Why Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)without the camp. Jesus who in all other points fulfilled the law of atonement fulfilled it in this point also, in that He suffered “without the gate” (Matthew 27:32; John 19:20). The two expressions answer to one another, each denoting that which lay beyond the sacred precincts, outside the special dwelling-place of God’s people. “The people,” see Hebrews 2:17; “sanctify,” Hebrews 2:11; Hebrews 9:13; Hebrews 10:10.Hebrews 13:12-14. Wherefore Jesus also — Who was typified by these sin- offerings; that he might sanctify — Might make atonement for, and consecrate to God; the people — His church, the spiritual Israel of God; with his own blood — Carried into the heavenly sanctuary, and presented before the throne of God as a sin-offering; suffered without the gate — Of Jerusalem, as the bodies of the sin-offerings were burned without the camp of Israel in the wilderness, signifying hereby that those carnal Jews, who still adhered to the Mosaical way of worship, had no interest in, nor communion with Christ, nor partook of the benefits of his atonement. The Israelites having cities to live in at the time our Lord suffered, the expression, without the gate, was of the same import as without the camp in the wilderness. Wherefore criminals, being regarded as unclean, were always put to death without the gates of their cities. Let us, &c. — As if he had said, And this consideration, as it shows it to be our duty to leave the Jewish sacrifices, so it should undoubtedly engage us willingly to suffer all extremities in his cause; Let us therefore break through all attachments, and go forth unto him without the camp — The terrestrial Jerusalem; the Jewish Church, with its ceremonious services; let us cleave to him and his doctrine, and openly profess ourselves his disciples; bearing his reproach — Patiently enduring all manner of shame, obloquy, and contempt, and whatever other suffering may await us, for his sake. And we have the more reason to do this; for here we have no continuing city — No settled condition, no lasting place of abode; all things here are but for a moment; and the interests of this mortal life, as they are very uncertain, and of short duration, so they are very trivial, when compared with those that relate to eternity. It is thought by some, that in this the apostle had the destruction of Jerusalem in his eyes which happened about seven or eight years after this epistle was written; but we seek one to come — Namely, the city of the living God; a city prepared for us, and promised to us, as the place of our everlasting abode.Isaiah 53:8. If he had been killed in a tumult, it is possible that it might have been done as in other cases (compare the case of Zacharias son of Barachias, Matthew 23:35), even at the altar. As he was subjected, however, to a judicial process, his death was effected with more deliberation, and in the usual form. Hence, he was conducted out of the city, because no criminal was executed within the walls of Jerusalem.
Without the gate - Without the gate of Jerusalem; John 19:17-18. The place where he was put to death was called Golgotha, the place of a skull, and hence, the Latin word which we commonly use in speaking of it, Calvary, Luke 23:33; compare notes on Matthew 27:33. Calvary, as it is now shown, is within the walls of Jerusalem, but there is no reason to believe that this is the place where the Lord Jesus was crucified, for that was outside of the walls of the city. The precise direction from the city is not designated by the sacred writers, nor are there any historical records, or traditional marks by which it can now be known where the exact place was. All that we know on the subject from the New Testament is, that the name was Golgotha; that the place of the crucifixion and sepulchre were near each other; that they were without the gate and nigh to the city, and that they were in a frequented spot; John 19:20. "This would favor the conclusion that the place was probably upon a great road leading from one of the gates: and such a spot would only be found upon the western or northern sides of the city, on the roads leading toward Joppa or Damascus." See the question about the place of the crucifixion examined at length in Robinson's Bibli. Research., vol. ii. pp. 69-80, and Bibliotheca Sacra, No. 1.
sanctify—Though not brought into the temple "sanctuary" (Heb 13:11) His blood has been brought into the heavenly sanctuary, and "sanctifies the people" (Heb 2:11, 17), by cleansing them from sin, and consecrating them to God.
his own—not blood of animals.
without the gate—of Jerusalem; as if unworthy of the society of the covenant-people. The fiery ordeal of His suffering on the cross, answers to the burning of the victims; thereby His mere fleshly life was completely destroyed, as their bodies were; the second part of His offering was His carrying His blood into the heavenly holiest before God at His ascension, that it should be a perpetual atonement for the world's sin.burnt without the camp, therefore Jesus, to fulfil the type,
suffered without the gate; and as they might not eat of that expiatory sacrifice, so neither of this. Jesus, therefore, to fulfil this type, suffered without the gates of Jerusalem, upon Mount Calvary, where skulls and bones of cursed creatures were scattered; as the expiatory sacrifices were burnt without the camp, when Israel was tabernacling within it; without the gates, when Israel dwelt in cities. As the high priest carried the expiatory blood into the holiest of all, on the day of atonement; so Christ with his own blood entered the holiest in heaven, and by it obtained pardon of sin, peace of conscience, and renewing by the Holy Ghost, for all people who repent, believe, and will come unto God by him. Therefore those who will still Judaize, have no right to eat of his sacrifice, no more than of the expiatory one, which was wholly burnt: so that they were not to be justified by meats and ceremonies, but by the blood of Christ alone, the truth of all the sacrifices, Romans 3:25 5:9 John 1:29.
that he might sanctify the people with his own blood: by "the people" are meant the people who are the objects of divine love and favour; a chosen and covenant people; a distinct and peculiar people; Christ's own special people, by the gift of his Father to him: and the sanctification of them does not design the internal sanctification of them, though this is from Christ, and in consequence of his blood; nor does it so much regard the cleansing of the filth of sin, though Christ's blood sanctifies, in this sense; but rather the expiation of the guilt of sin, which Christ has fully took away; complete pardon being procured, and a perfect righteousness brought in: and this by "his own blood"; the priests sanctified, to the purifying of the flesh, with the blood of others, with the blood of bulls and goats; but Christ with his own blood, which he was, really, a partaker of; and his human nature, being in union with his divine person, as the Son of God, it had a virtue in it, to sanctify and cleanse from all sin, and to make full expiation of it; in shedding of which, and sanctifying with it, he has shown great love to his people: and, that he might do this agreeably to the types of him on the day of atonement, he
suffered without the gate; that is, of Jerusalem: the Syriac version reads, "without the city"; meaning Jerusalem; which answered to the camp of Israel, in the wilderness; without which, the bodies of beasts were burnt, on the day of atonement: for so say (z) the Jews;
"as was the camp in the wilderness, so was the camp in Jerusalem; from Jerusalem to the mountain of the house, was the camp of Israel; from the mountain of the house to the gate of Nicanor, was the camp of the Levites; and from thence forward, the camp of the Shechinah, or the divine Majesty:''
and so Josephus (a) renders the phrase, without the camp, in Leviticus 16:27 by ; "in the suburbs"; that is, of Jerusalem, where Christ suffered,Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)12. that he might sanctify the people with his own blood] Lit. “through,” or “by means of His own blood.” The thought is the same as that of Titus 2:14, “Who gave Himself for us that He might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto Himself a peculiar people.” This sanctification or purifying consecration of His people by the blood of His own voluntary sacrifice corresponds to the sprinkling of the atoning blood on the Propitiatory by the High Priest. For “the people,” see Hebrews 2:16.
suffered without the gate] Hebrews 9:26; Matthew 27:32; John 19:17-18.Hebrews 13:12. Ἵνα ἁγιάσῃ) that He might sanctify, might cleanse from sins, might lead (bring) from the world to GOD. This corresponds to ἅγια, Hebrews 13:11.—ἰδίον, His own) An antithesis to, of animals.—αἵματος, blood) The mention of the body is implied in the verb, He suffered; and accordingly the 11th verse, respecting the blood of animals and their bodies, has its Apodosis here, in the 12th verse.—τὸν λαὸν, the people) ch. Hebrews 2:17.—ἔξω τῆς πύλης, without the gate) as if He had been deemed unworthy of the companionship of men; Matthew 27:32. Comp. Leviticus 24:13. He suffered without the gate of the city (although the apostle purposely (skilfully) abstains from the use of the word, city), which city itself was like the camp in the wilderness, and had the temple, as the camp had the tabernacle.—ἔπαθε, He suffered) The type of the passion was the burning of the victims. The passion, properly, is that on the cross, without the gate.
Ἁγιάζειν to sanctify had a peculiar significance to Jews. It meant to set them apart as holy. Hence, the Israelites were called ἅγιοι, as separated from other nations and consecrated to God. Our writer extends the application of the word to Christians. For Christ's work he claims the same efficacy which the Jew claimed for the special call of God to Israel, and for the operation of the Jewish sacrificial system. The office of his atoning work is to sanctify; to make for himself a holy nation (ἔθνος ἅγιον), a people "prepared for the Lord" (Luke 1:17); a true Israel of God. Ὁ λαός the people, or λαός my people, occurs constantly in O.T. as a designation of Israel, and also in N.T. See, in this epistle, Hebrews 5:3; Hebrews 7:5, Hebrews 7:11, Hebrews 7:27; Hebrews 9:7, Hebrews 9:19. The N.T. extends the title to all who, under the new dispensation, occupy the position of Israel. See 1 Peter 2:10; Matthew 1:21; Luke 2:10; Hebrews 4:9; Hebrews 8:10; Hebrews 10:30; Hebrews 11:25.
With his own blood (διὰ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος)
Without the gate (ἔξω τῆς πύλης)
Gate is substituted for camp (Hebrews 13:11), as more appropriate to a city.
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