Job 26:5
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
"The dead are in deep anguish, those beneath the waters and all that live in them.

New Living Translation
"The dead tremble--those who live beneath the waters.

English Standard Version
The dead tremble under the waters and their inhabitants.

New American Standard Bible
"The departed spirits tremble Under the waters and their inhabitants.

King James Bible
Dead things are formed from under the waters, and the inhabitants thereof.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The departed spirits tremble beneath the waters and all that inhabit them.

International Standard Version
"The ghosts of the dead writhe under the waters along with those who live there with them.

NET Bible
"The dead tremble--those beneath the waters and all that live in them.

New Heart English Bible
"Those who are deceased tremble, those beneath the waters and all that live in them.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"The souls of the dead tremble beneath the water, and so do the creatures living there.

JPS Tanakh 1917
The shades tremble Beneath the waters and the inhabitants thereof.

New American Standard 1977
“The departed spirits tremble
            Under the waters and their inhabitants.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Dead things are formed under the waters and of its dwelling places.

King James 2000 Bible
Dead things are formed from under the waters, and the inhabitants thereof.

American King James Version
Dead things are formed from under the waters, and the inhabitants thereof.

American Standard Version
They that are deceased tremble Beneath the waters and the inhabitants thereof.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Behold the giants groan under the waters, and they that dwell with them.

Darby Bible Translation
The shades tremble beneath the waters and the inhabitants thereof;

English Revised Version
They that are deceased tremble beneath the waters and the inhabitants thereof.

Webster's Bible Translation
Dead things are formed from under the waters, and the inhabitants thereof.

World English Bible
"Those who are deceased tremble, those beneath the waters and all that live in them.

Young's Literal Translation
The Rephaim are formed, Beneath the waters, also their inhabitants.
Study Bible
Job: who Can Understand God's Majesty
4"To whom have you uttered words? And whose spirit was expressed through you? 5"The departed spirits tremble Under the waters and their inhabitants. 6"Naked is Sheol before Him, And Abaddon has no covering.…
Cross References
Job 3:13
"For now I would have lain down and been quiet; I would have slept then, I would have been at rest,

Job 26:4
"To whom have you uttered words? And whose spirit was expressed through you?

Psalm 88:10
Will You perform wonders for the dead? Will the departed spirits rise and praise You? Selah.
Treasury of Scripture

Dead things are formed from under the waters, and the inhabitants thereof.

Dead things (Or, 'The giants (rephaim) are in anguish under the waters and their inhabitants;' probably in allusion to the destruction of the earth by the deluge.)

Job 41:1 Can you draw out leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord …

Genesis 6:4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, …

Psalm 104:25,26 So is this great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping innumerable, …

Ezekiel 29:3-5 Speak, and say, Thus said the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against you, …

and. or, with

(5) Dead things are formed.--The Hebrew word is the Rephaim, who were among the aboriginal inhabitants of the south of Palestine and the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea, and it is used to express the dead and the inhabitants of the nether world generally. The word rendered are formed probably means either are pierced or tremble: that is, they are pierced through with terror, or they tremble, with a possible reference to the state of the dead as the prey of corruption, though spoken of them where they are beyond the reach of it. All the secrets of this mysterious, invisible, and undiscoverable world are naked and open before Him--the grave lies naked and destruction is uncovered.

Verses 5-14. - Job now turns from controversy to the realities of the case, and begins with a full acknowledgment of God's greatness, might, and inscrutableness. As Bildad seemed to have supposed that he needed enlightenment on these points (Job 26:2-4), Job may have thought it right to make once more a plain profession of his belief (comp. Job 9:4-18; Job 12:9-25, etc.). Verse 5. - Dead things are formed from under the waters; rather, the dead from under the waters tremble. Hehraists generally are agreed that one of the meanings of Rephaim (רְפָאִים) is "the dead" or the departed, considered especially as inhabitants of Hades (comp. Psalm 88:11; Proverbs 2:18; Isaiah 14:9; Isaiah 26:14). And if so, this meaning is certainly appropriate here. Blidad had illustrated God's dominion from his power in heaven. Job shows that it exists alike in heaven and earth (vers. 7-13), and in the region under the earth (vers. 5, 6). There, in Sheol, under the waters of the ocean, the dead tremble at the thought of the Most High; they tremble together with other inhabitants thereof, as evil spirits, rebel intelligences, east down to Hades, and there held in durance (Jude 1:6). Dead things are formed from under the waters,.... It is difficult to say what things are here meant; it may be understood of "lifeless" things, as Mr. Broughton renders it; things that never had any life, things inanimate, that never had at least an animal life, though they may have a vegetable one; and so may be interpreted of grains of corn, and which indeed die before they are quickened; to which both Christ and the apostle allude, John 12:24; and which, as they cannot grow without water, and their fructification and increase are owing to the earth being plentifully watered with rain, may be said to be formed under the waters; and of these Aben Ezra and Ben Gersom interpret the words; and the latter also makes mention of herbs, plants, and trees in the sea, particularly almug trees, as being probably intended; to which may be added, corals, and other sea plants, formed from under the waters; yea, some make mention of woods and forests there: but the last mentioned writer, seems inclined to think that metals and minerals may be intended; and it is well known that much of gold is taken out of rivers, as also pearls and precious stones; and that iron is taken out of the earth, and brass molten out of stone; and that the several metals and minerals are dug out of mountains and hills, from whence fountains and rivers flow; but as the word used has the signification of something gigantic, it has inclined others to think of sea monsters, as of the great whales which God made in the seas, and the leviathan he has made to play therein:

and or "with"

the inhabitants thereof; the innumerable company of fishes, both of the larger and lesser sort, which are all formed in and under the waters: but why may not giants themselves be designed, since the word is sometimes used of them, Deuteronomy 2:11; and so the Vulgate Latin and the Septuagint version here render the word, and may refer to the giants that were before the flood, and who were the causes of filling the world with rapine and violence, and so of bringing the flood of waters upon it; in which they perished "with the inhabitants thereof"; or their neighbours; of whom see Genesis 6:4; and the spirits of these being in prison, in hell, as the Apostle Peter says, 1 Peter 3:19; which is commonly supposed to be under the earth, and so under the waters, in which they perished; they may be represented as in pain and torment, and groaning and trembling under the same, as the word here used is by some thought to signify, and is so rendered (t); though as the word "Rephaim" is often used of dead men, Psalm 88:10; it may be understood of them here, and have respect to the formation of them anew, or their resurrection from the dead, when the earth shall cast them forth; and especially of those whose graves are in the sea, and who have been buried in the waters of it, when that shall deliver up the dead that are therein, Revelation 20:13; which will be a wonderful instance of the mighty power of God. The Targumist seems to have a notion of this, or at least refers unto it, paraphrasing the words thus,

"is it possible that the mighty men (or giants) should be created (that is, recreated or regenerated; that is, raised from the dead); seeing they are under the waters, and their armies?''

(t) "gemunt", V. L. "cruciabuntur", Bolducius; "cruciantur, dolore contremiscunt", Michaelis; "intremiscunt", Schultens. Vid. Windet. de Vita Funct. Stat. p. 90. 5-14. As before in the ninth and twelfth chapters, Job had shown himself not inferior to the friends' inability to describe God's greatness, so now he describes it as manifested in hell (the world of the dead), Job 26:5, 6; on earth, Job 26:7; in the sky, Job 26:8-11; the sea, Job 26:12; the heavens, Job 26:13.

Dead things are formed—Rather, "The souls of the dead (Rephaim) tremble." Not only does God's power exist, as Bildad says (Job 25:2), "in high places" (heaven), but reaches to the region of the dead. Rephaim here, and in Pr 21:16 and Isa 14:9, is from a Hebrew root, meaning "to be weak," hence "deceased"; in Ge 14:5 it is applied to the Canaanite giants; perhaps in derision, to express their weakness, in spite of their gigantic size, as compared with Jehovah [Umbreit]; or, as the imagination of the living magnifies apparitions, the term originally was applied to ghosts, and then to giants in general [Magee].

from under—Umbreit joins this with the previous word "tremble from beneath" (so Isa 14:9). But the Masoretic text joins it to "under the waters." Thus the place of the dead will be represented as "under the waters" (Ps 18:4, 5); and the waters as under the earth (Ps 24:2). Magee well translates thus: "The souls of the dead tremble; (the places) under the waters, and their inhabitants." Thus the Masoretic connection is retained; and at the same time the parallel clauses are evenly balanced. "The inhabitants of the places under the waters" are those in Gehenna, the lower of the two parts into which Sheol, according to the Jews, is divided; they answer to "destruction," that is, the place of the wicked in Job 26:6, as "Rephaim" (Job 26:5) to "Hell" (Sheol) (Job 26:6). "Sheol" comes from a Hebrew root—"ask," because it is insatiable (Pr 27:20); or "ask as a loan to be returned," implying Sheol is but a temporary abode, previous to the resurrection; so for English Version "formed," the Septuagint and Chaldee translate; shall be born, or born again, implying the dead are to be given back from Sheol and born again into a new state [Magee].26:5-14 Many striking instances are here given of the wisdom and power of God, in the creation and preservation of the world. If we look about us, to the earth and waters here below, we see his almighty power. If we consider hell beneath, though out of our sight, yet we may conceive the discoveries of God's power there. If we look up to heaven above, we see displays of God's almighty power. By his Spirit, the eternal Spirit that moved upon the face of the waters, the breath of his mouth, Ps 33:6, he has not only made the heavens, but beautified them. By redemption, all the other wonderful works of the Lord are eclipsed; and we may draw near, and taste his grace, learn to love him, and walk with delight in his ways. The ground of the controversy between Job and the other disputants was, that they unjustly thought from his afflictions that he must have been guilty of heinous crimes. They appear not to have duly considered the evil and just desert of original sin; nor did they take into account the gracious designs of God in purifying his people. Job also darkened counsel by words without knowledge. But his views were more distinct. He does not appear to have alleged his personal righteousness as the ground of his hope towards God. Yet what he admitted in a general view of his case, he in effect denied, while he complained of his sufferings as unmerited and severe; that very complaint proving the necessity for their being sent, in order to his being further humbled in the sight of God.
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