Jeremiah 25:21
Edom, and Moab, and the children of Ammon,
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25:15-29 The evil and the good events of life are often represented in Scripture as cups. Under this figure is represented the desolation then coming upon that part of the world, of which Nebuchadnezzar, who had just began to reign and act, was to be the instrument; but this destroying sword would come from the hand of God. The desolations the sword should make in all these kingdoms, are represented by the consequences of excessive drinking. This may make us loathe the sin of drunkenness, that the consequences of it are used to set forth such a woful condition. Drunkenness deprives men of the use of their reason, makes men as mad. It takes from them the valuable blessing, health; and is a sin which is its own punishment. This may also make us dread the judgments of war. It soon fills a nation with confusion. They will refuse to take the cup at thy hand. They will not believe Jeremiah; but he must tell them it is the word of the Lord of hosts, and it is in vain for them to struggle against Almighty power. And if God's judgments begin with backsliding professors, let not the wicked expect to escape.The mingled people - Either auxiliaries; or, rather, a constituent portion of the people of Egypt, who were not of pure blood.

Azzah - i. e., Gaza.

The remnant of Ashdod - A sentence which none but a contemporary writer could have used. Psammetichus, after a siege of 29 years, had captured and destroyed Ashdod, except for a feeble remnant.

21. Edom … Moab … Ammon—joined together, as being related to Israel (see Jer 48:1-49:39). The Edomites were the posterity of Esau the son of Isaac, to whom God had given a land which they inherited, and he would not suffer the Israelites to make their way through them by force, when they denied them a passage through their country; now he threatens their ruin, as also Jeremiah 49:7; and Obadiah’s prophecy was against them, where their triumphing in the captivity of the Jews is mentioned as one thing that had provoked God against them. The Moabites and Ammonites were descended from Lot. Jeremiah 48 is an entire prophecy against Moab; they had lived in long prosperity, as appears there, Jeremiah 25:12; so had the Ammonites, against whom also Jeremiah prophesied particularly, Jeremiah 49:1-7. Edom, and Moab, and the children of Ammon. All well known and implacable enemies of Israel. The Edomites descended from Esau; and the Moabites and Ammonites from Moab and Ammon, the two sons of Lot by his daughters. Their destruction is prophesied of in the forty eighth and forty ninth chapters. {q} Edom, and Moab, and the children of Ammon,

(q) Edom is here taken for the whole country and Uz for a part of it.

The cup of God's fury. - Jeremiah 25:15. "For thus hath Jahveh, the God of Israel, said to me: Take this cup of the wine of fury at my hand, and give it to drink to all the peoples to whom I send thee, Jeremiah 25:16. That they may drink, and reel, and be mad, because of the sword that I send amongst them. Jeremiah 25:17. And I took the cup at the hand of Jahveh, and made all the peoples drink it to whom Jahveh had sent me: Jeremiah 25:18. Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, and her kings, her princes, to make them a desolation and an astonishment, an hissing and a curse, as it is this day; Jeremiah 25:19. Pharaoh the king of Egypt, and his servants, and his princes, and all his people; Jeremiah 25:20. And all the mixed races and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, Ashkelon, Gaza, Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod; Jeremiah 25:21. Edom, and Moab, and the sons of Ammon; Jeremiah 25:22. All the kings of Tyre, all the kings of Sidon, and the kings of the islands beyond the sea; Jeremiah 25:23. Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, and all with the corners of their hair polled; Jeremiah 25:24. And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mixed races that dwell in the wilderness; Jeremiah 25:25. All the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of Media; Jeremiah 25:26. And all the kings of the north, near and far, one with another, and all the kingdoms of the world, which are upon the face of the earth; and the king of Sheshach shall drink after them. Jeremiah 25:27. And say to them: Thus hath Jahveh, the God of Israel, said: Drink and be drunken, and spue, and fall and rise not up again, because of the sword which I send among you. Jeremiah 25:28. And if it be that they refuse to take the cup out of thine hand to drink, then say to them: Thus hath Jahveh of hosts said: Drink ye shall. Jeremiah 25:29. For, behold, on the city upon which my name is named I begin to bring evil, and ye think to go unpunished? Ye shall not go unpunished; for I call the sword against all inhabitants of the earth, saith Jahveh of hosts."

To illustrate more fully the threatening against Judah and all peoples, Jeremiah 25:9., the judgment the Lord is about to execute on all the world is set forth under the similitude of a flagon filled with wrath, which the prophet is to hand to all the kings and peoples, one after another, and which he does give them to drink. The symbolical action imposed upon the prophet and, acc. to Jeremiah 25:17, performed by him, serves to give emphasis to the threatening, and is therefore introduced by כּי; of which Graf erroneously affirms that it conveys a meaning only when Jeremiah 25:11-14 are omitted. Giving the peoples to drink of the cup of wrath is a figure not uncommon with the prophets for divine chastisements to be inflicted; cf. Jeremiah 49:12; Jeremiah 51:7; Isaiah 51:17, Isaiah 51:22; Ezekiel 23:31., Habakkuk 2:15; Psalm 60:5; Psalm 75:9, etc. The cup of wine which is wrath (fury). החמּה is an explanatory apposition to "wine." The wine with which the cup is filled is the wrath of God. הזּאת belongs to כּוּס, which is fem., cf. Ezekiel 23:32, Ezekiel 23:34; Lamentations 4:21, whereas אותו belongs to the wine which is wrath. In Jeremiah 25:16, where the purpose with which the cup of wrath is to be presented is given, figure is exchanged for fact: they shall reel and become mad because of the sword which the Lord sends amidst them. To reel, sway to and fro, like drunken men. התהלל, demean oneself insanely, be mad. The sword as a weapon of war stands often for war, and the thought is: war with its horrors will stupefy the peoples, so that they perish helpless and powerless.

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