz. Commentators, Doctors.—V. g.]
And David himself saith in the book of Psalms, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,Luke 20:42. Ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν, in the book of the Psalms) Therefore at that time already, and long before, the Psalms were read in a collected form, constituting one complete body or work.
Till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
David therefore calleth him Lord, how is he then his son?
Then in the audience of all the people he said unto his disciples,[45. Παντὸς τοῦ λαοῦ, all the people) To give public warning against dangerous men, is a duty in the highest degree necessary to be discharged.—V. g.]
Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts;[46. Θελόντων, who wish) Often a thing, not bad in itself, is vitiated by the wish and intent with which it is done.—V. g.]
Which devour widows' houses, and for a shew make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation.