Zechariah 2:13
Be silent, O all flesh, before the LORD: for he is raised up out of his holy habitation.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
Zechariah 2:13. Be silent — Reverence and adore God, and expect the accomplishment of his word. O all flesh — Both Jews and Gentiles. He is raised up out of his holy habitation — God is engaged in this work already, and will not rest till he has accomplished his whole work. 2:10-13 Here is a prediction of the coming of Christ in human nature. Many nations in that day would renounce idolatry, and God will own those for his people who join him with purpose of heart. Glorious times are foretold as a prophecy of our Lord's coming and kingdom. God is about to do something unexpected, and very surprising, and to plead his people's cause, which had long seemed neglected. Silently submit to his holy will, and patiently wait the event; assured that God will complete all his work. He will ere long come to judgment, to complete the salvation of his people, and to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their sins.Be silent - Literally, "hush all flesh, before the Lord" (see at Habakkuk 2:20, p. 207); man in his weakness Genesis 6:3; 2 Chronicles 32:8; Job 10:4; Psalm 56:4; Psalm 78:39; Isaiah 31:3; Jeremiah 17:5, "flesh and blood" in the language of the New Testament Matthew 16:17; 1 Corinthians 15:50; Galatians 1:16, before God his Maker. "All flesh," the whole human race Genesis 6:12; Psalm 65:3; Psalm 145:21; Isaiah 40:5-6; Isaiah 49:26; Isaiah 66:23; Joel 3:1; Ezekiel 21:4, Ezekiel 21:9-10, is to be hushed before God, because His judgments, as His mercies, are over all.

For God ariseth - God seemeth to be quiescent, as it were, when He bears with us; to arise, when He puts forth His power, either for us, when we pray, "Lord, awake to help me" (Psalm 59:4, add Psalm 7:7; Psalm 44:24); or in displeasure. His "holy habitation" is alike the tabernacle 1 Samuel 2:29, 1 Samuel 2:32; Psalm 26:9; Psalm 68:6, temple 2 Chronicles 36:15, heaven Deuteronomy 26:15; Jeremiah 25:30; 2 Chronicles 30:27, since His presence is in all.

13. Be silent, O all flesh—(Hab 2:20). "Let all in silent awe and reverence await the Lord's coming interposition in behalf of His people!" The address is both to the Gentile foes, who prided themselves on their power as if irresistible, and to the unbelieving Jews, who distrusted God's promises as incredible. Three reasons why they must be silent are implied: (1) they are but "flesh," weak and ignorant; (2) He is Jehovah, all-wise and all-powerful; (3) He is already "raised up out of His place," and who can stand before Him? [Pembellus], (Ps 76:8, 9).

he is raised up out of his holy habitation—that is, out of heaven (De 26:15; 2Ch 30:27; Isa 63:15), to judge and avenge His people (Isa 26:21); or, "out of His holy" temple, contemptible and incomplete as it looked then when Zechariah urged them to rebuild it [Calvin]. But the call to all to "be silent" is rather when God has come forth from heaven where so long He has dwelt unseen, and is about to inflict vengeance on the foe, before taking up His dwelling in Zion and the temple. However, Ps 50:1, 2 ("Out of Zion"), Ps 50:3 (compare Hab 2:3), Ps 50:4, favors Calvin's view. God is now "silent" while the Gentile foe speaks arrogance against His people; but "our God shall come and no longer keep silence"; then in turn must all flesh "be silent" before Him.

Be silent; murmur not, you that love not Zion; dispute not, you that, think these promises are too good, too great; but, in silence, reverence and adore God in all his excellences and ways; wait, and expect the accomplishment of all by him who never utters more than he can and will do for his people. O all flesh; both Jew and Gentile; you are weak, short-sighted, and worthless; you are flesh, be silent and wait.

Before the Lord; the wise, mighty, gracious, and faithful One; who never suffered a word of his to fall unfulfilled, nor will let any of these promises to fail.

He is raised up: he speaks to our capacity; God is said to be raised in allusion to men who get up, or rise up, and set about what they will do; so here God is on this work already.

Out of his holy habitation; either heaven, or his temple.

Be silent; murmur not, you that love not Zion; dispute not, you that, think these promises are too good, too great; but, in silence, reverence and adore God in all his excellences and ways; wait, and expect the accomplishment of all by him who never utters more than he can and will do for his people. O all flesh; both Jew and Gentile; you are weak, short-sighted, and worthless; you are flesh, be silent and wait.

Before the Lord; the wise, mighty, gracious, and faithful One; who never suffered a word of his to fall unfulfilled, nor will let any of these promises to fail.

He is raised up: he speaks to our capacity; God is said to be raised in allusion to men who get up, or rise up, and set about what they will do; so here God is on this work already.

Out of his holy habitation; either heaven, or his temple. Be silent, O all flesh, before the Lord,.... Be filled with fear, awe, and astonishment, at the wonderful work of God; the destruction of antichrist; the conversion of the Jews, and the calling of the Gentiles: let them not open their mouths, or dare to say one word against it. The Targum interprets the words of the wicked, and paraphrases them thus,

"let all the wicked be consumed before the Lord;''

see Psalm 104:35 and it seems to design the rest of the people, who will not be converted; called flesh, being not only frail and mortal, but corrupt and sinful; and so not able to contend with God, who is mighty in strength, and glorious in holiness, and a God doing wonders. A like phrase is in Habakkuk 2:20,

for he is raised up out of his holy habitation: which is heaven, Isaiah 63:15 where he seemed to have been as it were asleep for many hundreds of years, even during the reign of antichrist; but now he will be as a man awaked out of his sleep, and will arise to take vengeance on his and his church's enemies, and to help them, and make them happy and glorious.

Be silent, O all flesh, before the LORD: for he is raised up out of his holy habitation.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
13. be silent] Comp. Habakkuk 2:20; Zephaniah 1:7.

raised up] waked up. R. V.

his holy habitation] From heaven, “the habitation of His holiness” (Deuteronomy 26:15; Jeremiah 25:30), where He had seemed to dwell, far off from the affairs of earth, Jehovah should arise, or awake, and come forth to judgment, to succour His people and discomfit His enemies. Let all flesh be hushed before Him in awful silence.

The Fourth Vision. Joshua the High Priest before the Angel of Jehovah, Zechariah 3:1-10. The former visions had foretold that the “rest” of the nations should be disturbed (Zechariah 1:8-17), that the enemies of Israel should be “cast out” (Zechariah 1:18-21), and that Jerusalem should become the habitation of Jehovah (Zechariah 2:1-13). But in order to the fulfilment of these promises, there must be a moral and spiritual reformation of the people. With this the next vision is concerned. Judgment begins at the house of God (comp. Malachi 3:3). The prophet sees Joshua the High Priest, the representative not only of the whole priesthood, but also of the entire nation, standing before the Angel of the Lord. At his right hand stands the Adversary, to play an adversary’s part against him (Zechariah 2:1). But before the charge can be preferred, Jehovah Himself interposes and rebukes the Adversary. Would the same hand, He asks, that had plucked from the fire the brand, charred, blackened and half-consumed already, cast it back again into the flames? And should He, who had delivered the remnant of His people from the furnace of Babylon, now listen to the charges of the accuser and yield them again to destruction? (Zechariah 2:2.) Doubtless, matter of accusation is not wanting. The very garb of Joshua testifies against him. Instead of the pure white linen in which the High Priest should have been arrayed, he is “clothed with filthy garments” (Zechariah 2:3). But this obstacle shall by an act of mere grace be removed. The angel attendants are commanded to take away his filthy garments; while their action is interpreted to him by the assurance that his iniquity is put away, and the promise of pure raiment is given him (Zechariah 2:4). At the instance of the prophet, who would fain see God’s High Priest arrayed in the complete attire of his office, a fair mitre is added. The angel of Jehovah stands by to seal by his presence and approval the transaction (Zechariah 2:5). Nor does he quit the scene till he has revealed to Joshua the full dignity of the priesthood to which he is now restored. As exercised by himself and his successors, it shall, while it moves in the ways of holy obedience in the restored Temple on earth, move also in spirit among the heavenly ministrations of angels (Zechariah 2:6-7). But it shall furthermore, by virtue of its typical character, foreshadow and prepare the way for Him who, Himself its chief cornerstone, shall rear the true Temple on which the eyes of Jehovah are fixed (Zechariah 2:8-9), who by one act shall remove iniquity for ever (Zechariah 2:9), and restore prosperity and festal joy to man (Zechariah 2:10).Verse 13. - Be silent; hush (comp. Habakkuk 2:20; Zephaniah 1:7, and notes there). In the expectation of these mighty events, men are called upon to wait in awe and reverence. He is raised up; he hath arisen. He had seemed to sleep when he let his people be trodden down by the heathen; but now he, as it were, waketh and cometh from heaven, his holy habitation (Deuteronomy 26:15), to inflict the threatened judgment on the nations, and to succour his own people (comp. Psalm 44:23, etc.).



The fourth woe is an exclamation uttered concerning the cruelty of the Chaldaean in the treatment of the conquered nations. Habakkuk 2:15. "Woe to him that giveth his neighbour to drink, mixing thy burning wrath, and also making drunk, to look at their nakedness. Habakkuk 2:16. Thou hast satisfied thyself with shame instead of with honour; then drink thou also, and show the foreskin. The cup of Jehovah's right hand will turn to thee, and the vomiting of shame upon thy glory. Habakkuk 2:17. For the wickedness at Lebanon will cover thee, and the dispersion of the animals which frightened them; for the blood of the men and the wickedness on the earth, upon the city and all its inhabitants." The description in Habakkuk 2:15 and Habakkuk 2:16 is figurative, and the figure is taken from ordinary life, where one man gives another drink, so as to intoxicate him, for the purpose of indulging his own wantonness at his expense, or taking delight in his shame. This helps to explain the משׁקה רעהוּ, who gives his neighbour to drink. The singular is used with indefinite generality, or in a collective, or speaking more correctly, a distributive sense. The next two circumstantial clauses are subordinate to הוי משׁקה, defining more closely the mode of the drinking. ספּח does not mean to pour in, after the Arabic sfḥ; for this, which is another form for Arab. sfk, answers to the Hebrew שׁפך, to pour out (compare שׁפך חמתו, to pour out, or empty out His wrath: Psalm 79:6; Jeremiah 10:25), but has merely the meaning to add or associate, with the sole exception of Job 14:19, where it is apparently used to answer to the Arabic sfḥ; consequently here, where drink is spoken of, it means to mix wrath with the wine poured out. Through the suffix חמתך the woe is addressed directly to the Chaldaean himself, - a change from the third person to the second, which would be opposed to the genius of our language. The thought is sharpened by ואף שׁכּר, "and also (in addition) making drunk" (shakkēr, inf. abs.). To look upon their nakednesses: the plural מעוריהם is used because רעהוּ has a collective meaning. The prostrate condition of the drunken man is a figurative representation of the overthrow of a conquered nation (Nahum 3:11), and the uncovering of the shame a figure denoting the ignominy that has fallen upon it (Nahum 3:5; Isaiah 47:3). This allegory, in which the conquest and subjugation of the nations are represented as making them drink of the cup of wrath, does not refer to the open violence with which the Chaldaean enslaves the nations, but points to the artifices with which he overpowers them, "the cunning with which he entices them into his alliance, to put them to shame" (Delitzsch). But he has thereby simply prepared shame for himself, which will fall back upon him (Habakkuk 2:16). The perfect שׂבעתּ does not apply prophetically to the certain future; but, as in the earlier strophes (Habakkuk 2:8 and Habakkuk 2:10) which are formed in a similar manner, to what the Chaldaean has done, to bring upon himself the punishment mentioned in what follows. The shame with which he has satisfied himself is the shamefulness of his conduct; and שׂבע, to satisfy himself, is equivalent to revelling in shame. מכּבוד, far away from honour, i.e., and not in honour. מן is the negative, as in Psalm 52:5, in the sense of ולא, with which it alternates in Hosea 6:6. For this he is now also to drink the cup of wrath, so as to fall down intoxicated, and show himself as having a foreskin, i.e., as uncircumcised ( הערל from ערלה ). This goblet Jehovah will hand to him. Tissōbh, he will turn. על (upon thee, or to thee). This is said, because the cup which the Chaldaean had reached to other nations was also handed over to him by Jehovah. The nations have hitherto been obliged to drink it out of the hand of the Chaldaean. Now it is his turn, and he must drink it out of the hand of Jehovah (see Jeremiah 25:26). וקיקלון, and shameful vomiting, (sc., יהיה) will be over thine honour, i.e., will cover over thine honour or glory, i.e., will destroy thee. The ἁπ. λεγ. קיקלון is formed from the pilpal קלקל from קלל, and softened down from קלקלון, and signifies extreme or the greatest contempt. This form of the word, however, is chosen for the sake of the play upon קיא קלון, vomiting of shame, vomitus ignominiae (Vulg.; cf. קיא צאה in Isaiah 28:8), and in order that, when the word was heard, it should call up the subordinate meaning, which suggests itself the more naturally, because excessive drinking is followed by vomiting (cf. Jeremiah 25:26-27).

This threat is explained in Habakkuk 2:17, in the statement that the wickedness practised by the Chaldaean on Lebanon and its beasts will cover or fall back upon itself. Lebanon with its beasts is taken by most commentators allegorically, as a figurative representation of the holy land and its inhabitants. But although it may be pleaded, in support of this view, that Lebanon, and indeed the summit of its cedar forest, is used in Jeremiah 22:6 as a symbol of the royal family of Judaea, and in Jeremiah 22:23 as a figure denoting Jerusalem, and that in Isaiah 37:24, and probably also in Zechariah 11:1, the mountains of Lebanon, as the northern frontier of the Israelitish land, are mentioned synecdochically for the land itself, and the hewing of its cedars and cypresses may be a figurative representation of the devastation of the land and its inhabitants; these passages do not, for all that, furnish any conclusive evidence of the correctness of this view, inasmuch as in Isaiah 10:33-34, Lebanon with its forest is also a figure employed to denote the grand Assyrian army and its leaders, and in Isaiah 60:13 is a symbol of the great men of the earth generally; whilst in the verse before us, the allusion to the Israelitish land and nation is neither indicated, nor even favoured, by the context of the words. Apart, for example, from the fact that such a thought as this, "the wickedness committed upon the holy land will cover thee, because of the wickedness committed upon the earth," not only appears lame, but would be very difficult to sustain on biblical grounds, inasmuch as the wickedness committed upon the earth and its inhabitants would be declared to be a greater crime than that committed upon the land and people of the Lord; this view does not answer to the train of thought in the whole of the ode, since the previous strophes do not contain any special allusion to the devastation of the holy land, or the subjugation and ill-treatment of the holy people, but simply to the plundering of many nations, and the gain forced out of their sweat and blood, as being the great crime of the Chaldaean (cf. Habakkuk 2:8, Habakkuk 2:10, Habakkuk 2:13), for which he would be visited with retribution and destruction. Consequently we must take the words literally, as referring to the wickedness practised by the Chaldaean upon nature and the animal world, as the glorious creation of God, represented by the cedars and cypresses of Lebanon, and the animals living in the forests upon those mountains. Not satisfied with robbing men and nations, and with oppressing and ill-treating them, the Chaldaean committed wickedness upon the cedars and cypresses also, and the wild animals of Lebanon, cutting down the wood either for military purposes or for state buildings, so that the wild animals were unsparingly exterminated. There is a parallel to this in Isaiah 14:8, where the cypresses and cedars of Lebanon rejoice at the fall of the Chaldaean, because they will be no more hewn down. Shōd behēmōth, devastation upon (among) the animals (with the gen. obj., as in Isaiah 22:4 and Psalm 12:6). יחיתן is a relative clause, and the subject, shōd, the devastation which terrified the animals. The form יחיתן for יחתּן, from יחת, hiphil of חתת, is anomalous, the syllable with dagesh being resolved into an extended one, like התימך for התמּך in Isaiah 33:1; and the tsere of the final syllable is exchanged for pathach because of the pause, as, for example, in התעלּם in Psalm 55:2 (see Olshausen, Gramm. p. 576). There is no necessity to alter it into יחיתך (Ewald and Olshausen after the lxx, Syr., and Vulg.), and it only weakens the idea of the talio. The second hemistich is repeated as a refrain from Habakkuk 2:8.

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