1 Peter 5
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed:
1 Peter 5:1. Πρεσβυτέρους, elders) A title of office, in 1 Peter 5:2; and of age, in 1 Peter 5:5.—συμπρεσβύτερος, a fellow-elder) Mutual exhortation has great weight among equals and colleagues. With propriety and modesty does the first of the apostles thus speak of himself.—καὶ μάρτυς, and a witness) Peter had both witnessed the sufferings of the Lord Himself, and he was now enduring sufferings.—δόξης, of glory) 1 Peter 5:4; 2 Peter 1:16.—κοινωνὸς, a partaker) Apocalypse Revelation 1:9. An incentive to good shepherds.

Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind;
1 Peter 5:2. Ποιμάνατε, feed) by discipline and doctrine.—τὸ ἐν ὑμῖν) entrusted to you for your part.—μὴ ἀναγκαστῶς, not by constraint) Necessity is laid upon them, 1 Corinthians 9:16, but willingness prevents it from being felt. This is efficacious both in undertaking and in discharging the office. Those pastors are not undeserving of censure, who, if it were in their power, would prefer to be anything else.—[ἀλλʼἀλλὰ, butbut) The motive and scope ought to be free from fault.—V. g.]—μηδὲ αἰσχροκερδῶς, nor for the sake of dishonourable gain) The receiving of pay is not forbidden, 1 Corinthians 9:14; but there ought to be the absence of all that is dishonourable, and the presence of a noble promptness.—προθύμως, willingly) So that the enjoyment consists in feeding the flock, and not in the pay.

Neither as being lords over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.
1 Peter 5:3. Ὡς κατακυριεύοντες, as being lords over) who only give orders with a proud mind, and not with humility, and who oppress. In later times the presbyters took upon themselves to bear rule; whence the title Signore, especially in Italy, from Senior.—τῶν κληρων, inheritances) In the plural: of the flock, in the singular The flock is one, under one Chief Shepherd, Christ; but the portions (κλῆροι) are many, according to the number of places or overseers. But the style closely resembles a Mimesis:[39] for the congregation is not the peculiar property of the elder, but he who lords it, treats it as though it were his lot or property. Κλῆρος signifies a lot; then a portion of the Church which falls to an elder as his pastoral charge; then the pastor’s office; then the pastors; then the other clergy. How great an alteration[40] is there, and a falling off in the meaning at the last! Comp. Note on Chrysostom de Sacerd., p. 504.—ΤΎΠΟΙ, examples) The purest obedience is obtained by example, [such as you will hardly see rendered by the most keen of pastors “for filthy lucre,” or “lords.”—V. g.] Such frank intercourse subdues the itching desire for rule.

[39] See Append. on MIMESIS.—E.

[40] See Append. on METALEPSIS.—E.

And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.
1 Peter 5:4. Φανερωθέντος, is manifested) It is the part of faith to serve the Lord, though yet unseen.—ἀρχιποίμενος) the Chief Shepherd. Ἀρχιποίμην has the acute accent on the penultimate, as φιλοποίμην, βουποίμην.

Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder. Yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble.
1 Peter 5:5. Ὁμοίως, in like manner) The foundation of the exhortation which precedes and follows is humility.—ἀλλήλοις, one to another) even without regard to age.—ἐγκομβώσασθε, put on) Κόμβος, a knot, or band, by which the slaves were fastened, especially in the dress of slaves. Hesychius: κομβώσασθαι, στολίσαθαι, to put on a dress; and ἐγκομβωθεὶς, δεθείς, bound; and ἐγκεκόμβωται, ἐνείληται, he is wrapped up in.[41] Therefore ἘΓΚΟΜΒΏΣΑΣΘΕ is, put on and wrap yourselves up in: so that the covering of humility cannot be stripped off from you by any force.—ὁ Θεὸς, God) See Jam 4:6, note.

[41] Thus Horace:—“Virtute me involvo.”—T.

Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time:
1 Peter 5:6. Κραταιὰν χεῖρα, the powerful hand) The hand of God establishes different ranks; He depresses the proud, and exalts the humble. He who is subject to the ordinances of man for the Lord’s sake, ch. 1 Peter 2:13, submits himself also to the Lord Himself. Comp. Romans 13:2.—ἐν καιρῷ, in due time) at the befitting time. Comp. ὀλίγον, 1 Peter 5:10. Peter often looks to the day of judgment.

Casting all your care upon him; for he careth for you.
1 Peter 5:7. Πᾶσον τὴν μέριμναν, all your anxiety) If the world depresses you, or if many things are wanting to you.—ἐπιῤῥίψαντες, casting) boldly. [Exemption from anxieties is pre-eminently accordant with humility.—V. g.] Psalm 55:22, Septuagint, ἐπίῤῥιψον ἐπὶ Κύριον τὴν μέριμνάν σου, καὶ αὐτός σε διαθρέψει, Cast thine anxiety upon the Lord, and He shall sustain thee. Casting, watch. There is a close agreement between these two duties, Luke 12:22; Luke 12:37; and Peter adds to each its own because. God provides: therefore do not be anxious. The devil seeks: therefore watch.—μέλει, there is a care) Not so strong a word as μέριμνα, anxiety.

Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:
1 Peter 5:8. Νήψατς, watch) Let this be your care. Watch with the soul.—γρηγορήσατε, watch) with the body.—ὁ ἀντίδικοςκαταπίῃ, the adversarymay devour) He seeks the righteous at once by the appearance of justice and by violence: Apocalypse, Revelation 12:10.—ὠρυόμενος, roaring) with fury.—ζητῶν, seeking) with treachery.—τίνα, whom) especially of the faithful, Job 1:8.—καταπίῃ, he may devour) First with reference to the soul, and then with reference to the body. But he especially lays snares by means of the sorrow arising from cares, which is injurious to faith.

Whom resist stedfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world.
1 Peter 5:9. Τῇ πίστει, through or by the faith) Constructed with resist [not “stedfast in the faith,” as Engl. Vers.]—τὰ αὐτὰ τῶν παθημάτων, the very same sufferings) Not merely like sufferings, but the very same. The same governs the Dative ἀδελφότητι, brotherhood. Thus Lucretius: eadem aliis sopitus quiete est. Chrysost. de Sacerd., p. 202: εἰς τὴν αὐτὴν ἐκείνοις ἐκπίπτειν μανίαν, to fall into the same madness with them. The meaning of the apostle is: the same sufferings which happen to your brethren are also undergone by you. Comp. Matthew 5:12; 2 Corinthians 1:6; Php 1:30. [Therefore it is not a bad sign in a person, if the devil harasses him with sufferings.—V. g.]—ἐν κόσμῳ) in the whole of this world, which lies in the evil one, the devil: 1 Peter 5:8. It is antithetical to the eternal glory of God, 1 Peter 5:10.—ὑμῶν ἀδελφότητι, to your brotherhood) of Jews and Gentiles.—ἐπιτελεῖσθαι, are accomplished) The measure of sufferings is gradually filled up.

But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you.
1 Peter 5:10. Πάσης χάριτος) of all and unmixed grace, which begins and completes, which calls and settles (founds). [It is an act of grace, when GOD sends even sufferings upon us.—V. g.]—ἐν, in) Taken with who hath called.—ὀλίγον, a little) However great it seems, it is little and short in comparison with eternal glory.—παθόντας, when you have suffered) Some sufferings are to be endured, then perfection comes, etc.—αὐτὸς, He Himself) [without the aid of man]. Do you only watch, and resist the enemy: God will perform the rest. Comp. the I, Joshua 13:6; Joshua 13:1.—καταρτίσει, will perfect) so that no defect remain in you. The Doxology which follows agrees with the Indicative, rather than with the Optative, which some here read.[42] Comp. 1 Timothy 1:17; 2 Timothy 4:18.—ΣΤΗΡΊΞΕΙ, will stablish) so that nothing may cause you to waver.—σθενώσει, will strengthen) so that you may overcome all the violence of your adversaries. A saying worthy of Peter. He is strengthening his brethren.

[42] καταρτίσει, στηρίξει, etc., in the Future, is the reading of AB and most Versions, except that, whilst many MSS. of Vulg. read “confirmabit,” Amiat. MS. reads “confirmavit:” the latter, however, has “perficiet.” Rec Text reads the optative, καταρτίσαι, στηρίξαι, etc.—E.

To him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
1 Peter 5:11. Κράτος, strength) The effect of which is expressed in 1 Peter 5:10.

By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand.
1 Peter 5:12. Σιλουανοῦ, Silvanus) Silvanus, or Silas, a companion of Paul, appears to have been sent by Paul to Peter. On this opportunity, Peter expresses his approval of the doctrine and acts of Paul. Comp. 2 Peter 3:16.—ὡς λογίζομαι, as I think) That Silvanus was a faithful brother was not known to Peter by revelation, but he formed this opinion in the judgment of prudent charity, not having had heretofore much intercourse with him; and therefore he entrusted him with the letter.—διʼ ὀλίγων ἔγραψα, I have written shortly) that is, in this very letter. An abbreviated expression: I have written (I have written and sent) by Silvanus. Comp. Acts 15:23.—παρακαλῶν, exhorting) for the sake of brevity. Instruction (doctrine) requires more copious treatment than exhortation.—καὶ ἐπιμαρτυρῶν, and moreover [or additionally] testifying) A compound word. They had long since heard the testimony by Paul and Silas: Peter gives additional testimony: 1 John 2:27.—ταύτην εἶναι ἀληθῆ χάριν) That this grace, now present, 2 Peter 1:12, is that true grace formerly promised by the Prophets, and that no other is to be expected.—εἰς ἣν ἑστήκατε, in which ye stand) Romans 5:2, note. The grace in which we stand must be true, and our standing in it true also.

The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son.
1 Peter 5:13. Ἐν Βαβυλῶνι, in Babylon) This was Babylon of the Chaldeans, which abounded with Jews. See Lightfoot, Hor. on 1 Cor., p. 269. From the prospect (point of view) afforded by this Babylon there follows the series of countries:[43] ch. 1 Peter 1:1, note.—ΣΥΝΕΚΛΕΚΤῊ, elect together with) Thus he appears to speak of his wife; comp. ch. 1 Peter 3:7; for she was a sister, 1 Corinthians 9:5; and the mention of his son Mark agrees with this.

[43] The particular order in which the five provinces are enumerated by Peter, proves that it was from this Babylon he looked at them.—E.

Greet ye one another with a kiss of charity. Peace be with you all that are in Christ Jesus. Amen.
1 Peter 5:14. Ἀγάπης) of sacred love.—εἰρήνη, peace) שלום, that is, I pray for your salvation: farewell.[44]

[44] Bengel, J. A. (1866). Vol. 5: Gnomon of the New Testament (M. E. Bengel & J. C. F. Steudel, Ed.) (W. Fletcher, Trans.) (43–83). Edinburgh: T&T Clark.

Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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